"Musings on the wanderer: What's new in our understanding of vago-vagal reflexes? VI. Central vagal circuits that control glucose metabolism."
"Musings on the wanderer: What's new in our understanding of vago-vagal reflexes? VI. Central vagal circuits that control glucose metabolism." Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 Nov 18;: Authors: Pitra MS, Smith BN Abstract Neurons in the brainstem dorsal vagal complex (DVC) take part in a continuous bidirectional crosstalk, in which they receive and respond to a vast array of signaling molecules, including glucose. Importantly, chronic dysregulation of blood glucose concentration, a hallmark of high prevalence pathologies such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, can induce neurop...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 18, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Pitra MS, Smith BN Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

GPCRs get Fatty: The Role of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in the Development and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
Abstract Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), characterized by the abnormal deposition of lipids within the liver not due to alcohol consumption, is a growing epidemic affecting over 30% of the US population. Both simple fatty liver and its more severe counterpart, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represent one of the most common forms of liver disease. Recently, several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as targets for therapeutic intervention for these disorders. These include those with known hepatic function as well as those involved in global metabolic regulation. In this review, we hig...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 18, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kurtz R, Anderman MF, Shepard BD Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Pregnancy-related plasticity of gastric vagal afferent signals in mice.
This study aimed to determine the mechanosensitivity of GVAs and food intake during early-, mid-, and late- stages of pregnancy in mice. Pregnant mice consumed more food compared to non-pregnant mice, notably in the light phase during mid- and late pregnancy. The increased food intake was predominantly due to light phase increases in meal size across all stages of pregnancy. The sensitivity of GVA tension receptors to gastric distension was significantly attenuated in mid- and late pregnancy, while the sensitivity of GVA mucosal receptors to mucosal stroking was unchanged during pregnancy. To determine whether pregnancy as...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 18, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Li H, Clarke GS, Christie S, Ladyman SR, Kentish SJ, Young RL, Gatford KL, Page AJ Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
CORRIGENDUM. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 Nov 01;319(5):G637 Authors: PMID: 33141606 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Retraction.
Authors: PMID: 33141607 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; +33 new citations
33 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2020/10/21PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - October 21, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; +20 new citations
20 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2020/10/20PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - October 20, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Role and Mechanisms of Exosomal miRNAs in IBD Pathophysiology.
Abstract Exosomes represent secretory membranous vesicles used for the information exchange between cells and organ-to-organ communication. Exosome crosstalk mechanisms are involved in the regulation of several IBD-associated pathophysioloc intestinal processes such as barrier function, immune responses and intestinal flora. Functional biomolecules, mainly non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), are believed to be transmitted between the mammalian cells via exosomes which likely play important roles in cell-to-cell communication, both locally and systemically. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) encapsulated in exosomes have generated substanti...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - October 6, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wani S, Ka Man Law I, Pothoulakis C Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Repetitive Antegrade Contractions: A novel response to sustained esophageal distension is modulated by cholinergic influence.
CONCLUSIONS: The vigor and triggering of the esophageal contractile response to distension is reduced by cholinergic inhibition in asymptomatic controls. The observation that the rate of contractions did not change when patients developed repetitive contractile responses suggests that this rate is not modified by cholinergic inhibition once contractility is triggered. PMID: 33026823 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - October 6, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Carlson DA, Kou W, Masihi M, Acharya S, Baumann AJ, Donnan EN, Kahrilas PJ, Pandolfino JE Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Neural control of Gut homeostasis.
Abstract The gut-brain axis is a coordinated communication system that not only maintains homeostasis, but significantly influences higher cognitive functions and emotions as well as neurological and behavioral disorders. Among the large populations of sensory and motor neurons that innervate the gut, insights into the function of primary afferent nociceptors whose cell bodies reside in the dorsal root ganglia and nodose ganglia, have revealed their multiple crosstalk with several cell types within the gut wall, including epithelial, vascular and immune cells. These bi-directional communications have immunoregulat...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - October 6, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Abdullah N, Defaye M, Altier C Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Assessment of the role of FGF15 in mediating the metabolic outcomes of murine Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG).
Abstract Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) is the best current therapy for remission of obesity and its co-morbidities. It is understood to alter the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in vivo. Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) in human and its murine orthologue Fgf15 plays a pivotal role in this bile acid driven enterohepatic signaling. The present study evaluated the metabolic outcomes of VSG in Fgf15 deficient mice. 6-8 weeks old male wildtype mice (WT) and Fgf15 deficient mice (KO) were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. At 8th week of diet, both WT and KO mice were randomly distributed to VSG or sh...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - September 22, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Myronovych A, Bhattacharjee J, Salazar-Gonzalez RM, Tan B, Mowery S, Ferguson D, Ryan KK, Zhang W, Zhao X, Oehrle M, Setchell KD, Seeley RJ, Sandoval DA, Kohli R Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

The serotonin reuptake transporter is reduced in the epithelium of active Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
In this study we show a potent and significant downregulation of the dominant serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) mRNA (SLC6A4) in active CD ileitis, CD colitis and UC colitis, compared to healthy controls. The mRNA of the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 was unregulated. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of SERT protein in both the epithelium and the lamina propria and localised the downregulation to the epithelial monolayer. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA sequencing confirmed downregulation of SLC6A4 in the epithelial monolayer during intestinal inflammation. Pat...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - September 22, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jørandli JW, Thorsvik S, Skovdahl HK, Kornfeld B, Sæterstad S, Gustafsson BI, Sandvik AK, Granlund AVB Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Metabolic consequences of ileal interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids.
Abstract The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids comprises a tightly regulated process of hepatic bile acid secretion, intestinal reabsorption and transport back to the liver. Disruption of this process has significant consequences for both gastrointestinal, liver and whole-body homeostasis and therefore offers opportunities for therapeutic intervention. In this review we discuss the effects of (pharmacological) interruption of the enterohepatic circulation at different levels. Recently, several studies have been published on ileal interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, targeting the apic...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - September 15, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: van de Peppel IP, Verkade HJ, Jonker JW Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

High fat diet induces fibrosis in mice lacking CYP2A5 and PPAR α: A new model for steatohepatitis-associated fibrosis.
High fat diet induces fibrosis in mice lacking CYP2A5 and PPARα: A new model for steatohepatitis-associated fibrosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 Sep 02;: Authors: Chen X, Acquaah-Mensah GK, Denning KL, Peterson JM, Wang K, Denvir J, Hong F, Cederbaum AI, Lu Y Abstract Obesity is linked to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PPARα regulates lipid metabolism. CYP2A5 is a potential antioxidant and CYP2A5 induction by ethanol is CYP2E1-dependent. High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and steatosis are more severe in CYP2A5 knockout (cyp2a5-/-) mice than in wild-type mice although P...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - September 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chen X, Acquaah-Mensah GK, Denning KL, Peterson JM, Wang K, Denvir J, Hong F, Cederbaum AI, Lu Y Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Parkinson's disease: Are gut microbes involved?
Abstract Parkinson's diseases (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and gastrointestinal (GI) deficits. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of PD is not well understood. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in neurological disorders. In this review, we summarize the potential role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of PD. We first describe how gut microbiota can be influenced by factors predisposing individuals to PD such as environmental toxins, aging, and host genetics. We then highlight the effect of gut microbiota on mechanisms implicated in the pathoph...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - September 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Bhattarai Y, Kashyap PC Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Shifting into high gear: how Interstitial Cells of Cajal change the motility pattern of the developing intestine.
Abstract The first contractile waves in the developing embryonic gut are purely myogenic, they only involve smooth muscle. Here, we provide evidence for a transition from smooth-muscle to Interstitial Cell of Cajal (ICC) driven contractile waves in the developing chicken gut. In-situ hybridization staining for ANO1, a known ICC marker, shows that ICCs are already present throughout the gut as from embryonic day 7 (E7). We devised a protocol to reveal ICC oscillatory and propagative calcium activity in embryonic gut whole-mount and find that the first steady calcium oscillations in ICCs occur at E14. We show that t...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - September 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chevalier NR, Ammouche Y, Gomis A, Teyssaire C, de Santa Barbara P, Faure S Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

EUS-Guided Sampling and Profiling of Portal Circulation in Human Patients for Metabolic Research Studies and Biomarker Assessment.
Abstract Portal and hepatic circulation can now be safely accessed using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). EUS-guided needle access of the portal vein is performed clinically at select tertiary centers for measurement of portal pressure gradients in patients with chronic liver disease and sampling of portal venous thrombus to diagnose malignancy. We propose that this novel clinical technique can be applied in research studies to allow blood collection from and profiling of portal and hepatic circulation. In this technical report, we present and highlight the technical aspects, feasibility and safety of EUS - guided por...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - September 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ryou M, Stylopoulos N Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Severe acute pancreatitis: Capillary permeability model linking systemic inflammation to multiorgan failure.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) includes persistent systemic inflammation (SIRS) and multi-organ failure (MOF). The mechanism of transition from SIRS to MOF is unclear. We developed a fluid compartment model and used clinical data to test predictions. METHODS: The model includes vascular, interstitial and "third space" compartments with variable permeability of plasma proteins at the capillaries. Consented patients from UPMC Presbyterian Hospital were studied. Pre-admission and daily hematocrit (HCT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatine (Cr), albumin (Alb) and total pro...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - September 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Komara NL, Paragomi P, Greer PJ, Wilson AS, Breze C, Papachristou GI, Whitcomb DC Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass Improves Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Independently of Weight Loss in Rodents with Diet-Induced Obesity.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver-related mortality. NAFLD is associated with obesity, hepatic fat accumulation and insulin-resistance, all of which contribute to its pathophysiology. Weight-loss is the main therapy for NAFLD and metabolic surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its metabolic comorbidities. Although has been reported that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass can reverse NAFLD, it is unclear if such effects result from reduced weight, from a less calorie-intake or from the direct influence of surgery on mechanisms contributing to NAFLD. W...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - August 18, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Angelini G, Castagneto Gissey L, Casella Mariolo J, Caristo ME, Russo MF, Lembo E, Verrastro O, Stefanizzi G, Marini PL, Casella G, Bornstein SR, Rubino F, Mingrone G Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

An overview of deregulated lipid metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with special focus on lysosomal acid lipase.
Abstract Obesity and type 2 diabetes are frequently complicated by excess fat accumulation in the liver, which is known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this context, liver steatosis develops as a result of the deregulation of pathways controlling de novo lipogenesis and fat catabolism. Recent evidences suggest the clinical relevance of a reduction in the activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), which is a key enzyme for intracellular fat disposal, in patients with NAFLD. In this review, we provided a comprehensive overview of the critical steps in hepatic fat metabolism and alterations in these pat...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - August 18, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Carotti S, Aquilano K, Valentini F, Ruggiero S, Alletto F, Morini S, Picardi A, Antonelli-Incalzi R, Lettieri-Barbato D, Vespasiani-Gentilucci U Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of GSK-3 β restores delayed gastric emptying in obesity-induced diabetic female mice.
Inhibition of GSK-3β restores delayed gastric emptying in obesity-induced diabetic female mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 Aug 19;: Authors: Sampath C, Srinivasan S, Freeman ML, Gangula PR Abstract Diabetic gastroparesis (DG) is a clinical syndrome characterized by delayed gastric emptying (DGE). Loss of Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) is associated with reduced nNOSα mediated gastric motility and DGE. Previous studies have shown that nuclear exclusion and inactivation of Nrf2 is partly regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3β). In the c...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - August 18, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sampath C, Srinivasan S, Freeman ML, Gangula PR Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; +18 new citations
18 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2020/08/05PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - August 5, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Report Source Type: research

The stimulus intensity-dependent recruitment of NaV1 subunits in action potential initiation in nerve terminals of vagal C-fibers innervating the esophagus.
Abstract We investigated voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1) subunits that regulate action potential initiation in the nerve terminals of vagal nodose C-fibers innervating the esophagus. Extracellular single fiber recordings were made from the nodose C-fibers with mechanically-sensitive nerve terminals in the isolated innervated guinea pig esophagus. NaV1 inhibitors were selectively delivered to the tissue containing nerve terminals. Graded esophageal distention was used for mechanical stimulation. The NaV1.7 inhibitor PF-05089771 nearly abolished action potential initiation in response to low levels of esophagea...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 28, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ru F, Pavelkova N, Krajewski JL, McDermott JS, Undem BJ, Kollarik M Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

A murine model of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease causes microbiota-gut-brain axis deficits in adulthood.
Abstract Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic intestinal diseases, frequently associated with comorbid psychological and cognitive deficits. These neuropsychiatric effects include anxiety, depression, and memory impairments that can be seen both during active disease and following remission and are more frequently seen in pediatric patients. The mechanism(s) through which these extra-intestinal deficits develop remain unknown and the study of these phenomenon are hampered by a lack of murine pediatric IBD models. Herein we describe microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis deficits following induction of colitis i...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 28, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Salvo E, Stokes P, Keogh CE, Brust-Mascher I, Hennessey C, Knotts TA, Sladek JA, Rude KM, Swedek M, Rabasa G, Gareau MG Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; +20 new citations
20 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2020/07/27PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 27, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Organoids: A Next Generation Tool for Modeling Human Development.
Abstract Gastrointestinal organoids are an exciting new tool for modeling human development, physiology, and disease in human tissue. Derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), gastrointestinal organoids consist of epithelial and mesenchymal cells organized in an intricate, three-dimensional structure that recapitulates the physiology and microscopic anatomy of the human GI tract. In vitro derivation of gastrointestinal organoids from Definitive Endoderm has permitted an exploration of the complex signaling pathways required for the initial maturation of each individual gastrointestinal organ. Further maturation ...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 12, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Singh A, Poling HM, Spence JR, Wells JM, Helmrath MA Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Talk about micromanaging! Role of microRNAs in intestinal barrier function.
Abstract Defective intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), and other inflammatory conditions of the gut. The role of microRNAs (miRNA's or miR's) has also been demonstrated in the last two decades in the pathogenesis of IBD and in the regulation of intestinal TJ barrier function. MiRNAs are non-coding regulators of gene expression at the post-transcription level that have essential role in targeting transcripts encoding proteins of intestinal TJ and their regulators. Many miRNAs h...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 12, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Al-Sadi R, Engers J, Abdulqadir R Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Tnf- α, il-17 and il-22 production in the rectal mucosa of non-celiac wheat sensitivity patients: role of adaptive immunity.
TNF-α, IL-17 AND IL-22 PRODUCTION IN THE RECTAL MUCOSA OF NON-CELIAC WHEAT SENSITIVITY PATIENTS: ROLE OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 Jul 13;: Authors: Mansueto P, Di Liberto D, Fayer F, Soresi M, Geraci G, Giannone AG, Seidita A, D'Alcamo A, Blasca F, Lo Pizzo M, Florena AM, Dieli F, Carroccio A Abstract In recent years, a new gluten- or wheat-related disease has emerged, a condition labelled "non-celiac gluten sensitivity" (NCGS) or "non-celiac wheat sensitivity" (NCWS). NCWS pathogenesis is still uncertain and attributed to very differen...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 12, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mansueto P, Di Liberto D, Fayer F, Soresi M, Geraci G, Giannone AG, Seidita A, D'Alcamo A, Blasca F, Lo Pizzo M, Florena AM, Dieli F, Carroccio A Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Defense mechanisms to increasing back pressure for hepatic oxygen transport and venous return in porcine fecal peritonitis.
b SM Abstract High central venous pressure (CVP) acutely decreases venous return. How this affects hepatic oxygen transport in sepsis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated increases of CVP via standard nursing procedures (NPs) on hepato-splanchnic and renal oxygen transport in a prolonged porcine sepsis model. Twenty anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs with regional hemodynamics monitored were randomized to fecal peritonitis or controls (n=10 / group). Resuscitation was started after 8-hour of observation and continued for 3 days. NPs were performed at baseline an...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 12, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Liu S, Campos PPZDA, Casoni D, Berger DC, Kohler A, Bloch A, Bervini D, Setzer F, Cameron DR, Z'Graggen W, Hana A, Langer R, Corrêa TD, Beldi G, Takala J, Jakob SM Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulation of intestinal stem cell differentiation.
Abstract To fulfill the lifelong need to supply diverse epithelial cells, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) rely on executing accurate transcriptional programs. This review addresses the mechanisms that control those programs. Genes that define cell behaviors and identities are regulated principally through thousands of dispersed enhancers, each individually
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 5, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Verzi MP, Shivdasani RA Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

The role of glucuronidated 25-hydroxyvitamin D on colon gene expression in mice.
Abstract 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-3β-glucuronic acid (25OHD-Gluc) is produced in the liver and is a constituent of human blood and bile. Bacterial glucuronidases (GUS) in mammalian digestive microbiota cleave glucuronide conjugates, such as 25OHD-Gluc, and release the free aglycone (i.e. 25OHD) inside the intestinal lumen. We hypothesized that 25OHD-Gluc would elicit a VDR-dependent mRNA response in the colon after cleavage by gut microbiota. The activity of 25OHD-Gluc was investigated by measuring expression of cytochrome P450 24A1 (Cyp24) mRNA both in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, Caco2 cells responded to...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 5, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Reynolds CJ, Koszewski NJ, Horst RL, Beitz DC, Goff JP Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Associations of gastric volumes, ingestive behavior, calorie and volume intake, and fullness in obesity.
ASSOCIATIONS OF GASTRIC VOLUMES, INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR, CALORIE AND VOLUME INTAKE, AND FULLNESS IN OBESITY. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 Jul 06;: Authors: Vijayvargiya P, Chedid V, Wang XJ, Atieh J, Maselli D, Burton DD, Clark MM, Acosta A, Camilleri M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Whereas gastric emptying significantly predicts calorie intake, the association between gastric capacity and satiation and satiety is unclear. AIM: To study associations between gastric volumes and ingestive behaviors with satiation and satiety in obesity. METHODS: Sixty-two healthy adult obese patients (57...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 5, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Vijayvargiya P, Chedid V, Wang XJ, Atieh J, Maselli D, Burton DD, Clark MM, Acosta A, Camilleri M Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Parallel intermediate conductance K+ (IK) and Cl- (CLC2) channel activity mediates electroneutral K+ exit across basolateral membranes in rat distal colon.
Abstract Transepithelial K+ absorption requires apical K+ uptake and basolateral K+ exit. In colon, apical H+,K+-ATPase mediates cellular K+ uptake, and it has been suggested that electroneutral basolateral K+ exit reflects K+-Cl- cotransporter-1 (KCC1) operating in parallel with K+ and Cl- channels. Present study was designed to identify basolateral transporter(s) responsible for K+ exit in rat distal colon. Active K+ absorption was determined by measuring 86Rb+ (K+ surrogate) fluxes in colonic epithelia mounted under voltage clamp conditions. With zero Cl- in the mucosal solution, net K+ absorption was reduced b...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - June 21, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Rehman SM, Narayanan K, Nickerson AJ, Coon SD, Hoque KM, Sandle GI, Rajendran VM Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Glucocorticoids and Serum and Glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 are potent regulators of CFTR in the native intestine: implications for stress-induced diarrhea.
We examined GC, SGK1 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) kinase signaling of CFTR ion transport in native intestine and the role of GCs on mRNA, protein, surface expression, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-elicited diarrhea. Rats were treated with dexamethasone (DEXA 2mg/kg, IP) or DMSO for 1, 4 and 24 h. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-activated ion transport was examined in the presence or absence of SGK1 and PI3K inhibitors. Phosphorylation of SGK1, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), and AKT kinases was confirmed by immunoblots using phosphor-specific antibodies. Tissue lysates were analyzed by...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - June 21, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ahsan MK, Figueora-Hall L, Baratta VM, Garcia-Milian R, Lam TT, Hoque KM, Salas PJ, Ameen NA Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Switching of cargo sorting from the constitutive to regulated secretory pathway by the addition of cystatin D sequence in salivary acinar cells.
We examined the transport of HaloTag proteins fused with full-length cystatin D (fCst5-Halo) or only its signal peptide (ssCst5-Halo) in parotid acinar cells. Although both fusion proteins were observed to be colocalized with amylase in the secretory granules, the coefficients for overlapping and correlation of fCst5-Halo with amylase were higher than those of ssCst5-Halo. The secretion of both the proteins was enhanced by the addition of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol, as well as endogenous amylase. In contrast, unstimulated secretion of ssCst5-Halo without isoproterenol was significantly higher than...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - June 14, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Fujita-Yoshigaki J, Yokoyama M, Katsumata-Kato O Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Hyaluronic acid promotes Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation and crypt fission through TLR4 and PGE2 transactivation of EGFR.
CONCLUSIONS: In postnatal mice about 30% of intestinal growth as manifested by crypt fission and Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation is driven by a novel pathway: Extracellular HA binds TLR4 on pericryptal macrophages inducing the production of PGE2 through COX2. PGE2 transactivates EGFR in Lgr5+ epithelial stem cells resulting in Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation and crypt fission. PMID: 32538139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - June 14, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Riehl TE, Alvarado D, Ee X, Ciorba MA, Stenson WF Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Coordinate expression loss of GKN1 and GKN2 in gastric cancer via impairment of a glucocorticoid-responsive enhancer.
Abstract Gastrokines (GKNs) are anti-inflammatory proteins secreted by gastric epithelial (surface mucous and pit) cells, with their aberrant loss of expression causally linked to premalignant inflammation and gastric cancer (GC). Transcriptional mechanisms accounting for GKN expression loss have not been elucidated. Using human clinical cohorts, mouse transgenics, bioinformatics and transfection/reporter assays, we report a novel mechanism of GKN gene transcriptional regulation and its impairment in GC. GKN1/GKN2 loss is highly co-ordinated, with both genes showing parallel downregulation during human and mouse G...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - June 14, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chung Nien Chin S, O'Connor L, Scurr M, Busada JT, Graham AN, Alipour Talesh G, Tran CP, Sarkar S, Minamoto T, Giraud AS, Cidlowski JA, Sutton P, Menheniott TR Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Net release and uptake of xenometabolites across intestinal, hepatic, muscle, and renal tissue beds in healthy conscious pigs.
Abstract Xenometabolites from microbial and plant sources are thought to confer beneficial, as well as deleterious, effects on host physiology. Studies determining absorption and tissue uptake of xenometabolites are limited. We utilized a conscious catheterized pig model to evaluate inter-organ flux of annotated known and suspected xenometabolites, derivatives, and bile acids. Female pigs (n=12; 2-3 months old; 25.6 ± 2.2 kg) had surgically-implanted catheters across portal-drained viscera (PDV), splanchnic area (SPL), liver, kidney, and hindquarter muscle. Overnight fasted arterial and venous plasma was co...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - June 14, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mercer KE, Ten Have GAM, Pack L, Lan R, Deutz NEP, Adams SH, Piccolo BD Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; +17 new citations
17 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2020/05/12PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - May 13, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; +19 new citations
19 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2020/05/07PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Immune modulating effects of additional supplementation of estradiol combined with testosterone in murine testosterone-deficient NAFLD model.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with testosterone deficiency. However, NAFLD patients generally do not respond to treatment with testosterone alone. We investigated the innate immune mechanisms underlying the effects of treatment with testosterone alone, estrogen alone, or combined testosterone and estrogen on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD due to testosterone deficiency. Orchiectomized (OCX) male Rag2-/- mice were used as a model of testosterone deficiency. To assess NAFLD severity, NAFLD activity score (NAS) is adopted. Moreover, immunological change was analyzed by multicolor ...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - May 3, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Okamura T, Hamaguchi M, Bamba R, Nakajima H, Yoshimura Y, Kimura T, Nishida K, Hashimoto Y, Fukuda T, Senmaru T, Fukui M Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Experimental Analysis of T-Cell Epitopes for Designing Liver Cancer Vaccine Predicted by System Level Immunoinformatics Approach.
Abstract Liver cancer (LC) is the worldwide disease and currently, due to the poor prognostic and therapeutic options of liver cancer, we investigated the T-cell epitopes as potential therapeutic vaccine candidates to get the benefit of experimental processes and utilize the complete ability of the immune system compared to other artificial ex vivo proliferation of T cells. Activation of T-cells targets and kills several tumors, developing a strong rationale for the improvement of immunotherapeutic strategies to cancer therapy. To predict T-cell epitopes for liver cancer, we designed a comprehensive immunoinformat...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - May 3, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Muhammad SA, Zafar S, Rizvi SZ, Imran I, Munir F, Jamshed MB, Ali A, Wu X, Shahid N, Zaeem M, Zhang Q Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Reply to "Letter to Editor: Takeda-G Protein Receptor-5 signaling mitigates parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: public health impact".
Reply to "Letter to Editor: Takeda-G Protein Receptor-5 signaling mitigates parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: public health impact". Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 May 01;318(5):G930 Authors: Pierre JF PMID: 32330095 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 26, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Pierre JF Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Letter to Editor: Takeda-G protein receptor-5 signaling mitigates parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: public health impact.
PMID: 32330096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 26, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Pandey S Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Gut leakage enhances sepsis susceptibility in iron-overloaded β-thalassemia mice through macrophage hyper-inflammatory responses.
In conclusion, oral iron administration in Thal mice induced more severe gut leakage, increased fecal Gram negative bacteria resulting in higher levels of endotoxemia and serum inflammatory cytokines compared with WT. Pre-existing hyper-inflammatory cytokines in iron-overloaded Thal enhanced susceptibility toward infection. PMID: 32308038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Visitchanakun P, Saisorn W, Wongphoom J, Chatthanathon P, Somboonna N, Svasti S, Fucharoen S, Leelahavanichkul A Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Pharmacological activation of TGR5 promotes intestinal growth via a GLP-2 dependent pathway in mice.
In conclusion, we demonstrate that pharmacological TGR5 receptor activation stimulates L cells triggering GLP-2 dependent intestinal adaption in mice. PMID: 32308039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hunt JE, Billeschou A, Windeløv JA, Hartmann B, Ullmer C, Holst JJ, Kissow H Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Microbiota-neuroimmune cross-talk in stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity of the bowel.
Abstract Visceral hypersensitivity of the lower gastrointestinal tract, defined as an increased response to colorectal distension, frequently prompts episodes of debilitating abdominal pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Although the pathophysiology of IBS is not yet fully elucidated, it is well known that stress is a major risk factor for development and acts as a trigger of pain sensation. Stress modulates both immune responses as well as the gut microbiota and vice versa. Additionally, either microbes themselves or through involvement of the immune system, activate or sensitize afferent nociceptors. In this...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: van Thiel I, De Jonge WJ, Chiu IM, van den Wijngaard RM Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Dopamine D2 receptor activator quinpirole protects against trypsinogen activation during acute pancreatitis via upregulating HSP70.
In this study, we sought to examine whether DRD2 signaling mediates trypsinogen activation and the underlying mechanisms. Pancreatic acinar cells were stimulated with cholecystokinin-8 in vitro. AP was induced by intraperitoneal injections of caerulein and LPS or L-arginine. Pancreatitis severity was assessed biochemically and histologically. We found that activation of DRD2 by quinpirole, a potent DRD2 agonist, resulted in the reduction of trypsinogen activation and the upregulation of HSP70 in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that quinpirole induced dephosphorylation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a master tr...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ye X, Han X, Li B, Dai JJ, Wu Z, He Y, Wen L, Hu G Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Mechanical roles of anterograde and retrograde intestinal peristalses after feeding in a larval fish (Danio rerio).
Abstract Transport in gut is important not only for digestion, metabolism and nutrient uptake but also for microbiotic circumstance in the digestive tract, however, the effects of mixing and pumping in the intestine have not been fully clarified. Therefore, in this study, we quantitatively explored intestinal mixing and pumping represented using a dispersion coefficient and pressure rise in zebrafish larvae, which is a model organism for vertebrate digestive studies, over time by measuring transport phenomena after feeding. Here we provide the first quantitative evidence of the roles of anterograde and retrograde ...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 12, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kikuchi K, Noh H, Numayama-Tsuruta K, Ishikawa T Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Changes in specific esophageal neuro-mechanical wall states are associated with conscious awareness of a solid swallowed bolus in healthy subjects.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Esophageal neuro-mechanical wall states are the physical manifestations of circular muscle inhibition and contraction, resulting from neural inputs, and leading to bolus propulsion. A novel method infers esophageal neuro-mechanical wall states through simultaneous determination of pressure and diameter in vivo using impedance manometry. We hypothesised that changes in esophageal neuro-mechanical wall states relate to conscious awareness of esophageal bolus passage ("bolus perception"). METHODS: Seven healthy participants were selected for perception of solid bolus passage and we...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 12, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cock C, Leibbrandt RE, Dinning P, Costa MC, Wiklendt L, Omari TI Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research