The mechanosensor Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Member 4 (TRPV4) regulates mouse cholangiocyte secretion and bile formation.
Abstract Mechanosensitive signaling has emerged as a mechanism for the regulation of cholangiocyte transport and bile formation. The mechanical effect of fluid-flow, or shear, at the apical membrane of cholangiocytes regulates secretion through a process involving increases in [Ca2+]i and activation of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels. However, the initiating steps translating shear force to increases in [Ca2+]i are unknown. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Member 4 (TRPV4), a non-selective cation channel present in the apical membrane of cholangiocytes, has been proposed as a potential mechanosensor. The aim of ...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 25, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Li Q, Kresge C, Boggs K, Scott J, Feranchak A Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Absorptive transport of amino acids by the rat colon.
Abstract The capacity of the colon to absorb microbially-produced amino acids (AAs) and the underlying mechanisms of AA transport are incompletely defined. We measured the profile of 16 fecal AAs along the rat ceco-colonic axis and compared unidirectional absorptive AA fluxes across mucosal tissues isolated from the rat jejunum, cecum, and proximal colon using an Ussing chamber approach in conjunction with 1H-NMR and UPLC-MS chemical analyses. Passage of stool from cecum to mid-colon was associated with segment-specific changes in fecal AA composition and a decrease in total AA content. Simultaneous measurement of...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 25, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chen Y, Dinges MM, Green A, Cramer SE, Larive CK, Lytle C Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Impairment of Electroneutral Na+Transport and Associated Down-Regulation of NHE3 Contributes to Diarrhea Following in vivo Challenge with Brachyspira spp.
Abstract The effects of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira hampsoniispirochetosis on Na+transport was assessed in the colon to determine its contribution to diarrheal disease, in pigs following experimental infection. Electrogenic and electroneutral Na+absorption was assessedin Ussing chambers by radiolabelled 22Na flux and pharmacological inhibitory studies. Basal radiolabelled 22Na flux experiments revealed that Jmswas significantly impairedin B. hyodysenteriaeand B. hampsonii diseased pigs. Inhibition of ENaC via amiloride did not significantly reduce electrogenic short-circuit current (Isc) in the prox...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 25, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Enns CB, Keith BA, Challa N, Harding JCS, Loewen ME Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Moderate Alcohol Intake Promotes Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Development in Mice Expressing Oncogenic Kras.
Abstract Kras mutations are associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Although tobacco smoking, pancreatitis, and obesity are known environmental risk factors for PDAC, contribution of moderate alcohol intake to PDAC remains elusive. In the present study, we tested whether a combination of risk factors or moderate alcohol intake induces PDAC development in mice. Control Pdx1Cre and Pdx1Cre;LSL-KrasG12D mutant mice were fed a Western alcohol diet containing high levels of cholesterol and saturated fat, 3.5% alcohol, and lipopolysaccharide for 5 months. In addition, mice were treated with cerulein, fo...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 25, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Asahina K, Balog S, Hwang E, Moon E, Wan E, Skrypek K, Chen Y, Fernandez J, Romo J, Yang Q, Lai K, French SW, Tsukamoto H Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; +29 new citations
29 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/11/21PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Urine alpha-fetoprotein and orosomucoid 1 as biomarkers of hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
This study aimed to discover a diagnostic or a screening biomarker from the urine of HBV-related HCC patients. We used iTRAQ coupled with mass spectrometry to identify candidate urinary proteins in a discovery cohort (n=40). The selected proteins were confirmed using ELISA in a validation cohort (n=140). Diagnostic performance of the selected proteins was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and qualitative diagnostic analysis. A total of 96 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Urinary alpha-fetoprotein (u-AFP) and orosomucoid 1 (u-ORM1) were selected as target proteins by bioinformatics ana...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 18, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhan Z, Guan Y, Mew K, Zeng W, Peng M, Hu P, Yang Y, Lu Y, Ren H Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Loop Analysis of the Anal Sphincter Complex in Fecal Incontinent Patients using Functional Luminal Imaging Probe.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiac loops have been used extensively to study myocardial function. With changes in cardiac pump function, loops are shifted to the right or left. Functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) recordings allow for loop analysis of anal sphincter and puborectalis (PRM) function. The goal was to characterize anal sphincter area-pressure/tension loop changes in fecal incontinence (FI) patients. METHODS: 14 healthy subjects and 14 patients with FI were studied. Custom-designed FLIP was placed in the vagina and then in the anal canal, and deflated in 20ml steps, from 90-30ml. At each vol...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 18, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zifan A, Mittal RK, Kunkel DC, Swartz J, Barr G, Tuttle LJ Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Antitumor Activity and Combined Inhibitory Effect of Ceritinib with Gemcitabine in Pancreatic Cancer.
Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is predominantly incurable and is primarily treated with gemcitabine, but drug resistance commonly develops. Thus, new medicines are needed. Ceritinib (LDK378) is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with antitumor activity in various cancers. However, studies involving ceritinib for the treatment of PC are inadequate. We analyzed the combined effects of ceritinib and gemcitabine on PC and their mechanism of action. Three PC cell lines were used to evaluate the antitumor effects of ceritinib combined with gemcitabine. We analyzed cell via...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 18, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jamshed MB, Munir F, Shahid N, Sadiq U, Muhammad SA, Ghanem NB, Zhong H, Li X, Zhang Q Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Acute regulation of intestinal ion transport and permeability in response to luminal nutrients: the role of the enteric nervous system.
CONCLUSIONS: Luminal nutrients and enteric nerve activity both affect ion flux in the mouse small intestine acutely, but independently of each other. Neither neuronal nor glial activity is required for the maintenance of baseline intestinal permeability; however, neuronal activity is essential for the acute regulation of intestinal permeability in response to luminal lipids and lipopolysaccharide. PMID: 31709828 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 11, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cavin JB, Cuddihey H, MacNaughton WK, Sharkey KA Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Neural motor complexes propagate continuously along the full length of mouse small intestine and colon.
Conclusions & Inferences The enteric neural mechanism required for motor complexes is present along the full length of both small and large intestine. In some cases, colonic MCs can be initiated in distal colon and propagate through the ileo-colonic junction, all the way to duodenum. In conclusion, the ileo-colonic junction provides functional neural continuity for propagating motor activity that originates in the small or large intestine. PMID: 31709829 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 11, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Costa MC, Hibberd TJ, Keightley LJ, Wiklendt L, Arkwright JW, Dinning PG, Brookes SJH, Spencer NJ Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Cd8+t cells regulate liver injury in obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
CD8+T CELLS REGULATE LIVER INJURY IN OBESITY-RELATED NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Nov 11;: Authors: Breuer DA, Pacheco MC, Washington MK, Montgomery SA, Hasty AH, Kennedy AJ Abstract Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has increased in Western countries due to the prevalence of obesity. Current interests are aimed at identifying the type and function of immune cells that infiltrate the liver and key factors responsible for mediating their recruitment and activation in NASH. We investigate the function and phenotype of CD8+T cells under obese and non-o...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 11, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Breuer DA, Pacheco MC, Washington MK, Montgomery SA, Hasty AH, Kennedy AJ Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

A new role for heat shock factor 27 in the pathophysiology of Clostridium difficile toxin B.
Abstract Clostridium difficile (CD) is a common pathogen that causes severe gastrointestinal inflammatory diarrhea in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy. Its virulence derives from two toxins, toxin CD, A & B (TcdA and TcdB) (10). Among the prime candidates for CD colonization are patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), who are routinely treated with antibiotics and frequently hospitalized. Indeed, ~50% of CF patients are colonized with virulent forms of CD but do not exhibit diarrhea (7, 9, 61). We found that TcdB has global effects on colonic cells, including reducing the steady-state levels of sodium proton...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 11, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yanda MK, Guggino WB, Cebotaru L Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery improves hepatic glucose metabolism and reduces plasma Kisspeptin levels in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSION: Improved hepatic glucose metabolism and lower plasma kisspeptin in T2D after RYGB may link improved hepatic function with enhanced insulin responsiveness after surgery. PMID: 31709832 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 11, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Flynn CR, Albaugh VL, Tamboli RA, Gregory JM, Bosompem A, Sidani RM, Winnick JJ Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Calcium sensing receptor deletion in the mouse esophagus alters barrier function.
CALCIUM SENSING RECEPTOR DELETION IN THE MOUSE ESOPHAGUS ALTERS BARRIER FUNCTION. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Nov 11;: Authors: Nakhoul NL, Tu CL, Brown KL, Islam MT, Hodges AG, Abdulnour-Nakhoul SM Abstract Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is the molecular sensor by which cells respond to small changes in extracellular Ca+2 concentrations. CaSR has been reported to play a role in glandular and fluid secretion in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract and to regulate differentiation and proliferation of skin keratinocytes. CaSR is present in the esophageal epithelium, but its role in this t...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 11, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Nakhoul NL, Tu CL, Brown KL, Islam MT, Hodges AG, Abdulnour-Nakhoul SM Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Novel Aspects of Enteric Serotonergic Signaling in Health and Brain-Gut Disease.
Abstract Gastrointestinal comorbidities are common in individuals with mood and behavioral dysfunction. Similarly, patients with gastrointestinal problems more commonly suffer from co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses. Though the central and enteric nervous systems (CNS and ENS, respectively) have largely been studied separately, there is emerging interest in factors that may contribute to disease states involving both systems. There is strong evidence to suggest that serotonin may be an important contributor to these brain-gut conditions. Serotonin has long been recognized for its critical functions in CNS development...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Del Colle A, Israelyan N, Gross Margolis KG Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Development of the intrinsic innervation of the small bowel mucosa and villi.
In this study, we found that Tuj1-immunoreactive neurites begin to project out of the myenteric plexus at embryonic day (E)13.5 in the mouse small intestine, even before the formation of villi. Using live calcium imaging, we discovered that neurites were capable of transmitting electrical information from stimulated villi to the plexus by E15.5. In unpeeled gut preparations where all layers were left intact, we also mimicked the basolateral release of 5-HT from enteroendocrine cells, which triggered responses in myenteric cell bodies at postnatal day (P)0. Altogether, our results show that enteric neurons extend neurites o...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hao MM, Fung C, Boesmans W, Lowette K, Tack J, Vanden Berghe P Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

BDNF augments rat internal anal sphincter smooth muscle tone via RhoA/ROCK signaling, and non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic relaxation via increased NO release.
In conclusion, the net effect of BDNF was it caused an increase in the basal IAS tone via RhoA/ROCK signaling. BDNF also augmented NANC relaxation via NO/sGC. These findings may have relevance to the role of BDNF in the pathophysiology and therapeutic targeting of the IAS-associated rectoanal motility disorders. PMID: 31682160 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Singh A, Mohanty I, Singh J, Rattan S Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Using Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy to Evaluate Antral Contractions and Duodenal Bolus Propagation.
CONCLUSIONS: DBP activity peaks can be measured during GES with DACS but requires a 185 MBq (5 mCi) dose of Tc-99m SC radiolabelled test meal for adequate DBP signal detection and is better imaged in RAO than anterior projection. DBP over the first 60 min post meal ingestion are infrequent with only 12% of the antral contractions propagating into the duodenum. This methodology appears promising to assess APDC. PMID: 31682161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - November 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Orthey P, Dadparvar S, Kamat B, Parkman HP, Maurer AH Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

The role of the gut microbiota in liver disease.
THE ROLE OF THE GUT MICROBIOTA IN LIVER DISEASE. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Oct 28;: Authors: Albhaisi SAM, Bajaj JS, Sanyal AJ Abstract The gut microbiome is the natural intestinal inhabitant that has been recognized recently as a major player in the maintenance of human health and the pathophysiology of many diseases. Those commensals produce metabolites that have various effects on host biologic functions. Therefore, alterations in the normal composition or diversity of microbiome have been implicated in various diseases, including liver cirrhosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver dis...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - October 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Albhaisi SAM, Bajaj JS, Sanyal AJ Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; +51 new citations
51 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/08/17PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - August 17, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Alcohol-induced microtubule acetylation leads to the accumulation of large, immobile lipid droplets.
Abstract Although steatosis (fatty liver) is a clinically well-described early stage of alcoholic liver disease, surprisingly little is known about how it promotes hepatotoxicity. We have shown that ethanol consumption leads to microtubule hyperacetylation that can explain ethanol-induced defects in protein trafficking. Because almost all steps of the lipid droplet life cycle are microtubule dependent and because microtubule acetylation promotes adipogenesis, we examined droplet dynamics in ethanol-treated cells. In WIF-B cells treated with ethanol and/or oleic acid (a fatty acid associated with the "Western&...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - August 2, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Groebner JL, Giron-Bravo MT, Rothberg ML, Adhikari R, Tuma DJ, Tuma PL Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Perturbations of urea cycle enzymes during post-hepatectomy rat liver failure.
Conclusion:At the protein level, we found perturbations of urea cycle and related enzymes in the MSFLR during PHLF. Our results suggest that these perturbations may augment urea cycle function which may be pivotal for increased ammonia elimination after extensive PHs and potential PHLF. PMID: 31373508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - August 2, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Meier M, Knudsen AR, Andersen KJ, Ludvigsen M, Lykke Eriksen P, Pedersen AKN, Honoré B, Mortensen FV Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Heart failure developed after myocardial infarction does not affect gut microbiota composition in the rat.
do HC Abstract There is a body of evidence that supports that gut dysbiosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Decreased cardiac function can reduce intestinal perfusion, resulting in morphological alterations witch may contribute to changes in the gut microbiota composition in heart failure (HF) patients. In this regard, a germane question is whether changes in gut microbiota composition are a cause or consequence of the cardiovascular disturbance. We tested the hypothesis that the development of HF, after myocardial infarction, would cause gut dysbiosis. Faecal samples were collected be...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 17, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lataro RM, Imori PFM, Santos ES, Silva LEV, Duarte RTD, Aguiar Silva CA, Falcão JP, Paton JFR, Salgado HC Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

The developmentally regulated fetal enterocyte gene, ZP4, mediates anti-inflammation by the symbiotic bacterial surface factor polysaccharide A on B. fragilis.
This study may lead to new opportunity for efficient treatment of NEC. PMID: 31314571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 17, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gorreja F, Rush ST, Kasper DL, Meng D, Walker WA Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; +46 new citations
46 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/07/04PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - July 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Novel Swine Model of Colonic Diverticulosis.
The objective of this study is to develop a swine model by damaging of colon wall, combined with or without low fiber diet to mimic the pathogenesis of diverticulosis. To create a weakness on the colon wall, collagenase was applied in vivo to degrade the collagen in the colon wall. Three groups of Yucatan minipigs were included: Group 1 (n=12) underwent collagenase injection (CI) with low fiber diet for 6 months. Group 2 (n=8) underwent CI alone with standard swine diet for 6 months. Group 3 (n=12) received low fiber diet alone for 6 months. We found that diverticulosis occurred in 91.7% (11/12) of pigs in CI+diet group an...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - May 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Guo X, Patel B, Han L, Al-Dulaimi H, Van Alstine WG, Noblet JN, Chambers S, Kassab GS Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Clathrin and GRK2/3 inhibitors block delta opioid receptor internalization in myenteric neurons and inhibit neuromuscular transmission in the mouse colon.
Abstract Endocytosis is a major mechanism through which cellular signaling by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is terminated. However, recent studies demonstrate that GPCRs are internalized in an active state and continue to signal from within endosomes, resulting in effects on cellular function that are distinct to those arising at the cell surface. Endocytosis inhibitors are commonly used to define the importance of GPCR internalization for physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we provide the first detailed examination of the effects of these inhibitors on neurogenic contractions of gastrointes...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - May 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: DiCello JJ, Rajasekhar P, Eriksson EM, Saito A, Gondin AB, Veldhuis NA, Canals M, Carbone SE, Poole DP Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Gut and immune effects of bioactive milk factors in preterm pigs exposed to prenatal inflammation.
In conclusion, bioactive milk ingredients exerted only modest effects on gut and systemic immune parameters in preterm pigs exposed to prenatal inflammation. Short-term, prenatal exposure to inflammation may render the gut less sensitive to immune-modulatory milk effects. PMID: 31091150 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - May 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ren S, Hui Y, Goericke-Pesch S, Pankratova S, Kot W, Pan X, Thymann T, Sangild PT, Nguyen DN Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Altered gastric tone and motility response to brainstem dopamine in a rat model of parkinsonism.
Abstract The majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Recently, we described a nigro-vagal pathway, which uses dopaminergic (DA) inputs to dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and A2 area neurons to modulate gastric motility and tone. This pathway is disrupted in a rodent model of PD. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that brainstem dopaminergic modulation of gastric tone and motility is altered in a rodent model of PD. Male Sprague Dawley rats received 3 weekly intraperitoneal injections of 10mg/kg paraquat (PQ) or saline (control). In na...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - May 1, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Bove C, Anselmi L, Travagli RA Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Perinatal High Fat Diet Alters Development of GABAA Receptor Subunits in the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus.
This study suggests that pHFD exposure arrests the development of synaptic GABAA a2/3 receptor subunits on DMV neurons, and that functional synaptic expression is maintained into adulthood, although cellular localization may differ. The tonic activation of slower GABAA a2/3 subunit-containing receptors implies such developmental changes may contribute to the observed decreased gastric motility. PMID: 31042399 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - May 1, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Clyburn C, Howe CA, Arnold AC, Lang CH, Travagli RA, Browning KN Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Targeted metabolomics analysis of maternal-placental-fetal metabolism in pregnant swine reveals links in fetal bile acid homeostasis and sulfation capacity.
Abstract Cholestasis of pregnancy endangers fetal and neonatal survival, yet systematic knowledge of the cause and effect of disrupted bile acid (BA) homeostasis in pregnancy is limited. Here we show that gestation stage-associated BA dysregulation in swine correlated with fetal death resulting from compromised capacity for BA secretion and increased alternative systemic efflux. The balance of BA input and output in the developing uterus suggested little uptake and metabolism of maternal BA by the placenta-fetus unit, implying a protection role of placenta in preventing maternal BA transported into fetus. We showe...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 25, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang P, Zhong H, Song Y, Yuan P, Li Y, Lin S, Zhang X, Li J, Che L, Feng B, Lin Y, Xu S, Zhuo Y, Tian G, Chen D, Wu, Burrin DG, Fang Z Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

LINC01018 confers a novel tumor-suppressor role in hepatocellular carcinoma through sponging microRNA-182-5p.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of the cancer-related mortality. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that some long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the development and progression of HCC. Herein, the current study aimed to explore the potential mechanism of LINC01018 in regulating the progression of HCC. Initially, the expression of LINC01018, microRNA-182-5p (miR-182-5p), and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) was quantified in 72 paired HCC and adjacent normal tissue samples, as well as HCC cells, followed by the identification of the interaction among them. In order to ...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 25, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang S, Xu M, Sun Z, Yu X, Deng Y, Chang H Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

The renin-angiotensin system promotes colonic inflammation by inducing TH17 activation via the JAK2/STAT pathway.
Abstract Previous studies suggest that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is pathogenic factor for colitis. The goal of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism whereby angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes colonic inflammation. We found that renin was highly induced in colonic biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, and colonic renin and Ang II levels were markedly increased in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model, indicating that the colonic RAS is activated in colitis. Renin transgenic (RenTg) mice exhibited increased phosphorylation in JAK2 and STAT1/...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - April 17, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: He L, Du J, Chen Y, Liu C, Zhou M, Adhikari S, Rubin DT, Pekow J, Li YC Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Intra-pancreatic fat deposition and visceral fat volume are associated with the presence of diabetes after acute pancreatitis.
Abstract Ectopic fat and abdominal adiposity phenotypes have never been investigated holistically in individuals after acute pancreatitis (AP). The aim of the study was to investigate phenotypic differences in ectopic fat and abdominal fat between individuals after AP (with and without diabetes) and to determine the role of pancreatitis-related factors. Eighty-four individuals were studied cross-sectionally in, on average, 21 months since last episode of AP and were categorized into 'diabetes' and 'no diabetes' groups. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were also recruited. Using magnetic resonance imaging, intra-pan...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - March 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Singh RG, Cervantes A, Kim JU, Nguyen NN, DeSouza SV, Dokpuang D, Lu J, Petrov MS Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Multi-transcriptomes analyses reveal prioritized genes specifically associated with liver fibrosis progression independent of etiology.
Abstract Elimination or suppression of causative factors can raise the possibility of liver fibrosis regression. However, different injurious stimuli will give fibrosis from somewhat different etiologies, which, in-turn, may hamper the discovery of liver fibrosis-specific therapeutic drugs. Therefore, the analogical cellular and molecular events shared by various etiologies-evoked liver fibrosis should be clarified. Our present study systematically integrated five public available transcriptomic datasets regarding liver fibrosis with different etiologies from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and performed a...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - March 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chen W, Wu X, Yan X, Xu A, Yang A, You H Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Translational and transcriptional responses in human primary hepatocytes under hypoxia.
Abstract The liver is the primary source of a large number of plasma proteins and plays a critical role in multiple biological processes. Inadequate oxygen supply characterizing various clinical settings such as liver transplantation exposes the liver to hypoxic conditions. Studies assessing hypoxia-induced global translational changes in liver are lacking. Here, we employed a recently developed ribosome profiling technique to assess global translational responses of human primary hepatocytes exposed to acute hypoxic stress (1% O2) for short term. In parallel, transcriptome profiling was performed to assess mRNA e...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - March 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hettiarachchi GK, Katneni UK, Hunt RC, Kames JM, Athey JC, Bar H, Sauna ZE, McGill JR, Ibla JC, Kimchi-Sarfaty C Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Effect of bacterial flagellin on thiamin uptake by human and mouse pancreatic acinar cells: Inhibition mediated at the level of transcription of THTR-1 and 2.
Abstract Thiamin (vitamin B1) is essential for normal cellular metabolism and function. Pancreatic acinar cells (PACs) obtain thiamin from circulation, via a specific carrier-mediated process that involves the plasma membrane thiamin transporters -1 and -2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; products of SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes, respectively). There is nothing known about the effect of bacterial products/toxins on thiamin uptake by PACs. We addressed this issue in the current investigation by examining the effect of the bacterial flagellin on physiological and molecular parameters of the thiamin uptake by PACs. We used human pri...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - March 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Srinivasan P, Anandam KY, Ramesh V, Geltz ET, Said HM Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture via Chronically Implanted Electrodes Improves Gastrointestinal Motility by Balancing Sympathovagal Activities in a Rat Model of Constipation.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported for treating constipation in clinical studies. However, little is known on possible mechanisms involved in the prokinetic effect of EA. AIMS: To investigate the effects and underlying autonomic mechanisms of EA via chronically implanted electrodes for constipation rat induced by Loperamide (Lop). METHODS: Lop was given to regular rats to induce constipation. EA was performed via a pair of electrodes chronically implanted at bilateral acupoint ST36. Feces characteristics, gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, distal colon transit time (d...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - March 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang X, Yang B, Yin J, Wei W, Chen JD Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

FXR agonist GW4064 improves the liver and intestinal pathology and alters bile acid metabolism in rats undergoing small intestinal resection.
Abstract Mortality associated with liver disease was observed in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS); however, its mechanism remains unclear. Bile acid (BA) dysmetabolism may be one of the putative mechanisms, and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is the key regulator of BA synthesis. Here, we showed that in a rat model of small bowel resection associated with liver disease (SBR-ALD), BA composition of hepatic tissues reflected a larger proportion of primary and secondary unconjugated BAs, and those of colon contents and serum showed an increased ratio of secondary unconjugated BAs. Both hepatic and intestinal regul...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - March 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cao Y, Xiao Y, Zhou K, Yan J, Wang P, Yan W, Cai W Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Differential Action of TGR5 Agonists on GLP-2 Secretion and Promotion of Intestinal Adaptation in Piglet Short Bowel Model.
In conclusion, UA is an effective oral GLP-2 secretagogue in parenterally-fed pigs but was not capable of augmenting GLP-2 secretion nor the intestinal adaptation response after massive small bowel resection. PMID: 30920308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - March 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lin S, Stoll B, Robinson J, Pastor JJ, Marini JC, Ipharraguerre IR, Hartmann B, Holst JJ, Cruz SM, Lau PE, Olutoye OO, Fang Z, Burrin DG Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

TCF21 inhibits tumor-associated angiogenesis and suppresses the growth of cholangiocarcinoma by targeting PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: TCF21 presents anti-angiogenic activities and thus, elevating TCF21 expression may provide therapeutic benefits for CCA. PMID: 30920845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - March 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Duan HX, Li BW, Zhuang X, Wang LT, Cao Q, Tan LH, Qu GF, Xiao S Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Intestinal serine protease inhibition increases FGF21 and improves metabolism in obese mice.
Abstract Trypsin is the major serine protease responsible for intestinal protein digestion. An inhibitor, camostat (CS), reduced weight gain, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in obese rats; however, the mechanisms for this are largely unknown. We reasoned that CS creates an apparent dietary protein restriction, which is known to increase hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Therefore, metabolic responses to CS and a gut-restricted CS metabolite, FOY-251, were measured in mice. Food intake, body weight, blood glucose, branched chain amino acids (LC/MS), hormone levels (ELISA), liver pathology (histology) and ...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - March 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Albarazanji K, Jennis M, Cavanaugh CR, Lang W, Singh B, Lanter JC, Lenhard JM, Hornby PJ Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; +44 new citations
44 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/02/27PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - February 27, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Ameliorates Hyperhomocysteinemia-Induced Hepatic Steatosis by Enhancing β-oxidation of Fatty Acid in Mice.
Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Ameliorates Hyperhomocysteinemia-Induced Hepatic Steatosis by Enhancing β-oxidation of Fatty Acid in Mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Feb 21;: Authors: Yao L, Cao B, Cheng Q, Cai W, Ye C, Liang J, Liu W, Tan L, Yan M, Li B, He J, Hwang SH, Zhang X, Wang C, Ai D, Hammock BD, Zhu Y Abstract Hepatic steatosis is the beginning phase of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a significant risk factor. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and other epoxy fatty acids, attenuat...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - February 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yao L, Cao B, Cheng Q, Cai W, Ye C, Liang J, Liu W, Tan L, Yan M, Li B, He J, Hwang SH, Zhang X, Wang C, Ai D, Hammock BD, Zhu Y Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

The Role of Ketone Signaling in the Hepatic Response to Fasting.
Abstract Ketosis is a metabolic adaptation to fasting, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and prolonged exercise. β-OH butyrate acts as a transcriptional regulator and at G-protein coupled receptors to modulate cellular signaling pathways in a hormone-like manner. While physiological ketosis is often adaptive, chronic hyperketonemia may contribute to the metabolic dysfunction of NAFLD. To understand how β-OH butyrate signaling affects hepatic metabolism we compared the hepatic fasting response in control and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase II (HMGCS2) knockdown mice that are unable to ele...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - February 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Geisler CE, Ghimire S, Bogan RL, Renquist BJ Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Gut microbiota in liver disease: Too much is harmful, nothing at all is not helpful either.
Abstract The intestinal microbiome plays an major role in the pathogenesis of liver disease, with a hallmark event being dysbiosis, or an imbalance of pathobionts and beneficial bacteria with the associated deleterious effects on its host. Reducing the number of intestinal bacteria with antibiotic treatment is generally advantageous in experimental liver diseases. Complete absence of intestinal microbiota as in germ-free rodents can be protective in autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatic tumors induced by chemicals; or it can exacerbate disease as in acute toxic liver injury and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. In alcoholic l...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - February 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hartmann P, Chu H, Duan Y, Schnabl B Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Mucosal RNA and Protein Expression as the next frontier in IBS: abnormal function despite morphologically intact small intestinal Mucosa.
Abstract Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the commonest gastrointestinal disorders. Although long-time considered a pure functional disorder, intense research in past years has rendered a very complex and varied array of observations indicating the presence of structural and molecular abnormalities underlying characteristic motor and sensitive changes and clinical manifestations. Analysis of gene and protein expression in the intestinal mucosa has shed light on the molecular mechanisms implicated in IBS physiopathology. This analysis uncovers constitutive and inductive genetic and epigenetic marks in the small a...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - February 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Rodino-Janeiro BK, Pardo-Camacho C, Santos J, Martinez C Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Bile acids drive colonic secretion of glucagon-like-peptide 1 and peptide-YY in rodents.
In conclusion, we demonstrate that BAs represent a major physiological stimulus for colonic L-cell secretion. PMID: 30767682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - February 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Christiansen CB, Trammell SAJ, Wewer Albrechtsen NJ, Schoonjans K, Albrechtsen R, Gillum MP, Kuhre RE, Holst JJ Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Topographical Plots of Esophageal Distension and Contraction: Effects of Posture on Esophageal Peristalsis and Bolus Transport.
CONCLUSION: Topographical contraction-distension plots derived from HRMZ recordings is a novel way to visualize esophageal peristalsis. Future studies should investigate if abnormalities of esophageal distension is the cause of functional dysphagia. PMID: 30676774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi...)
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - January 24, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zifan A, Song HJ, Youn YH, Qiu X, Ledgerwood-Lee M, Mittal RK Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Defective FXR-FGF15 signaling and bile acid homeostasis in cystic fibrosis mice can be restored by the laxative polyethylene glycol.
Abstract The gastrointestinal phenotype of cystic fibrosis (CF) features intestinal bile acid (BA) malabsorption, impaired intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation and consequently reduced fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19, FGF15 in mice) production. The osmotic laxative polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to decrease intestinal mucus accumulation in CF mice and could, by doing so, improve BA reabsorption. Here we determined the effect of PEG on BA excretion and FXR-FGF15 signaling in CF mice. Male Cftr-/-tm1Unc (CF) and wild type (WT) littermates were administered PEG 4000 in drinking water and fed ...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - January 17, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Bertolini A, van de Peppel IP, Doktorova-Demmin M, Bodewes FAJA, de Jonge HR, Bijvelds MJC, Verkade HJ, Jonker JW Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research