Evaluating the Safety and Tolerability of Sacubitril/Valsartan for HFrEF Managed Within a Pharmacist Clinic
ConclusionsWith close monitoring and follow-up, ARNi therapy was a safe alternative to ACEi/ARB therapy for chronic symptomatic HFrEF when initiated within a pharmacist clinic. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - February 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Ivabradine for the Treatment of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: A Systematic Review
ConclusionBased on this small sample, ivabradine appears to be a reasonable option for patients with POTS who have failed or are unable to tolerate other treatment options, however, but a randomized controlled trial in this population is needed. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 12, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Comparison of Warfarin Requirements in Post-cardiac Surgery Patients: Valve Replacement Versus Non-valve Replacement
ConclusionsThis was the largest study to evaluate warfarin dose requirements in post-cardiac surgery patients and is the first to compare warfarin requirements between HVR and non-HVR patients during the immediate post-operative period. Both groups had similar warfarin requirements, which supports expanding the initial warfarin dosing recommendations of the 9th editionChest guideline to include non-HVR patients as well as HVR patients. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Protection from Reperfusion Injury with Intracoronary N -Acetylcysteine in Patients with STEMI Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Cardiac Tertiary Center
ConclusionsIn this study, NAC improved myocardial reperfusion markers and coronary blood flow, as revealed by differences in peak hs-TnT and TIMI flow grade 3 levels, respectively. Further studies with large samples are warranted to elucidate the role of NAC in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01741207, and the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT;http://irct.ir) registration number: IRCT201301048698N8. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 10, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Management of Statin Intolerance in 2018: Still More Questions Than Answers
AbstractStatin therapy is generally well tolerated and very effective in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, regardless of cholesterol levels; however, it can be associated with various adverse events (myalgia, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and diabetes mellitus, among others). Patients frequently discontinue statin therapy without medical advice because of perceived side effects and consequently increase their risk for cardiovascular events. In patients with statin intolerance, it may be advisable to change the dose, switch to a different statin, or try an alternate-day regimen. If intolerance is associate...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 9, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Targeting the Prostacyclin Pathway with Selexipag in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Receiving Double Combination Therapy: Insights from the Randomized Controlled GRIPHON Study
ConclusionThe addition of selexipag to background double combination therapy with an ERA and PDE-5i provides an incremental benefit similar to that seen in the overall population, including in patients with WHO FC II or III symptoms at baseline.ClinicalTrials.gov IdentifierNCT01106014. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 6, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Macitentan in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Focus on Combination Therapy in the SERAPHIN Trial
AbstractSERAPHIN was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven phase III trial that evaluated the effects of long-term treatment with macitentan, an oral endothelin receptor antagonist, in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The majority of patients were receiving PAH therapy at enrollment, providing the opportunity to evaluate the efficacy and safety of macitentan in combination with other PAH therapies (predominantly phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors [PDE-5i]). In patients receiving background therapy, macitentan reduced the risk of morbidity/mortality by 38% compared with placebo (hazard ratio ...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - December 26, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

One-Year Clinical Effectiveness Comparison of Prasugrel with Ticagrelor: Results from a Retrospective Observational Study using an Integrated Claims Database
AbstractBackgroundNo direct comparisons of ticagrelor and prasugrel with 1-year clinical follow-up have been reported.ObjectivesOur objective was to compare 1-year clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and treated with either ticagrelor or prasugrel in a real-world setting.MethodsThis retrospective study included patients from a payer database who were aged ≥18 years and had ACS managed with PCI with no history of transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke. Data were propensity matched for prasugrel use with a 3:1 prasugrel:ticagrelor r...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - December 8, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Database Cohort Study to Assess the Risk of Angioedema Among Patients with Heart Failure Initiating Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in the USA
ConclusionsThe risk of angioedema in patients with HF initiating an ACEI observed in this study is in line with published estimates for the general patient population treated with ACEIs. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - November 24, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Impact of Trimetazidine Treatment on 5-year Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Significant Coronary Artery Spasm: A Propensity Score Matching Study
ConclusionsAdditional long-term (5-year) treatment with trimetazidine in combination with diltiazem and nitrate in patients with significant CAS was not associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with combination therapy with diltiazem and nitrate only (without trimetazidine). (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - November 15, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Referees
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - November 15, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Comparing the Impact of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
AbstractElevated levels of triglycerides are associated with pancreatitis and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Numerous pharmacologic therapies are available to treat hypertriglyceridemia, including prescription omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce triglyceride levels by 20 –50%. Available data indicate the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be beneficial for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Products containing DHA may increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and, subsequently, coronary heart disease risk. We reviewed prescription ome...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - October 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Benefit-Risk Assessment of Crataegus Extract WS  1442: An Evidence-Based Review
AbstractPreparations fromCrataegus (hawthorn) have a long history in the treatment of heart failure. WS  1442 is a dry extract from hawthorn leaves with flowers (4–6.6:1), extraction solvent of ethanol 45% (w/w), adjusted to 17.3–20.1% of oligomeric procyanidins. Nonclinical studies show that WS 1442 has positive inotropic and antiarrhythmic properties and protects the myocardium from ischemic d amage, reperfusion injury, and hypertension-related hypertrophy, improves endothelial functions such as NO synthesis, and delays endothelial senescence. Randomized, controlled trials in patients with heart fai...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - October 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Ivabradine in Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: Preliminary Experience in Children
ConclusionsFrom this initial experience, ivabradine is safe in patients younger than 18  years with POTS. We observed improvement of symptoms in 68% and phosphenes in less than 5%. Further studies are needed to assess the safety in a randomized control setting. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - October 13, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Does Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Mitigate Statin-Associated Muscle Symptoms? Pharmacological and Methodological Considerations
AbstractStatin drugs markedly reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and consequently the incidence of cardiac events. In approximately 5 –10% of adults, these drugs are associated with a range of muscle side effects such as muscle pain, cramping and weakness. Reduction in mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), or ubiquinone, has been proposed as a mechanism for these statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and thus various formulati ons of CoQ10 are marketed and consumed for the prevention and treatment of SAMS. However, data supporting the efficacy of CoQ10 are equivocal, with some studies showing that CoQ10 sup...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - October 12, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Selective BET Protein Inhibition with Apabetalone and Cardiovascular Events: A Pooled Analysis of Trials in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease
AbstractBackgroundInhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins can modulate lipoprotein and inflammatory factors that mediate atherosclerosis. The impact of the BET inhibitor, apabetalone, on cardiovascular events is unknown.ObjectiveOur objective was to investigate the impact of apabetalone on cardiovascular event rates in a pooled analysis of clinical studies in patients with established coronary artery disease.MethodsWe conducted a pooled analysis of patients (n = 798) with coronary artery disease who participated in clinical trials (ASSERT, ASSURE, SUSTAIN) that evaluated the impact of 3–...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - October 12, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Comparison of Prescribing Practices with Direct Acting Oral Anticoagulant Protocols
ConclusionA significant proportion of DOAC prescriptions did not adhere to protocol expectations. While enrollment in DOAC management through the Marshfield Clinic Anticoagulation Service was not associated with increased adherence to protocols, opportunities exist to optimize DOAC prescribing. Defining ideal DOAC management requires additional research. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - September 8, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Patient Characteristics and Real-World Treatment Patterns Among Early Users of PCSK9 Inhibitors
ConclusionsPhysicians surveyed appeared to prescribe PCSK9i medications appropriately. PCSK9i-treated patients had higher rates of cardiovascular comorbidities and physician-determined statin intolerance, had higher LDL-C levels, and received more lines of therapy than non-PCSK9i patients. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Provision of Lifestyle Counseling and the Prescribing of Pharmacotherapy for Hyperlipidemia Among US Ambulatory Patients: A National Assessment of Office-Based Physician Visits
ConclusionCompliance with guidelines for the screening and treatment of hyperlipidemia remains suboptimal, and rates of lifestyle education have declined since 2005. There exists an urgent need for enhanced levels of provider intervention to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with hyperlipidemia. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Comparative Efficacy of Drugs for Preventing Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery: A Network Meta-Analysis
ConclusionsNatriuretic peptide is probably the preferred pharmacologic strategy to prevent AKI in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, especially in those at high risk of AKI. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 17, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

All-Cause, Stroke-, and Bleed-Specific Healthcare Costs: Comparison among Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF) Newly Treated with Dabigatran or Warfarin
AbstractObjectiveOur objective was to compare all-cause and stroke- and bleed-specific healthcare costs among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) treated with dabigatran or warfarin.MethodsAdministrative claims data from the MarketScan® Databases for 2009 –2014 were used. Patients with NVAF newly treated with dabigatran were matched 1:1 to those treated with warfarin. All-cause and stroke- and bleed-specific costs per patient per month (PPPM) ($US, year 2015 values) up to a 12-month follow-up period were analyzed. Stroke- or bleed-specific costs we re defined as hospitalizations with stroke or b...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Angioedema Among Hypertensive Patients Treated with Aliskiren or Other Antihypertensive Medications in the United States
ConclusionsThe IR and risk of angioedema in patients with aliskiren monotherapy or FDC are comparable to BBs. The higher IR and risk of angioedema identified in the aliskiren FSC group may largely be driven by the concomitant use of ACEIs. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 4, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Pharmaceutical Interventions for Diabetes Prevention in Patients at Risk
AbstractWith the rising incidence and prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes globally, it is imperative that diabetes prevention strategies are implemented to stem the flow of new cases. Successful interventions include both lifestyle modification and pharmaceutical agents, and large, multicentre, randomised, controlled studies in different populations have identified the benefits of both. However, translating positive trial outcomes to the real world is particularly challenging, as lifestyle interventions require regular reinforcement from healthcare professionals to be maintained. Pharmaceutical therapies may therefore play...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - July 31, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Effect of Endothelin Receptor Antagonists in Patients with Eisenmenger Syndrome: A Systematic Review
ConclusionsThis study demonstrated safety and improved hemodynamic effects of bosentan in ES, with a controversial effect on exercise capacity. Further randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up duration are needed to confirm these results. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - June 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - June 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Ratio of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) to Arachidonic Acid may be a Residual Risk Marker in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Patients Receiving Treatment with Statin Following EPA Therapy
ConclusionThe present results suggest that the achieved EPA/AA ratio, but not the absolute change in EPA/AA ratio, following EPA therapy might be a useful marker for the risk stratification of CAD among statin-treated patients with a high non-HDL-C level.Clinical Trial RegistrationUMIN (http://www.umin.ac.jp/) Study ID: UMIN000010452. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - June 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Effects of Levosimendan on Patients with Heart Failure Complicating Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
ConclusionLevosimendan appears to be a promising drug to reduce mortality and worsening HF in patients with HF/CS-ACS. It appears to provide hemodynamic benefit and was associated with an increased risk of hypotension. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - June 8, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Thromboprophylaxis in Extracorporeal Circuits: Current Pharmacological Strategies and Future Directions
AbstractThe development of extracorporeal devices for organ support has been a part of medical history and progression since the late 1900s. These types of technology are primarily used and developed in the field of critical care medicine. Unfractionated heparin, discovered in 1916, has really been the only consistent form of thromboprophylaxis for attenuating or even preventing the blood –biomaterial reaction that occurs when such technologies are initiated. The advent of regional anticoagulation for procedures such as continuous renal replacement therapy and plasmapheresis have certainly removed the risks of system...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - May 23, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Value of Evidence in the Decision-Making Process for Reimbursement of Pharmacogenetic Dosing of Warfarin
ConclusionsThe estimated cumulative effect of PG dosing has remained similar since 2007, but additional evidence has contributed to a more precise estimation. While these variations should not affect the reimbursement decision, a large decline in the cost of PG testing in recent years calls for reconsideration. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - May 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Comment on: “Coxibs Refocus Attention on the Cardiovascular Risks of Non-Aspirin NSAIDs”
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - May 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Authors ’ Reply to Urtasun et al.: “Coxibs Refocus Attention on the Cardiovascular Risks of Non-Aspirin NSAIDs”
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - May 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

66th Annual Scientific Sessions of the American College of Cardiology: 17 –19 March 2017; Washington, DC, USA
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - May 12, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Adherence to Treatment, Safety, Tolerance, and Effectiveness of Perindopril/Amlodipine Fixed-Dose Combination in Greek Patients with Hypertension and Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Pan-Hellenic Prospective Observational Study of Daily Clinical Practice
This study assessed adherence to and the safety, tolerance, and effectiveness of the perindopril/amlodipine FDC in Greek patients with hypertension and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) over a 4-month period.MethodsA total of 1907 patients with hypertension and CAD (59.1% males) who had recently ( ≤2 weeks) commenced treatment with the perindopril/amlodipine FDC (5/5, 5/10, 10/5, or 10/10 mg) were studied at baseline and at 1 and 4 months. Adherence to treatment was assessed with the Morisky Medication-taking Adherence Scale (MMAS).ResultsSeven patients (0.4%) did not attend the scheduled visits. In to...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - May 2, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Nuclear Cardiology: Are We Using the Right Protocols and Tracers the Right Way?
AbstractThe field of nuclear cardiology has changed considerably over recent years, with greater attention paid to safety and radiation protection issues. The wider usage of technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging using gamma cameras has contributed to better quality studies and lower radiation exposure to patients. Increased availability of tracers and scanners for positron emission tomography (PET) will help further improve the quality of studies and quantify myocardial blood flow and myocardial flow reserve, thus enhancing the contribution of no...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - April 25, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Clinical Outcomes in Trials Evaluating Lipid-Lowering Drugs
AbstractWhile statins have formed the cornerstone of strategies for cardiovascular prevention, the residual risk related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other lipoprotein factors provides a landscape for development of new therapies. However, a number of lipid-modifying therapies have failed to reduce cardiovascular event rates in contemporary clinical trials of statin-treated patients. The factors considered in outcome measure selection for clinical trials of novel lipid-lowering therapies are reviewed. Evaluation of lipid-modifying drugs in clinical trials spans a spectrum from their effects on convent...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - April 21, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Recommendations for Managing Drug –Drug Interactions with Statins and HIV Medications
AbstractThe discovery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has enabled individuals to live longer. As a result, HIV is now often considered a chronic condition. However, as a result of the increase in longevity or the HIV treatment modalities themselves, individuals with HIV are at high risk for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Therefore, these patients should be optimized with pharmacologic therapy to lower their cardiovascular risk through the addition of statin therapy to their regimen. Unfortunately, many medications utilized to treat HIV inte...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - April 1, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Real Role of β-Blockers in Daily Cardiovascular Therapy
AbstractThe role of β-adrenoceptor antagonists (β-blockers) in cardiovascular therapy has been subject to diverse trends and changes over the decades. With the advent of a wide variety of excellent drugs for the treatment of antihypertension, β-blockers have been relegated from the first-line treatment of essential hypertension. However, they remain the drugs of first choice in recommendations from the respective medical societies for heart failure, coronary artery disease, and atrial fibrillation as well as in hypertension complicated with heart failure, angina pectoris, or prior myocardial infarction. When...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 29, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks: Colchicine in Cardiovascular Medicine
We present a comprehensive review of the role of colchicine in the management of cardiovascular diseases with a strong emphasis on side effects and potential drug interactions. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Effect of Milrinone Infusion on Pulmonary Vasculature and Stroke Work Indices: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis in 69 Patients Awaiting Cardiac Transplantation
ConclusionMilrinone improved left ventricular stroke work indices to a greater extent than right ventricular stroke work indices and had beneficial effects on right ventricular net input impedance, predominantly via augmentation of left ventricular stroke volume and passive unloading of the pulmonary circuit. Patients who had the worst biventricular performance benefited the most from chronic milrinone infusion. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Coxibs Refocus Attention on the Cardiovascular Risks of Non-Aspirin NSAIDs
This article explains how coxibs refocused attention on the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs and the general implications of that. COX-2 activity/specificity is one factor associated with increased cardiovascular risks; however, these risks cannot be attributed to coxibs alone. The traditional NSAIDs (i.e., meloxicam, etodolac, and nabumetone) have significant COX-2 specificity, but naproxen and ibuprofen have less specificity. All NSAIDs, whether traditional or a coxib, pose some cardiovascular risks. It is possible that clinicians continue to focus more on decreasing the immediate gastric risks than preventing the later c...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The 100 Most Influential Papers in the Field of Thrombolytic Therapy: A Bibliometric Analysis
ConclusionOur analysis provides insight into the span of research activity and the nature of inquiry dealing with ‘thrombolytic therapy,’ with the hope that such analysis may help to effectively guide future research. Our analysis also yielded a list of the most highly cited and presumably most impactful guideline articles within this field, for distinct consideration. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 27, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Add-on Pharmacologic Therapy in the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension
ConclusionsSpironolactone has the best evidence as add-on pharmacologic therapy in patients with RH, but data are limited. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 27, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 25, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Management of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Current Challenges and Future Directions
AbstractHeart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of HF in patients older than 65  years. Among elderly women living in the community, HFpEF comprises nearly 90% of incident HF cases. The health and economic impact of HFpEF is at least as great as that of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with similar severity of acute hospitalization rates and substantial mortality. De spite the importance of HFpEF, our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, and optimal treatment remains largely undefined. Unlike the management of HFrEF, there is a paucity of large evide...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 17, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Positive Regulation of eNOS Signaling by PPAR Agonists in Cardiovascular Diseases
AbstractIncreasing evidence shows that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular endothelial function through a range of mechanisms, including non-metabolic. Among these, the PPAR-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) appears to be of considerable importance. The regulated and sustained bioavailability of nitric oxide  (NO) in the endothelium is essential to avoid the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension or atherosclerosis. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the different effects of specific...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 16, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Lomitapide in Hypercholesterolemia
ConclusionsLomitapide improved most lipid parameters but not HDL-C or ApoA-1 in patients with HoFH and in non-HoFH patients, and gastrointestinal disorders were the most common adverse event. The possible benefits of lomitapide should be further evaluated and viewed against its possible long-term side effects. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 1, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Antithrombotic Therapy After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
AbstractCurrent guidelines for patients who are undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation but who do not require anticoagulation recommend double antiplatelet therapy for 3 –6 months after the procedure, followed by aspirin indefinitely. However, these guidelines are based on expert consensus rather than clinical trials. Several randomized trials are currently evaluating alternative antithrombotic strategies, and recommendations will likely change when their results become available. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - February 15, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency
AbstractLysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in theLIPA gene, which encodes for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). This enzyme is necessary for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride in lysosomes. Deficient LAL activity causes accumulation of these lipids in lysosomes and a marked decrease in the cytoplasmic free cholesterol concentration, leading to dysfunctional cholesterol homeostasis. The accumulation of neutral lipid occurs predominantly in liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body, and the aberrant cho...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - February 13, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Interpreting Cardiovascular Endpoints in Trials of Antihyperglycemic Drugs
AbstractIn view of the significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and concerns raised about the CV safety of some glucose-lowering drugs, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance for the industry in 2008 to demonstrate CV safety for the approval of all new antihyperglycemic drugs. Seven randomized controlled trials involving around 60,000 participants have been completed so far and have demonstrated the CV safety of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin and sitagliptin), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (lixisenatide, lir...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - February 13, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

No Effect of Omega-3 Carboxylic Acids on Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Warfarin or on Platelet Function When Co-administered with Acetylsalicylic Acid: Results of Two Phase I Studies in Healthy Volunteers
ConclusionOM3-CA did not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin or the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA. OM3-CA did not affect platelet function when co-administered with ASA. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - February 13, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research