The Authors Reply.
artge P, Park Y, Abnet CC, Freedman ND PMID: 31318018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Authors Reply. Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Use of Median Age at Death to Assess HIV mortality.
PMID: 31318019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Xia Q, Ramaswamy C, Torian LV Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Using Serosurvey Data Triangulation for More Accurate Vaccine Coverage Estimates: Measured and Modeled Coverage from Pakistan Household Survey.
Abstract Household surveys remain an essential method for estimating vaccine coverage in developing countries. However, the resulting estimates have inevitable and currently unmeasurable information biases from inaccuracies in recall, low retention of home-based health records (HBR, i.e. vaccination cards), and inaccurate recording of vaccination onto HBRs. We developed an innovative method to overcome these biases, enhance the validity of survey results and estimate true vaccine coverage using nested serological immune marker assessments. We enrolled children 12-23 months of age in vaccine coverage surveys in Kar...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gong W, Hayford K, Shah MT, Iqbal J, Moss WJ, Moulton LH, Chandir S, O'Brien KL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response by Florido and Selvin to Commentary regarding article: "Cancer Survivorship and Subclinical Myocardial Damage: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study".
Response by Florido and Selvin to Commentary regarding article: "Cancer Survivorship and Subclinical Myocardial Damage: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Jul 08;: Authors: Florido R, Selvin E PMID: 31282936 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Florido R, Selvin E Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Cancer Survivorship and Subclinical Myocardial Damage.
Abstract The rate of cardiovascular disease among cancer survivors is higher than in the general population. This difference is due to traditional CVD risk factors and also to the cardiotoxicity of cancer treatment. In a population-based cohort study of 3,512 men and women who were free of CVD at visit 5, Florido et al. evaluated the association of cancer survivorship with subclinical myocardial damage, as assessed by elevated high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT). Cancer survivors had significantly higher odds of elevated hs-cTnT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.53). Results w...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Coughlin SS, Kapuku G Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Effect of Reverse Causality and Selective Attrition on the Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Mortality in Postmenopausal Women.
The objective of this manuscript is to investigate methodological explanations for the apparent attenuation of obesity-related risks in older adults. We used data from 68,132 participants from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial in this analysis. All of the participants were postmenopausal women aged 50-79 at baseline (1993-1998). To examine reverse causality and selective attrition, we compared rate ratios from inverse probability of treatment (IPTW) and censoring (IPCW) weighted Poisson marginal structural models to results from an unweighted adjusted Poisson regression model. The estimated mortality rate ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Banack HR, Bea JW, Kaufman JS, Stokes A, Kroenke CH, Stefanick ML, Beresford SA, Bird CE, Garcia L, Wallace R, Wild RA, Caan B, Wactawski-Wende J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Metformin Treatment and Cancer Risk: Cox Regression Analysis with Time-Dependent Covariates of 320,000 Individuals with Incident Diabetes Mellitus.
Abstract There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between metformin use and cancer risk in diabetic patients. During 2002-2012, we followed a cohort of 315,890 incident diabetic individuals aged 21-87 years insured in the largest health maintenance organization in Israel. We used a discrete form of the weighted cumulative metformin exposure to evaluate its association with cancer incidence. This was implemented in a time-dependent covariate Cox model, adjusting for treatments with other glucose lowering medications, as well as age, sex, ethnic background, socioeconomic status, smoking (for bladder a...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dankner R, Agay N, Olmer L, Murad H, Boker LK, Balicer RD, Freedman LS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

American Journal of Epidemiology-Some Changes, Same Commitment to Excellence.
PMID: 31260073 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schisterman EF Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Change in Leadership of the American Journal of Epidemiology.
PMID: 31260074 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Celentano DD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Time of Change.
PMID: 31260075 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Szklo M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Impact and Effectiveness of State-level Tuberculosis interventions in California, Florida, New York and Texas: A model-based analysis.
Abstract The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) disease in the United States has stabilized, and additional interventions are needed to make progress toward TB elimination. But the impact of such interventions depends on local demography and heterogeneity in populations at risk. Using state-level individual-based TB transmission models, calibrated to California, Florida, New York, and Texas, we modeled two TB interventions: (i) Increased targeted testing and treatment (TTT) of high-risk populations, including people who are non-US-born, diabetic, HIV-positive, homeless, or incarcerated; and (ii) Enhanced TB contact in...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 28, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Shrestha S, Cherng S, Hill AN, Reynolds S, Flood J, Barry PM, Readhead A, Oxtoby M, Lauzardo M, Privett T, Marks SM, Dowdy DW Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Impact of Public Transportation Use on Cognitive Function in Older Age: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of the Free Bus Pass Policy in the UK.
Abstract This quasi-experimental study examines whether the introduction of an age-friendly transportation policy, free bus passes for older adults, increased public transport use and in turn impacted cognitive function among older people in England. Data comes from 7 waves (2002-2014) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n =17,953), which measures global cognitive function, memory, executive function, and processing speed before and after the bus pass was introduced in 2006. The analytical strategy is an instrumental variable approach with fixed effects, which exploits the age-eligibility criteria for fre...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 28, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Reinhard E, Carrino L, Courtin E, van Lenthe F, Avendano M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +21 new citations
21 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/06/26PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Estimating the True Burden of Legionnaires' Disease.
Abstract Over the past decade, the reported incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in the Northeastern US has increased, reaching 1-3 cases per 100,000. There is reason to suspect this is an underestimate of the true burden as cases may be underdiagnosed. In this analysis of pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations (P&I), we estimate the percentage of cases due to Legionella, influenza and RSV by age group. We fit mixed effects models to estimate attributable percentage using weekly time series data of P&I hospitalizations in Connecticut from 2000 to 2014. Model-fitted values were used to calculate estima...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cassell K, Gacek P, Rabatsky-Ehr T, Petit S, Cartter M, Weinberger DM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mortality Risks of Dual- and Poly-Tobacco Product Users in the United States.
We examined these associations by pooling nationally-representative data from the 1991, 1992, 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys (n=118,144). Mortality information was obtained by linkage to the National Death Index. Cigarette smokers who additionally used other tobacco products smoked as many if not more cigarettes per day than exclusive cigarette smokers. Furthermore, cigarette smokers who additionally used other tobacco products had mortality risks that were as high and sometimes higher than exclusive cigarette smokers. As tobacco use patterns continue to change and diversify, future studies ne...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Choi K, Inoue-Choi M, McNeel TS, Freedman ND Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +35 new citations
35 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/06/20PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Jointly Representing Geographic Exposure and Outcome Data Using Cartograms.
PMID: 31172181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tran NK, Goldstein ND Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Family History-Wide Association Study ("FamWAS") for Identifying Clinical and Environmental Risk Factors for Common Chronic Diseases.
Family History-Wide Association Study ("FamWAS") for Identifying Clinical and Environmental Risk Factors for Common Chronic Diseases. Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Jun 07;: Authors: Rasooly D, Ioannidis JPA, Khoury MJ, Patel CJ Abstract Family history is a strong risk factor for many common chronic diseases and summarizes shared environmental and genetic risk, but how this increased risk is mediated is unknown. We developed a "Family History-Wide Association Study" (FamWAS) to systematically and comprehensively test Clinical and Environmental Quantitative Traits (CEQTs) for their associatio...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rasooly D, Ioannidis JPA, Khoury MJ, Patel CJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Two-phase, generalized case-control designs for quantitative longitudinal outcomes.
We describe ascertainment corrected maximum likelihood and multiple imputation estimation procedures that permit valid and efficient inferences. We embed all methodological developments within the framework of conducting a sub-study that seeks to examine genetic associations with lung function in continuously smoking participants in the Lung Health Study. PMID: 31165875 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schildcrout JS, Haneuse S, Tao R, Zelnick LR, Schisterman EF, Garbett SP, Mercaldo ND, Rathouz PJ, Heagerty PJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Consortium of Metabolomics Studies (COMETS): Metabolomics in 47 Prospective Cohort Studies.
E, Hsing AW, Johansson M, Kelly RS, Khoo CM, Kivimäki M, Kristal BS, Langenberg C, Lasky-Su J, Lawlor DA, Lotta LA, Mangino M, Le Marchand L, Mathé E, Matthews CE, Menni C, Mucci LA, Murphy R, Oresic M, Orwoll E, Ose J, Pereira AC, Playdon MC, Poston L, Price J, Qi Q, Rexrode K, Risch A, Sampson J, Seow WJ, Sesso HD, Shah SH, Shu XO, Smith GCS, Sovio U, Stevens VL, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Takebayashi T, Tillin T, Travis R, Tzoulaki I, Ulrich CM, Vasan RS, Verma M, Wang Y, Wareham NJ, Wong A, Younes N, Zhao H, Zheng W, Moore SC Abstract The Consortium of Metabolomics Studies (COMETS) was established in ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yu B, Zanetti KA, Temprosa M, Albanes D, Appel N, Barrera CB, Ben-Shlomo Y, Boerwinkle E, Casas JP, Clish C, Dale C, Dehghan A, Derkach A, Eliassen AH, Elliott P, Fahy E, Gieger C, Gunter MJ, Harada S, Harris T, Herr DR, Herrington D, Hirschhorn JN, Hoove Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Association of Social Isolation on the Risk of Stroke among Middle-aged and Older Adults in China.
Abstract Given there is limited research examining the specific role social isolation plays in stroke risk, we aimed to estimate the controlled direct effect of social isolation on stroke risk in China. A nationally representative sample (n=12,662) of individuals aged 45 and older (at baseline, 2011; with corresponding follow-ups in 2013 and 2015), was taken from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Stroke was assessed through self- or proxy-reported physician diagnosis. Social isolation was measured by incorporating marital status; frequency of contact with friends, family, and children; and partic...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zhou Z, Lin C, Ma J, Towne SD, Han Y, Fang Y Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

E-Values and quantitative epistemology.
PMID: 31150042 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Trinquart L, Galea S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "Associations of Electric Shock and Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure With the Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: The Euro-MOTOR Project".
Re: "Associations of Electric Shock and Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure With the Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: The Euro-MOTOR Project". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 May 31;: Authors: Su L, Jin Y, Lou H, Chen G PMID: 31150043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Su L, Jin Y, Lou H, Chen G Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Scaling-up Hepatitis C Prevention and Treatment Interventions for Achieving Elimination in the United States - a Rural and Urban Comparison.
Abstract In the U.S. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission is increasing among people who inject drugs (PWID). Many regions have insufficient prevention intervention coverage. Using modelling, we investigate the impact of scaling-up prevention and treatment interventions on HCV transmission among PWID in Perry County, Kentucky (PC), and San Francisco, California (SF), where HCV sero-prevalence among PWID is>50%. A greater proportion of PWID access medication-assisted treatment (MAT) or syringe service programs (SSP) in urban SF (established community) than rural PC (young, expanding community). We model the prop...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fraser H, Vellozzi C, Hoerger TJ, Evans JL, Kral AH, Havens J, Young AM, Stone J, Handanagic S, Hariri S, Barbosa C, Hickman M, Leib A, Martin NK, Nerlander L, Raymond HF, Page K, Zibbell J, Ward JW, Vickerman P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

"A brief case against application of the E-value to Epidemiologic fields."
"A brief case against application of the E-value to Epidemiologic fields." Am J Epidemiol. 2019 May 31;: Authors: Hamra GB PMID: 31150048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hamra GB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +28 new citations
28 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/05/30PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Association Between Serum β-alanine and Risk of Dementia: the Hisayama Study.
In conclusion, higher serum β-alanine levels were significantly associated with lower risks of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Since serum β-alanine levels reflect the intakes of carnosine/anserine, higher intakes of carnosine/anserine may be beneficial for the prevention of dementia. PMID: 31127276 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hata J, Ohara T, Katakura Y, Shimizu K, Yamashita S, Yoshida D, Honda T, Hirakawa Y, Shibata M, Sakata S, Kitazono T, Kuhara S, Ninomiya T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations of occupant motor vehicle crash with future heart failure and ischemic stroke in older adults.
ASSOCIATIONS OF OCCUPANT MOTOR VEHICLE CRASH WITH FUTURE HEART FAILURE AND ISCHEMIC STROKE IN OLDER ADULTS. Am J Epidemiol. 2019 May 21;: Authors: Kalesan B, Andersson C, Torp-Pedersen C, Gislason GH, Vasan RS PMID: 31111859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kalesan B, Andersson C, Torp-Pedersen C, Gislason GH, Vasan RS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Cesarean Delivery and Hypertension in Early Adulthood.
Abstract The rate of cesarean delivery (CD) is high in many parts of the world. Birth via CD has been associated with adverse later health outcomes, such as obesity, asthma, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Few studies have focused on hypertension. We investigated the associations of CD with hypertension, systolic blood pressure (BP), and diastolic BP and tested whether body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) was a mediator of these associations in a birth cohort (n = 2,020) assembled in 1978-1979 and followed up in 2002-2004 in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. The CD rate was 32.0%. Hypertension was present in ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ferraro AA, Barbieri MA, da Silva AAM, Goldani MZ, Fernandes MTB, Cardoso VC, Stein AD, Bettiol H Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Time-Varying Exposure to Ozone and Risk of Stillbirth in a Nonattainment Urban Region.
We examined multipollutant models (with fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide) and effect measure modification by race/ethnicity and length of gestation. We found a 9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1, 18) increased stillbirth risk associated with a 3.6-parts-per-billion increase in O3 exposure. The risk was higher among women with pregnancies of
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rammah A, Whitworth KW, Han I, Chan W, Symanski E Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Flexible Modeling of the Association Between Cumulative Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation from Cardiac Procedures and the Malignancy Risk in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.
Abstract Adults with congenital heart disease are increasingly exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) from cardiac procedures. A recent study reported an association between increased LDIR exposure and cancer incidence, but did not explore their temporal relationships. Yet, the impact of past exposures likely cumulates over years, and its strength may depend on the time elapsed since exposure. Furthermore, LDIR procedures performed shortly before the cancer diagnosis may be ordered because of early symptoms of cancer, raising concerns about reversal causality bias. To address these challenges, we combined f...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Danieli C, Cohen S, Liu A, Pilote L, Guo L, Beauchamp ME, Marelli AJ, Abrahamowicz M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Early-life Growth and Benign Breast Disease.
Abstract Body size in adolescence has been inversely associated with benign breast disease(BBD) and breast cancer risk, but little is known about the impact of growth in infancy and childhood. Using prospective data from the Early Determinants of Mammographic Density(EDMD) study (1959-2008, n=1121), we examined the associations between maternal body size, birth size and infant and early childhood growth during three time periods(0-4 months, 4-12 months, and 1-4 years) and BBD using multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. 197 women(17.6%) reported receiving a diagnosis of BBD by a p...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Goldberg M, Cohn BA, Houghton LC, Flom JD, Wei Y, Cirillo P, Michels KB, Terry MB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Preterm Birth in California: Identification of Critical Exposure Windows.
This study aims to identify critical exposure windows for weekly PM2.5 exposure and PTB in California using the California Birth Cohort from 2005-2010. Associations were assessed using distributed lag Cox proportional hazard models. We assessed effect measure modification by race/ethnicity by calculating the weekly relative excess risk due to interaction. For a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure over the entire gestation, PTB risk increased by 11% (HR: 1.11, 95% CI 1.09, 1.14). Gestational weeks 17-24 and 36 were associated with increased vulnerability to PM2.5 exposure. We find that non-Hispanic Black mothers may be m...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sheridan P, Ilango S, Bruckner TA, Wang Q, Basu R, Benmarhnia T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

You Can't Drive a Car with Only Three Wheels.
The objective of this commentary is to emphasize that you can't drive a car with only three wheels and you also can't estimate a causal effect in the presence of exposure misclassification bias. PMID: 31107525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Banack HR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Methodological Challenges When Studying Distance to Care as an Exposure in Health Research.
We describe how these issues can arise and propose sensitivity analyses for estimating the degree of bias. PMID: 31107529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Caniglia EC, Zash R, Swanson SA, Wirth KE, Diseko M, Mayondi G, Lockman S, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Dryden-Peterson S, Kponee-Shovein KZ, John O, Murray EJ, Shapiro RL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Maternal Obesity, Birth Size, and Risk of Childhood Cancer Development.
We examined whether birth certificate-derived maternal anthropometric characteristics are associated with increased risk of subsequent childhood cancer development, accounting for established maternal and infant risk factors. Pennsylvania birth and cancer registry files were linked by the state Department of Health, yielding a virtual cohort of births and childhood cancers from 2003 through 2016. The analysis included 1,827,875 infants (13,785,309 person-years at risk), with 2,352 children diagnosed with any cancer and 747 with leukemia before age 14. Children born to mothers with a body mass index ≥40 kg/m2 had 57% (12...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Stacy SL, Buchanich JM, Ma ZQ, Mair C, Robertson L, Sharma RK, Talbott EO, Yuan JM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mass Gatherings and Diarrheal Disease Transmission among Rural Communities in Coastal Ecuador.
Abstract Mass gatherings exacerbate infectious disease risks by creating crowded, high-contact conditions, and straining the capacity of local infrastructure. While mass gatherings have been extensively studied in the context of epidemic disease transmission, the role of gatherings in incidence of high-burden, endemic infections has not been previously studied. Here, we examine diarrheal incidence among seventeen communities in Esmeraldas, Ecuador, in relation to recurrent gatherings characterized using ethnographic data collected during and after the epidemiological surveillance period (2004-2007). Using distribu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Collender PA, Morris C, Glenn-Finer R, Acevedo A, Chang HH, Trostle JA, Eisenberg JNS, Remais JV Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Interpretation of the Individual Effect Under Treatment Spillover.
Abstract Some interventions are intended to benefit both individuals and the groups to which they belong. When a treatment to one individual exerts a causal effect on others, the treatment is said to exhibit spillover, dissemination, or interference. However, defining meaningful causal effects under spillover can be challenging. In this commentary, we discuss the meaning of the "individual effect", a quantity proposed to summarize the effect of treatment on the individual who receives it, when spillover may be present. PMID: 31094425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Crawford FW, Morozova O, Buchanan AL, Spiegelman D Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Impact of the Revised WIC Food Package on Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Postpartum.
We examined nutritional outcomes among a cohort of 1,454 women recruited during pregnancy in 2006-2011 in Memphis and surrounding Shelby County, Tennessee. We found improvements in several measures of dietary quality and nutrient intake during pregnancy, although these did not persist into the postpartum period. Results were robust to numerous sensitivity analyses. At a time when federal WIC funding is threatened, this study provides some of the first evidence of the benefits of recent WIC revisions among low-income women. PMID: 31094428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hamad R, Batra A, Karasek D, LeWinn KZ, Bush NR, Davis RL, Tylavsky FA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Does Season of Reported Dietary Intake Influence Diet Quality? Analysis From the Women's Health Initiative.
Abstract We evaluated the role of seasonality in self-reported diet quality among postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). A total of 156,911 women completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at enrollment (1993-1998). FFQ responses reflected intake over the prior 3-month period, and seasons were defined as spring (March-May), summer (June-August), fall (September-November), and winter (December-February). FFQ data were used to calculate the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), a measure of diet quality that has a score range of 2.5-87.5, with higher scores representing bette...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Crane TE, Latif YA, Wertheim BC, Kohler LN, Garcia DO, Rhee JJ, Seguin R, Kazlauskaite R, Shikany JM, Thomson CA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +40 new citations
40 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/05/10PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Force-of-infection and True Infection Rate of Dengue in Singapore - its implication on dengue control and management.
Abstract National dengue notifications do not capture all dengue infections and do not reflect the true intensity of disease transmission. To assess the true infections and disease control efforts in Singapore, age-stratified serosurveys were conducted among residents after the largest dengue outbreak in 2013. The age-weighted dengue IgG prevalence among residents was 49.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 48.4, 51.1) in 2013 and 48.6% (95% CI: 47.0, 50.0) in 2017, with increased prevalence with age. Combining these data with those from previous serosurveys, the year-on-year estimates of dengue force of infection (F...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tan LK, Low SL, Sun H, Shi Y, Liu L, Lam S, Tan HH, Ang LW, Wong WY, Chua R, Teo D, Ng LC, Cook AR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Predictive Value of Ov16 Antibody Prevalence in Different Sub-Populations for Elimination of African Onchocerciasis.
Abstract The World Health Organization currently recommends to evaluate elimination of onchocerciasis by testing whether Ov16 antibody prevalence in 0-9-year-old children is below 0.1%. However, the certainty of evidence for this recommendation is considered to be low. We use the established ONCHOSIM model to investigate the predictive value of different Ov16 antibody prevalence thresholds in various age groups for elimination of onchocerciasis in a variety of endemic settings and for various mass drug administration scenarios. According to our simulations, the predictive value of Ov16 antibody prevalence for elim...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Coffeng LE, Stolk WA, Golden A, de Los Santos T, Domingo GJ, de Vlas SJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The impact of three years of targeted IRS with pirimiphos-methyl on malaria parasite prevalence in a high-transmission area of northern Zambia.
Abstract Malaria transmission in northern Zambia has increased in the past decade despite malaria control activities. Evidence-based intervention strategies are needed to effectively reduce malaria transmission. Zambia's National Malaria Control Centre conducted targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province from 2014-2016 using the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. An evaluation of the IRS campaign was conducted by the Southern Africa International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research using actively detected malaria cases in bimonthly household surveys from Apri...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hast MA, Chaponda M, Muleba M, Kabuya JB, Lupiya J, Kobayashi T, Shields T, Lessler J, Mulenga M, Stevenson JC, Norris DE, Moss WJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Using the Self-Controlled Tree-Temporal Scan Statistic to Assess the Safety of Live Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine.
Abstract The self-controlled tree-temporal scan statistic allows detection of potential vaccine- or drug-associated adverse events without pre-specifying the specific events or post-exposure risk intervals of concern. It thus opens a promising new avenue for safety studies. The method has been successfully used to evaluate the safety of two vaccines for adolescents and young adults, but its suitability to study vaccines for older adults had not been established. The current study applied the method to assess the safety of live attenuated herpes zoster vaccination during 2011-2017 in U.S. adults ≥ 60 years old, ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yih WK, Kulldorff M, Dashevsky I, Maro JC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Racial Discrimination, Disease Activity, and Organ Damage: The Black Women's Experiences Living with Lupus (BeWELL) Study.
This study examined if racial discrimination is associated with disease outcomes among 427 African American women with a validated diagnosis of SLE in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area, recruited to the Black Women's Experiences Living with Lupus (BeWELL) Study (2015-2017). Frequency of self-reported experiences of racial discrimination in domains such as employment, housing, and medical settings was assessed using the Experiences of Discrimination measure. SLE activity in the previous three months, including symptoms of fatigue, fever, skin rashes, and ulcers, was measured using the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionna...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chae DH, Martz CD, Fuller-Rowell TE, Spears EC, Smith TTG, Hunter EA, Drenkard C, Lim SS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Use of Antihypertensive Medications and Survival of Breast, Colorectal, Lung, or Stomach Cancer.
Abstract Influence of antihypertensive medications on cancer survival is inconclusive. Using time-dependent Cox regression models, we examined associations of common antihypertensive medications with overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounding factors. Participants were from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS; 1996-2000) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS; 2002-2006) in Shanghai, China. Included were 2,891 incident breast, colorectal, lung, and stomach cancer cases. Medication use was extracted from electronic medical records. Median 3.4...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cui Y, Wen W, Zheng T, Li H, Gao YT, Cai H, You M, Gao J, Yang G, Zheng W, Xiang YB, Shu XO Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

An Area-Level Indicator of Latent Soda Demand: Spatial Statistical Modeling of Grocery Store Transaction Data to Characterize the Nutritional Landscape in Montreal, Canada.
Abstract Measurement of neighborhood dietary patterns at high spatial resolution allows public health agencies to identify and monitor communities with an elevated risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Currently, data on diet are obtained primarily through nutrition surveys, which produce measurements at low spatial resolutions. The availability of store-level grocery transaction data provides an opportunity to refine the measurement of neighborhood dietary patterns. We used these data to develop an indicator of area-level latent demand of soda in the Census Metropolitan Area of Montreal in 2012 by applying ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mamiya H, Schmidt AM, Moodie EEM, Ma Y, Buckeridge DL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Effect estimates in randomized trials and observational studies: comparing apples with apples.
rrin I, Wittkop L, Meyer L, Perez-Hoyos S, Justice A, Neaton JD, Hernán MA, INSIGHT START Study Group and the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration Abstract Effect estimates from randomized trials and observational studies may not be directly comparable because of differences in study design, other than randomization, and in data analysis. We propose a three-step procedure to facilitate meaningful comparisons of effect estimates from randomized trials and observational studies: 1) harmonization of the study protocol (eligibility criteria, treatment strategies, outcome, start and end of follow-up, causal contrast) so tha...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lodi S, Phillips A, Lundgren J, Logan R, Sharma S, Cole SR, Babiker A, Law M, Chu H, Byrne D, Horban A, Sterne JAC, Porter K, Sabin C, Costagliola D, Abgrall S, Gill J, Touloumi G, Pacheco AG, van Sighem A, Reiss P, Bucher HC, Montoliu Giménez A, Jarrin Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

High-sensitivity Cardiac Troponin and Natriuretic Peptide in Persons Without Cardiovascular Disease and Subsequent Risk of Infection: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Abstract Whether persons without prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) but elevated levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) are at high risk of infection is unknown. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, we estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hospitalization with infection in relation to plasma hs-cTnT and NTproBNP among participants without prevalent CVD, and contrasted with those with prevalent CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke) from 1996 through 2013. In multivariable Cox model, prevalent CVD was sign...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ishigami J, Hoogeveen RC, Ballantyne CM, Folsom AR, Coresh J, Selvin E, Matsushita K Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research