Eating Behaviors and Dietary Changes in Patients With Dementia
Conclusion: Individuals with dementia frequently develop serious feeding difficulties and changes in eating and dietary habits. The changes may be secondary to cognitive impairment or apraxia, or the result of insufficient caregiving, or the consequence of metabolic or neurochemical abnormalities occurring as part of the dementing process. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Cipriani, G., Carlesi, C., Lucetti, C., Danti, S., Nuti, A. Tags: Reviews Source Type: research

Younger Onset Dementia: A Review of the Literature to Inform Service Development
This literature review focused on the experience, care, and service requirements of people with younger onset dementia. Systematic searches of 10 relevant bibliographic databases and a rigorous examination of the literature from nonacademic sources were undertaken. Searches identified 304 articles assessed for relevance and level of evidence, of which 74% were academic literature. The review identified the need for (1) more timely and accurate diagnosis and increased support immediately following diagnosis; (2) more individually tailored services addressing life cycle issues; (3) examination of the service needs of those l...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Sansoni, J., Duncan, C., Grootemaat, P., Capell, J., Samsa, P., Westera, A. Tags: Reviews Source Type: research

Does Nursing Facility Use of Habilitation Therapy Improve Performance on Quality Measures?
The purpose of the project, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Innovation study, was to evaluate the impact on 12 quality measures including 10 Minimum Data Set (MDS) publicly reported measures and 2 nursing home process measures using habilitation therapy techniques and a behavior team to manage dementia-related behaviors. A prospective design was used to assess the changes in the measures. A total of 30 Massachusetts nursing homes participated in the project over a 12-month period. Project participation required the creation of an interdisciplinary behavior team, habilitation therapy training, facility vi...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Fitzler, S., Raia, P., Buckley, F. O., Wang, M. Tags: Current Topics in Care Source Type: research

Risk of Cognitive Decline Associated With Paroxetine Use in Elderly Nursing Home Patients With Depression
Conclusions: There was no differential effect of paroxetine on cognition when compared to other SSRIs. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Bali, V., Chatterjee, S., Johnson, M. L., Chen, H., Carnahan, R. M., Aparasu, R. R. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

An Education Intervention to Enhance Staff Self-Efficacy to Provide Dementia Care in an Acute Care Hospital in Canada: A Nonrandomized Controlled Study
Education is needed for enhanced capacity of acute hospitals to provide dementia care. A nonrandomized controlled, repeated-measures design was used to evaluate a dementia education program delivered to an intervention group (IG, n = 468), compared to a wait-listed group (n = 277), representing separate sites of a multisite hospital. Participants completed self-efficacy for dementia and satisfaction measures and provided written descriptions of dementia care collected at baseline, postintervention (IG only), and at 8-week follow-up. Oral narratives were gathered from IG participants 8 weeks postintervention. The IG demonst...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Schindel Martin, L., Gillies, L., Coker, E., Pizzacalla, A., Montemuro, M., Suva, G., McLelland, V. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Evaluating Recall and Recognition Memory Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: Applicability for Alzheimers and Huntingtons Diseases
This study included 80 participants with HD, 64 participants with AD, and 183 community-dwelling control participants. Random-effects hierarchical logistic regressions were performed to assess the relative performance of the normal control (NC), participants with HD, and participants with AD on verbal free recall, cued recall, and multiple-choice recognition on the MoCA. The NC participants performed significantly better than participants with AD at all the 3 levels of assessment. No difference existed between participants with HD and NC for cued recall, but NC participants performed significantly better than participants ...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Van Liew, C., Santoro, M. S., Goldstein, J., Gluhm, S., Gilbert, P. E., Corey-Bloom, J. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Optimal Cutoff Scores for Alzheimers Disease Using the Chinese Version of Mini-Mental State Examination Among Chinese Population Living in Rural Areas
To explore the optimal cutoff score for initial detection of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) through the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) in rural areas in China, we conducted a cross-sectional study within the Linxian General Population Nutritional Follow-up study. 16,488 eligible cohort members participated in the survey and 881 completed the CMMSE. Among 881 participants, the median age (Interquartile range) was 69.00 (10.00), 634 (71.92%) were female, 657 (74.57%) were illiterate, 35 (3.97%) had 6 years of education or higher, and 295 (33.48%) were diagnosed with AD. By reducing the CMMSE criteri...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Yang, Z., Holt, H. K., Fan, J.-H., Ma, L., Liu, Y., Chen, W., Como, P., Zhang, L., Qiao, Y.-L. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Predictors of Cognitive Decline in a Rural and Remote Saskatchewan Population With Alzheimers Disease
To determine the predictors of cognitive decline in a rural and remote population with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), we examined the association between cognitive change and sociodemographic, clinical, and functional data at the initial day of diagnosis. Simple linear regression analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to determine the predictors of cognitive decline as measured by the difference in the Mini-Mental State Examination over 1 year. Our sample included 72 patients with AD. Age at the clinic day appointment was 75.3 (standard deviation [SD] = 7.44). History of hypertension and decreased ability to ...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Hager, D., Kirk, A., Morgan, D. G., Karunanayake, C., OConnell, M. E. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Finding Meaning in Written Emotional Expression by Family Caregivers of Persons With Dementia
This study tested the effect of written emotional expression on the ability to find meaning in caregiving and the effects of finding meaning on emotional state and psychological burden in 91 dementia family caregivers. In a pretest–posttest design, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a comparison group. Experimental caregivers (n = 57) wrote about their deepest thoughts and feelings about caring for a family member with dementia, whereas those in the comparison group (n = 34) wrote about nonemotional topics. Results showed enhanced meaning-making abilities in experimental participants rel...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Butcher, H. K., Gordon, J. K., Ko, J. W., Perkhounkova, Y., Cho, J. Y., Rinner, A., Lutgendorf, S. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Neural Underpinnings of the Decline of Topographical Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment
Spatial navigation is one of the cognitive functions known to decline in both normal and pathological aging. In the present study, we aimed to assess the neural correlates of the decline of topographical memory in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Patients with aMCI and age-matched controls were engaged in an intensive learning paradigm, lasting for 5 days, during which they had to encode 1 path from an egocentric perspective and 1 path from an allocentric perspective. After the learning period, they were asked to retrieve each of these paths using an allocentric or egocentric frame of reference whil...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Boccia, M., Silveri, M. C., Sabatini, U., Guariglia, C., Nemmi, F. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial of Brain-Activating Rehabilitation in an Acute Hospital
We aimed to confirm the effectiveness of brain-activating rehabilitation (BAR) performed in the day care setting at an acute hospital. Brain-activating rehabilitation is based on 5 principles: developing a pleasant atmosphere, promoting communication, praising patients, giving patients a social role, and providing supportive care. A total of 48 patients with dementia or cognitive impairment were selected and randomly divided into the intervention and control groups. The BAR-based intervention was conducted for 1 hour, 3 times a week. The patients’ score of the Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects (...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tsuchiya, K., Yamaguchi, T., Fujita, T., Taguchi, M., Honda, A., Satou, Y., Sekiguchi, H., Kimura, N., Osawa, T., Terauchi, M. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Interrater Reliability and Concurrent Validity of a New Rating Scale to Assess the Performance of Everyday Life Tasks in Dementia: The Core Elements Method
Errorless learning (EL) is an instructional procedure involving error reduction during learning. Errorless learning is mostly examined by counting correctly executed task steps or by rating them using a Task Performance Scale (TPS). Here, we explore the validity and reliability of a new assessment procedure, the core elements method (CEM), which rates essential building blocks of activities rather than individual steps. Task performance was assessed in 35 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia recruited from the Relearning methods on Daily Living task performance of persons with Dementia (REDALI-DEM) study using TPS and ...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - November 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: de Werd, M. M. E., Hoelzenbein, A. C., Boelen, D. H. E., Rikkert, M. G. M. O., Hüell, M., Kessels, R. P. C., Voigt-Radloff, S. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Clinical Epidemiology, Evaluation, and Management of Dementia in Parkinson Disease
The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD) will increase substantially, due to the aging of the population and improved treatments leading to better disease-related outcomes. Dementia is the most common nonmotor symptom in PD, and most patients with PD will have cognitive dysfunction and cognitive decline in the course of their disease. The development of cognitive dysfunction in PD greatly limits the ability to participate in activities of daily living and can be a tipping point for nursing home placement or major caregiver stress. Understanding the different causes of dementia and how to ...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - October 10, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Safarpour, D., Willis, A. W. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effects of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors on Balance and Gait Functions and Orthostatic Hypotension in Elderly Patients With Alzheimer Disease
Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI) therapy on balance, gait, and orthostatic hypotension (OH) in elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods: A total of 102 elderly patients with AD have been recently diagnosed and were treated with AchEI and underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment at baseline and at the end of the sixth month. Results: Timed Up and Go test and Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment values and the prevalence of OH were not different at the end of the sixth month versus baseline (P> .05). However, i...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - October 10, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Isik, A. T., Soysal, P., Usarel, C. Tags: Current Topics in Management Source Type: research

Pilot Testing of the EIT-4-BPSD Intervention
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are common in nursing home residents, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services now require that nonpharmacological interventions be used as a first-line treatment. Few staff know how to implement these interventions. The purpose of this study was to pilot test an implementation strategy, Evidence Integration Triangle for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (EIT-4-BPSD), which was developed to help staff integrate behavioral interventions into routine care. The EIT-4-BPSD was implemented in 2 nursing homes, and 21 residents were recruited. A research ...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - October 10, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Resnick, B., Kolanowski, A., Van Haitsma, K., Boltz, M., Galik, E., Bonner, A., Vigne, E., Holtzman, L., Mulhall, P. M. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

The Effect of Undiagnosed Diabetes on the Association Between Self-Reported Diabetes and Cognitive Impairment Among Older Mexican Adults
Discussion: The association between self-reported diabetes and severe cognitive impairment is underestimated when undiagnosed diabetics are not differentiated from self-reported diabetics and nondiabetics. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - October 10, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Downer, B., Kumar, A., Mehta, H., Al Snih, S., Wong, R. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Shedding a Light on Phototherapy Studies with People having Dementia: A Critical Review of the Methodology from a Light Perspective
This study reviewed light therapy studies concerning the effects on people with dementia as a way to check the methodological quality of the description of light from a light engineering perspective. Twelve studies meeting the inclusion criteria were chosen for further analysis. Each study was scored on a list of aspects relevant to a proper description of lighting aspects. The overview demonstrates that the overall quality of the methodologies is poor. The studies describe the lighting insufficiently and not in the correct metrics. The robustness of light therapy studies can be improved by involving a light engineer or sp...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - October 10, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Aarts, M. P. J., Aries, M. B. C., Diakoumis, A., van Hoof, J. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Simple Neuropsychological Tests May Identify Participants in Whom Aspirin Use Is Associated With Lower Dementia Incidence: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging
Conclusions: Two simple neuropsychological tests might help in identifying preclinical stages of vascular cognitive impairment, and salicylates use was associated with lower dementia incidence. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - October 10, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Oveisgharan, S., Hachinski, V. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Resident Reactions to Person-Centered Communication by Long-Term Care Staff
Long-term care staff caregivers who are person centered incorporate the life history, preferences, and feelings of residents with dementia during care interactions. Communication is essential for person-centered care. However, little is known about residents’ verbal reactions when staff use person-centered communication. Accordingly, this study investigated the impact of person-centered communication and missed opportunities for such communication by staff on resident reactions. Conversations (N = 46) between staff–resident dyads were audio-recorded during routine care tasks over 12 weeks. Staff utterances were...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - August 9, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Savundranayagam, M. Y., Sibalija, J., Scotchmer, E. Tags: Current Topic in Care Source Type: research

Pain in Hospice Patients With Dementia: The Informal Caregiver Experience
This study describes their experience managing pain in hospice patients with dementia. Methods: We conducted a qualitative analysis of audio-recorded interviews with informal caregivers of hospice patients with dementia who had chosen pain as the challenge they wanted to work on within a problem-solving therapy intervention. Results: The thematic analysis of sessions with 51 caregivers identified 4 themes: difficulty in communicating with patients, lack of consistent guidance from health-care professionals, perceived uncertainty about the etiology of pain, and secondary suffering. Discussion: Our findings indicate the p...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - August 9, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tarter, R., Demiris, G., Pike, K., Washington, K., Parker Oliver, D. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Planning Ahead or Living a Day at a Time? A Family History of AD and Retirement Planning
Conclusions: Caregiving costs and/or knowledge of the familial risk of developing AD may provide adult children with a forewarning of their own future financial needs that, in turn, motivates them to engage in retirement planning. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - August 9, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Zick, C. D., Smith, K. R., Mayer, R. N. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Predictors of Discrepancy Between Care Recipients With Mild-to-Moderate Dementia and Their Caregivers on Perceptions of the Care Recipients Quality of Life
This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data drawn from a study of 200 care dyads of CRs with mild-to-moderate dementia and their primary family CGs. Paired t test, ordinary least squares multiple regression, and binary logistic regression were used for the analyses. Results: Caregivers rated CRs’ QOL significantly lower (worse) than CRs did. Ordinary least square regression results showed that greater incongruence in perceptions of CRs’ decision-making involvement (DMI) and higher level of CR impairment in activities of daily living were significantly related to higher absolute discrepancy betw...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - August 9, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Moon, H., Townsend, A. L., Dilworth-Anderson, P., Whitlatch, C. J. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Ecopsychosocial Interventions in Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A New Terminology and a New Paradigm
This article presents a carefully reasoned argument for using the terminology "ecopsychosocial" to describe the full range of approaches and interventions that fall into this category. These include interventions such as educational efforts with care partners, social support programs for individuals with various levels of dementia, efforts to improve community awareness of dementia, an intergenerational school where persons with dementia teach young children, and the design of residential and community settings that improve functioning and can reduce behavioral symptoms of dementia. The proposed terminology relat...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - August 9, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Zeisel, J., Reisberg, B., Whitehouse, P., Woods, R., Verheul, A. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Experiences and Learning Needs of African American Family Dementia Caregivers
This study analyzed qualitative focus group data from 32 AA caregivers to explore how issues of race and culture may be incorporated into a culturally sensitive intervention for AA dementia family caregivers. Caregivers were asked scripted questions about their caregiving experiences and to suggest alterations to an existing psychoeducation program. Analysis revealed 4 key themes: the tradition of family care, caregiving and caregiving issues, culturally appropriate care, and navigating without a map. Suggestions for an educational program included a focus on developing caregiver skills and knowledge for caregiving, promot...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - August 9, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Samson, Z. B., Parker, M., Dye, C., Hepburn, K. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Depression in the Family of Patients With Dementia in Korea
Conclusion: To reduce the burden of dementia, we need a management policy that includes the caregiver as well as the patient with dementia. In particular, political management for the vulnerable population, male caregiver in low-income family and female caregiver in high-income family, should be prepared. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - August 9, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Jang, S.-I., Bae, H.-C., Shin, J., Jang, S.-y., Hong, S., Han, K.-T., Park, E.-C. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Field Evaluations of Tracking/Locating Technologies for Prevention of Missing Incidents
Conclusion: Across all scenarios tested, GPS devices were found to be approximately twice as efficient as the RF devices in locating a "missing person." While the RF devices showed reasonable performance at close proximity, the GPS devices were found to be more appropriate overall for tracking/locating missing persons over unknown and larger distances. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - August 9, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Bulat, T., Kerrigan, M. V., Rowe, M., Kearns, W., Craighead, J. D., Ramaiah, P. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Spousal Caregiver Perspectives on a Person-Centered Social Program for Partners With Dementia
This qualitative study explored spousal caregiver perspectives on the experience and impact of a person-centered social program for partners with dementia. Interviews with 5 caregivers and the spouses with dementia were conducted 7 to 8 months after the program ended to explore the sustained impact of the program. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to support in-depth exploration of interviews. Three themes emerged including benefits of the program for caregivers, initial expectations and later perspectives of caregivers about the program, and conflicting values and perspectives between caregivers and the sp...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - August 9, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Han, A., Radel, J. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Relation of Poor Memory to Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type Two (sTNF-RII)
The association of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type two with poor memory in patients with breast cancer and controls found by Patel et al (2015) may confirm the finding of Holmes et al in 2009 that tumor necrosis factor α is linked to cognitive decline. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Lehrer, S., Rheinstein, P. Tags: Opinions and Controversies Source Type: research

Family History of Alzheimers Disease and Cortical Thickness in Patients With Dementia
A first-degree family history of Alzheimer’s disease reflects genetic risks for the neurodegenerative disorder. Recent imaging data suggest localized effects of genetic risks on brain structure in healthy people. It is unknown whether this association can also be found in patients who already have dementia. Our aim was to investigate whether family history risk modulates regional medial temporal lobe cortical thickness in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. We performed high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and cortical unfolding data analysis on 54 patients and 53 nondemented individuals. A first-degree fa...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Ganske, S., Haussmann, R., Gruschwitz, A., Werner, A., Osterrath, A., Baumgaertel, J., Lange, J., Donix, K. L., Linn, J., Donix, M. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Cognitive Reserve in Healthy Aging and Alzheimers Disease: A Meta-Analysis of fMRI Studies
Cognitive reserve (CR) has been defined as the ability to optimize or maximize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks. In the present study, we aimed at providing evidence for a consistent brain network underpinning CR in healthy and pathological aging. To pursue this aim, we performed a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 17 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies on CR proxies in healthy aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We found that different brain areas were associated with CR proxies in healthy and pathological aging. A wide network of areas, inclu...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Colangeli, S., Boccia, M., Verde, P., Guariglia, P., Bianchini, F., Piccardi, L. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Vascular Function in Alzheimers Disease and Vascular Dementia
We investigated vascular functioning in patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of either Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD) and examined a possible relationship between vascular function and cognitive status. Twenty-seven patients with AD, 23 patients with VaD, and 26 healthy control patients underwent measurements of flow-mediated dilation (FMD), ankle–brachial index (ABI), cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), and intima–media thickness (IMT). The FMD was significantly lower in patients with AD or VaD compared to controls. There were no significant differences in ABI, CAVI, or...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tachibana, H., Washida, K., Kowa, H., Kanda, F., Toda, T. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning in Alzheimers Disease: A Case-Control Study in Comparison to Normal Aging, Parkinsons Disease, and Non-Alzheimers Dementia
Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness, and macular volume (MV) utilizing spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were compared among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia, non-Alzheimer’s disease (non-AD) dementia, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and age- and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional cohort study. A total of 116 participants were diagnosed and evaluated (21 AD, 20 aMCI, 20 non-AD, 20 PD, and 34 controls) after comprehensive neurological, neuropsychology, and magnetic resonance imaging (M...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Pillai, J. A., Bermel, R., Bonner-Jackson, A., Rae-Grant, A., Fernandez, H., Bena, J., Jones, S. E., Ehlers, J. P., Leverenz, J. B. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Hydrogen Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Multidomain Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Cognitive Impairment Without Dementia
To investigate the value of hydrogen proton magnet resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the differential diagnosis of multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (M-aMCI) and vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND); 1H-MRS was performed in patients with M-aMCI and VCIND. The level was determined for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), inositol (mI), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr). Compared with the normal control group, the NAA–Cr ratio in all regions studied was significantly lower in the M-aMCI and VCIND groups. The Glu–Cr ratio in the posterior cingulate gyrus of the M-aMCI group ...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Chen, S.-Q., Cai, Q., Shen, Y.-Y., Xu, C.-X., Zhou, H., Zhao, Z. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Tong Luo Jiu Nao, a Chinese Medicine Formula, Reduces Inflammatory Stress in a Mouse Model of Alzheimers Disease
Conclusion: These data suggest that TLJN might have protective effects and could potentially act to attenuate inflammatory stress in the pathogenesis of AD. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Gao, A.-S., Du, H., Gao, Q., Wang, Y.-J., Wang, X.-Y., Liu, J.-W., Lu, B. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Toxicological Differences Between NMDA Receptor Antagonists and Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), represented by donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, used to be the only approved class of drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. After the approval of memantine by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been recognized by authorities and broadly used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Along with complementary mechanisms of action, NMDA antagonists and ChEIs differ not only in therapeutic effects but also in adverse reactions, which is an important consideration in clinical drug use. And the number o...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Shi, X., Lin, X., Hu, R., Sun, N., Hao, J., Gao, C. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Risk of Dementia in Heart Failure
Conclusion: This study found no difference in risk of dementia among the current and former users of ACEI/ARB as compared with the nonusers in an already at-risk HF population. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Chitnis, A. S., Aparasu, R. R., Chen, H., Kunik, M. E., Schulz, P. E., Johnson, M. L. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Association of Dementia and Peptic Ulcer Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Objective: We determine the association between dementia and the subsequent peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Methods: We identified patients with diagnosed dementia in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort without dementia was frequency-matched by age, sex, and comorbidities, and the occurrence of PUD was evaluated in both cohorts. Results: The dementia and control cohort consisted of 6014 patients with dementia and 17 830 frequency-matched patients without dementia, respectively. The incidence of PUD (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.37; P
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Hsu, C.-C., Hsu, Y.-C., Chang, K.-H., Lee, C.-Y., Chong, L.-W., Lin, C.-L., Kao, C.-H. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Metacognitive Differences Between Alzheimers Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia
Clinicians often have difficulty distinguishing between various forms of dementia to achieve a correct diagnosis. Little research has been done to examine whether awareness of one’s cognitive deficits, or metacognitive monitoring, might differ between dementia diagnoses, thereby providing an additional means of differentiating between dementia subtypes. We review articles examining metacognitive comparisons between two of the most common dementia subtypes: Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. Greater monitoring deficits were apparent in frontotemporal dementia than in Alzheimer’s disease, and ...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - July 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: DeLozier, S. J., Davalos, D. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Validation of Neuropsychological Tests to Screen for Dementia in Chinese Patients With Parkinsons Disease
To compare the accuracy of different neuropsychological tests and their combinations for deriving reliable cognitive indices for dementia diagnosis in Parkinson’s disease (PD). One hundred forty consecutive patients with PD were recruited and administrated an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Discriminant analysis and receiver–operator characteristic curve were used to evaluate their correct classifications and validity. Patients with PD having dementia (PDD; 23.5%) performed significantly worse in all tests than patients without dementia. Age of onset, disease duration, Hoehn-Yahr grade, Unified P...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - May 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Qiao, J., Wang, X., Lu, W., Cao, H., Qin, X. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Knowledge and Attitudes in Alzheimers Disease in a Cohort of Older African Americans and Caucasians
African American participation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine whether older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer’s Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older caucasians in the greater Atlanta area as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than older caucasians, with race only accounting for 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-2.61, P
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - May 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Howell, J. C., Soyinka, O., Parker, M., Jarrett, T. L., Roberts, D. L., Dorbin, C. D., Hu, W. T. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Deficits in Attention and Visual Processing but not Global Cognition Predict Simulated Driving Errors in Drivers Diagnosed With Mild Alzheimers Disease
This study sought to predict driving performance of drivers with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using measures of attention, visual processing, and global cognition. Simulated driving performance of individuals with mild AD (n = 20) was contrasted with performance of a group of healthy controls (n = 21). Performance on measures of global cognitive function and specific tests of attention and visual processing were examined in relation to simulated driving performance. Strong associations were observed between measures of attention, notably the Test of Everyday Attention (sustained attention; r = –.651, P = .002) and ...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - May 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Yamin, S., Stinchcombe, A., Gagnon, S. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Multisensory Stimulation as an Intervention Strategy for Elderly Patients With Severe Dementia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of multisensory stimulation environment (MSSE) and one-to-one activity sessions in the symptomatology of elderly individuals with severe dementia. Thirty-two participants were randomly assigned to the following 3 groups: MSSE, activity, and control group. The MSSE and activity groups participated in two 30-minute weekly sessions over 16 weeks. Pre-, mid-, and posttrial; 8-week follow-up behavior; mood; cognitive status; and dementia severity were registered. Patients in the MSSE group demonstrated a significant improvement in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Bedford A...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - May 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Sanchez, A., Marante-Moar, M. P., Sarabia, C., de Labra, C., Lorenzo, T., Maseda, A., Millan-Calenti, J. C. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Cerebral Glucose Metabolism Assessment in Rat Models of Alzheimers Disease: An 18F-FDG-PET Study
Conclusion: Our data indicate that the changed glucose metabolism in cerebral regions in 18F-FDG-PET imaging could be an important predictor for early AD. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - May 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Lu, Y., Ren, J., Cui, S., Chen, J., Huang, Y., Tang, C., Shan, B., Nie, B., Xinsheng, L. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Neuropsychological and Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Social Norms Questionnaire in Frontotemporal Dementia Versus Alzheimers Disease
Traditional neuropsychological batteries may not distinguish early behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) without the inclusion of a social behavioral measure. We compared 33 participants, 15 bvFTD, and 18 matched patients with early-onset AD (eAD), on the Social Norms Questionnaire (SNQ), neuropsychological tests and 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The analyses included correlations of SNQ results (total score, overendorsement or "overadhere" errors, and violations or "break" errors) with neuropsychological results and tensor-b...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - May 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Panchal, H., Paholpak, P., Lee, G., Carr, A., Barsuglia, J. P., Mather, M., Jimenez, E., Mendez, M. F. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Rapidly Versus Slowly Progressing Patients With Alzheimers Disease: Differences in Baseline Cognition
Rate of progression of cognitive deficits is variable among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of the current study was to compare demographic characteristics and performance on neuropsychological measures at baseline evaluation between rapidly and slowly progressing patients. Participants were divided into 2 groups based on change in Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale score from baseline to 2-year follow-up, and baseline performance was compared between the groups. Participants were 55 rapidly progressing and 55 slowly progressing patients with probable AD who had a follow...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - May 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Seidl, J. N. T., Massman, P. J. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

Challenges With Manual-Based Multimodal Psychotherapy for People With Alzheimers Disease: A Case Study
Earlier detection of dementia requires increased knowledge of how to help people in the early stages of dementia. However, few studies have focused on how psychotherapy should be adapted to improve the outcome of therapy for people with Alzheimer’s disease. The aims of the present study were to identify and to explore possible obstacles encountered during the use of manual-based psychotherapy for people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. The study found that individual adaptations to the treatment manual were necessary, particularly the modification of memory aids in order to adapt them to patients’ fu...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - May 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tonga, J. B., Karlsoeen, B. B., Arnevik, E. A., Werheid, K., Korsnes, M. S., Ulstein, I. D. Tags: Current Topics in Care Source Type: research

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for Delirium in Older Adults
Conclusion: Current evidence does not suggest efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for the prevention or management of delirium in older adults. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - May 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tampi, R. R., Tampi, D. J., Ghori, A. K. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Uric Acid and the Risk of Alzheimers Disease: Is There an Association?
The objective of this study was to validate whether or not uric acid is indeed associated with AD. We compared different prospective studies and ultimately found that it is also a controversial issue. Further higher quality prospective evidence on the relationship between uric acid and AD in different age stage are needed to determine the causal association and its exact pathogenetic mechanisms. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - April 19, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Yuan, M., Xu, L., Yin, X. Tags: Thoughts, Opinions, and Controversies Source Type: research

Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimers Disease Using Different Discrete Transform Techniques
This article presents a proposed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for extracting the most effective and significant features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using these different discrete transform techniques and MFCC techniques. Linear support vector machine has been used as a classifier in this article. Experimental results conclude that the proposed CAD system using MFCC technique for AD recognition has a great improvement for the system performance with small number of significant extracted features, as compared with the CAD system based on DCT, DST, DWT, and the hybrid combination methods of the different trans...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - April 19, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Dessouky, M. M., Elrashidy, M. A., Taha, T. E., Abdelkader, H. M. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research

DNMT3A rs1550117 Polymorphism is Associated With Late-Onset Alzheimers Disease in a Chinese Population
In this study, the rs1550117 polymorphism of DNMT3A was determined by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and confirmed by sequencing. The results showed that AA genotype carriers had a 2.08-fold risk of developing LOAD in comparison with GG genotype carriers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-4.21, P = .038) and had a 2.05-fold risk for LOAD compared with GG+GA genotype carriers (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.03-4.11, P = .038), indicating that the DNMT3A polymorphism supports a major role in the pathogenesis of LOAD and can be used as a stratification marker to predict an in...
Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias - April 19, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Ling, C., Fangyu, D., Wanhua, H., Kelong, C., zhimin, W., yuting, Z., rong, Z. Tags: Current Topics in Research Source Type: research