Incorporating Transmission Into Causal Models of Infectious Diseases for Improved Understanding of the Effect and Impact of Risk Factors.
Abstract Conventional measures of causality (which compare risks between exposed and unexposed individuals) do not factor in the population-scale dynamics of infectious disease transmission. We used mathematical models of 2 childhood infections (respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus) to illustrate this problem. These models incorporated 3 causal pathways whereby malnutrition could act to increase the incidence of severe infection: increasing the proportion of infected children who develop severe infection, increasing the children's susceptibility to infection, and increasing infectiousness. For risk factors th...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 2, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Paynter S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Self-Reported Sleep Duration With Actigraphy: Results From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sueño Ancillary Study.
In this study, we defined sociodemographic and sleep characteristics associated with misreporting and assessed whether accounting for these factors better explains variation in objective sleep duration among 2,086 participants in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos who completed more than 5 nights of wrist actigraphy and reported habitual bed/wake times from 2010 to 2013. Using linear regression, we examined self-report as a predictor of actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Mean amount of time spent asleep was 7.85 (standard deviation, 1.12) hours by self-report and 6.74 (standard deviation, 1.02) hours by ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 2, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cespedes EM, Hu FB, Redline S, Rosner B, Alcantara C, Cai J, Hall MH, Loredo JS, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Ramos AR, Reid KJ, Shah NA, Sotres-Alvarez D, Zee PC, Wang R, Patel SR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Airborne Pollen Concentrations and Emergency Room Visits for Myocardial Infarction: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study in Ontario, Canada.
Abstract Few studies have examined the acute cardiovascular effects of airborne allergens. We conducted a case-crossover study to evaluate the relationship between airborne allergen concentrations and emergency room visits for myocardial infarction (MI) in Ontario, Canada. In total, 17,960 cases of MI were identified between the months of April and October during the years 2004-2011. Daily mean aeroallergen concentrations (pollen and mold spores) were assigned to case and control periods using central-site monitors in each city along with daily measurements of meteorological data and air pollution (nitrogen dioxid...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 1, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Weichenthal S, Lavigne E, Villeneuve PJ, Reeves F Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Development of Surveillance Systems.
Abstract Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surve...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 28, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Henderson DA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Job Strain and the Cortisol Diurnal Cycle in MESA: Accounting for Between- and Within-Day Variability.
en SH Abstract Evidence of the link between job strain and cortisol levels has been inconsistent. This could be due to failure to account for cortisol variability leading to underestimated standard errors. Our objective was to model the relationship between job strain and the whole cortisol curve, accounting for sources of cortisol variability. Our functional mixed-model approach incorporated all available data-18 samples over 3 days-and uncertainty in estimated relationships. We used employed participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress I Study and data collected between 2002 and 2006. We us...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 22, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rudolph KE, Sánchez BN, Stuart EA, Greenberg B, Fujishiro K, Wand GS, Shrager S, Seeman T, Diez Roux AV, Golden SH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Genetic Epidemiology and Public Health: The Evolution From Theory to Technology.
Abstract Genetic epidemiology represents a hybrid of epidemiologic designs and statistical models that explicitly consider both genetic and environmental risk factors for disease. It is a relatively new field in public health; the term was first coined only 35 years ago. In this short time, the field has been through a major evolution, changing from a field driven by theory, without the technology for genetic measurement or computational capacity to apply much of the designs and methods developed, to a field driven by rapidly expanding technology in genomic measurement and computational analyses while epidemiologi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 22, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fallin MD, Duggal P, Beaty TH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +16 new citations
16 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2016/02/20PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 20, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 3 in Relation to the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From the EPIC-Potsdam Study.
Abstract Higher levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) might raise the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via binding of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), an insulin-like hormone that is involved in glucose homeostasis. We investigated serum concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and their molar ratio in relation to T2DM incidence in a nested case-cohort study within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study. We included a randomly selected subcohort of persons without T2DM at the time of blood sampling (n = 2,269) and 776 individuals with incide...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 14, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Drogan D, Schulze MB, Boeing H, Pischon T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis With a Continuous Covariate That Is Differentially Categorized Across Studies.
Abstract We propose taking advantage of methodology for missing data to estimate relationships and adjust outcomes in a meta-analysis where a continuous covariate is differentially categorized across studies. The proposed method incorporates all available data in an implementation of the expectation-maximization algorithm. We use simulations to demonstrate that the proposed method eliminates bias that would arise by ignoring a covariate and generalizes the meta-analytical approach for incorporating covariates that are not uniformly categorized. The proposed method is illustrated in an application for estimating di...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 10, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Perin J, Fischer Walker CL, Black RE, Aryee MJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Statistical Reasoning and Methods in Epidemiology to Promote Individualized Health: In Celebration of the 100th Anniversary of the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Abstract Epidemiology is concerned with determining the distribution and causes of disease. Throughout its history, epidemiology has drawn upon statistical ideas and methods to achieve its aims. Because of the exponential growth in our capacity to measure and analyze data on the underlying processes that define each person's state of health, there is an emerging opportunity for population-based epidemiologic studies to influence health decisions made by individuals in ways that take into account the individuals' characteristics, circumstances, and preferences. We refer to this endeavor as "individualized heal...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 10, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ogburn EL, Zeger SL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Epidemiology and the Tobacco Epidemic: How Research on Tobacco and Health Shaped Epidemiology.
Abstract In this article, I provide a perspective on the tobacco epidemic and epidemiology, describing the impact of the tobacco-caused disease epidemic on the field of epidemiology. Although there is an enormous body of epidemiologic evidence on the associations of smoking with health, little systematic attention has been given to how decades of research have affected epidemiology and its practice. I address the many advances that resulted from epidemiologic research on smoking and health, such as demonstration of the utility of observational designs and important parameters (the odds ratio and the population att...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 10, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Samet JM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Editorial: Gun Violence-Risk, Consequences, and Prevention.
te; M PMID: 26865264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 9, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cerdá M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Sex-Based Differences in Rates, Causes, and Predictors of Death Among Injection Drug Users in Vancouver, Canada.
Abstract In the present study, we sought to identify rates, causes, and predictors of death among male and female injection drug users (IDUs) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, during a period of expanded public health interventions. Data from prospective cohorts of IDUs in Vancouver were linked to the provincial database of vital statistics to ascertain rates and causes of death between 1996 and 2011. Mortality rates were analyzed using Poisson regression and indirect standardization. Predictors of mortality were identified using multivariable Cox regression models stratified by sex. Among the 2,317 particip...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 9, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hayashi K, Dong H, Marshall BD, Milloy MJ, Montaner JS, Wood E, Kerr T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Ancient Disease, Modern Epidemiology: A Century of Progress in Understanding and Fighting Tuberculosis.
Abstract A century's worth of efforts to better understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) and to develop new vaccines, drugs, preventive interventions, and case-finding approaches have provided important insights and helped to advance the field of epidemiology as a whole. Wade Hampton Frost developed methods for cohort analysis that formed the early basis for adjustment of confounding variables. The streptomycin trial in the United Kingdom in the 1940s introduced random allocation for participants to either the treatment or control group, ensuring blinded treatment assignment and comparable treatment groups...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 9, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zwerling A, Hanrahan C, Dowdy DW Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Editorial: Special Issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology Commemorating the Centennial of the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.
PMID: 26861237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 8, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Friedman GD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Potential Trajectory of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, an Emerging Threat to Health-Care Facilities, and the Impact of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Toolkit.
Abstract Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a group of pathogens resistant to most antibiotics and associated with high mortality, are a rising emerging public health threat. Current approaches to infection control and prevention have not been adequate to prevent spread. An important but unproven approach is to have hospitals in a region coordinate surveillance and infection control measures. Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA) simulation model and detailed Orange County, California, patient-level data on adult inpatient hospital and nursing home admissions (2011-2012), we simulated ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 8, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lee BY, Bartsch SM, Wong KF, McKinnell JA, Slayton RB, Miller LG, Cao C, Kim DS, Kallen AJ, Jernigan JA, Huang SS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Association of Socioeconomic Status With Subclinical Myocardial Damage, Incident Cardiovascular Events, and Mortality in the ARIC Study.
Abstract The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and subclinical cardiovascular disease is not well understood. Using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, we sought to evaluate the cross-sectional and prospective associations of SES, measured by annual income and educational level, with elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations (≥14 ng/L) using Poisson and multinomial logistic regressions, respectively. We used Cox proportional hazard models to compare the risks of coronary heart disease, heart failure, and mortality according to SES, stratified by base...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 8, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fretz A, Schneider AL, McEvoy JW, Hoogeveen R, Ballantyne CM, Coresh J, Selvin E Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Estimating the Severity and Subclinical Burden of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Abstract Not all persons infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) develop severe symptoms, which likely leads to an underestimation of the number of people infected and an overestimation of the severity. To estimate the number of MERS-CoV infections that have occurred in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, we applied a statistical model to a line list describing 721 MERS-CoV infections detected between June 7, 2012, and July 25, 2014. We estimated that 1,528 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1,327, 1,883) MERS-CoV infections occurred in this interval, which is 2.1 (95% CI: 1.8, 2.6) times the nu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 4, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lessler J, Salje H, Van Kerkhove MD, Ferguson NM, Cauchemez S, Rodriquez-Barraquer I, Hakeem R, Jombart T, Aguas R, Al-Barrak A, Cummings DA, MERS-CoV Scenario and Modeling Working Group Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Role of Professional Journals and Societies in the Future of a Field: A Reflection on the Partnership Between the American Journal of Epidemiology and the Society for Epidemiologic Research.
Abstract On this, the 100th anniversary of Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, we take the opportunity to reflect on the ties between the School, the American Journal of Epidemiology, and the Society for Epidemiologic Research. We discuss briefly the intersection of the School, the Journal, and the Society throughout their histories, with the aim of providing some insight into how the Journal and the Society have contributed to the evolution of the field. In so doing, we articulate the challenges that the Journal and the Society jointly face today, with an eye to finding opportunities in th...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 2, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hahn KA, Galea S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence and Young Adulthood and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
We examined the association between high levels of depressive symptoms in adolescence and T2DM in adulthood in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n =12,657). Adolescents completed the 20-item version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale during wave 1 (mean age, 16 years) and the 10-item version during follow-up (mean age, 29 years). A high level of depressive symptoms was defined as a score of 16 or higher on the 20-item version or 11 or higher on the 10-item version. T2DM was identified 13 years after baseline on the basis of either a glycated hemoglobin concentration of at leas...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 1, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Suglia SF, Demmer RT, Wahi R, Keyes KM, Koenen KC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Association of Cognitive Function With Cause-Specific Mortality in Middle and Older Age: Follow-up of Participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.
We examined the little-tested associations between general cognitive function in middle and older age and later risk of death from chronic diseases. In the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2002-2012), 11,391 study participants who were 50-100 years of age at study induction underwent a battery of cognitive tests and provided a range of collateral data. In an analytical sample of 9,204 people (4,982 women), there were 1,488 deaths during follow-up (mean duration, 9.0 years). When we combined scores from 4 cognition tests that represented 3 acknowledged key domains of cognitive functioning (memory, executive function, a...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 26, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Batty GD, Deary IJ, Zaninotto P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Using Marginal Structural Modeling to Estimate the Cumulative Impact of an Unconditional Tax Credit on Self-Rated Health.
In this study, we examined the association between total number of years of receiving New Zealand's Family Tax Credit (FTC) and self-rated health (SRH) in 6,900 working-age parents using 7 waves of New Zealand longitudinal data (2002-2009). We conducted conventional linear regression analyses, both unadjusted and adjusted for time-invariant and time-varying confounders measured at baseline, and fitted marginal structural models (MSMs) that more fully adjusted for confounders, including CAPTs. Of all participants, 5.1%-6.8% received the FTC for 1-3 years and 1.8%-3.6% for 4-7 years. In unadjusted and adjusted conventional r...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 24, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Pega F, Blakely T, Glymour MM, Carter KN, Kawachi I Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Young Adults: Findings From the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.
MR Abstract Higher vitamin D status, lower adiposity, and longer telomere length are each reportedly associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. However, direct relationships between vitamin D status (measured by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration), adiposity, and telomere length are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations of 25(OH)D and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with mean relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using data gathered on 5,096 participants from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 20, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Williams DM, Palaniswamy S, Sebert S, Buxton JL, Blakemore AI, Hyppönen E, Jarvelin MR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +17 new citations
17 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2016/01/15PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Correlates of Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Content in a General Population.
Abstract Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leads to alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis and function that might produce a decrease in mtDNA content within cells. This implies that mtDNA content might be a potential biomarker associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. However, data on correlates of mtDNA content in a general population are sparse. Our goal in the present study was to describe in a randomly recruited population sample the distribution and determinants of peripheral blood mtDNA content. From 2009 to 2013, we examined 689 persons (50.4% women; mean age = 54.4 years) rando...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 24, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Knez J, Winckelmans E, Plusquin M, Thijs L, Cauwenberghs N, Gu Y, Staessen JA, Nawrot TS, Kuznetsova T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A System Dynamics Model of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening for Prostate Cancer.
Abstract Since 2012, US guidelines have recommended against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer. However, evidence of screening benefit from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer has been inconsistent, due partly to differences in noncompliance and contamination. Using system dynamics modeling, we replicated the PLCO trial and extrapolated follow-up to 20 years. We then simulated 3 scenarios correcting for contamination in the PLCO control arm using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Res...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 24, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Palma A, Lounsbury DW, Schlecht NF, Agalliu I Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Two authors reply.
TWO AUTHORS REPLY. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Dec 18; Authors: Baker MA, Fireman BH PMID: 26684428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 18, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Baker MA, Fireman BH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "a vaccine study design selection framework for the postlicensure rapid immunization safety monitoring program".
RE: "A VACCINE STUDY DESIGN SELECTION FRAMEWORK FOR THE POSTLICENSURE RAPID IMMUNIZATION SAFETY MONITORING PROGRAM". Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Dec 18; Authors: Weng HY PMID: 26684429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 18, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Weng HY Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +25 new citations
25 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2015/12/15PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 15, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.
Abstract We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating "close" (shared conversation) and "casual" (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in childr...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 8, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dodd PJ, Looker C, Plumb ID, Bond V, Schaap A, Shanaube K, Muyoyeta M, Vynnycky E, Godfrey-Faussett P, Corbett EL, Beyers N, Ayles H, White RG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Is Traditional Chinese Exercise Associated With Lower Mortality Rates in Older People? Evidence From a Prospective Chinese Elderly Cohort Study in Hong Kong.
Abstract The inverse association of aerobic exercise with death has been well documented. However, evidence on traditional Chinese exercise (TCE) and rate of death in older Chinese is limited. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess the associations of TCE and other types of physical activity with death from all causes and specific causes in a population-based prospective cohort of 66,820 Chinese persons (≥65 years of age) who were enrolled between July 1998 and December 2001 at all 18 Elderly Health Centers in Hong Kong and followed up until May 31, 2012. During an average of 10.9 years of fol...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 8, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Shen C, Lee SY, Lam TH, Schooling CM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Potential Misclassification of Blood Pressure Status in Children and Adolescents With Short or Tall Stature.
Abstract Blood pressure (BP) is measured in percentiles that are adjusted for sex, age, and height percentile in children and adolescents. Standard tables for the conversion of BP percentiles do not present exact BP percentile cutoffs for extremes in stature, either short (95th percentile). An algorithm can be used to calculate exact BP percentiles across a range of height z scores. We compared values from standard BP tables with exact calculations of BP percentiles to see which were better at identifying hypertension in more than 5,000 children with either short or tall stature. Study subjects were 3-17-year-old ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 8, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Parker ED, Sinaiko AR, O'Connor PJ, Ekstrom H, Appana D, Amundson J, Kharbanda EO Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Muscle Quality and Myosteatosis: Novel Associations With Mortality Risk: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study.
This study shows that muscle composition is associated with mortality risk. These results also show the importance of improving muscle strength and area and lowering muscle adipose tissue infiltration. PMID: 26643983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 6, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Reinders I, Murphy RA, Brouwer IA, Visser M, Launer L, Siggeirsdottir K, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Jonsson PV, Lang TF, Harris TB, Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Prospective Study of Mortality and Trauma-Related Risk Factors Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Vietnam Veterans.
Abstract Because Vietnam veterans comprise the majority of all living veterans and most are now older adults, the urgency and potential value of studying the long-term health effects of service in the Vietnam War, including effects on mortality, is increasing. The present study is the first prospective mortality assessment of a representative sample of Vietnam veterans. We used one of the longest follow-up periods to date (spanning older adulthood) and conducted one of the most comprehensive assessments of potential risk factors. Vital status and cause of death were ascertained for the 1,632 veterans who fought in...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 2, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schlenger WE, Corry NH, Williams CS, Kulka RA, Mulvaney-Day N, DeBakey S, Murphy CM, Marmar CR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Balancing Contamination and Referral Bias in a Randomized Clinical Trial: An Application of Pseudo-Cluster Randomization.
Abstract In randomized trials of provider-focused clinical interventions, treatment allocation often cannot be blinded to participants, study staff, or providers. The choice of unit of randomization (patient, provider, or clinic) entails tradeoffs in cost, power, and bias. Provider- or clinic-level randomization can minimize contamination, but it incurs the equally problematic potential for referral bias; that is, because arm assignment of future participants generally cannot be concealed, differences between arms may arise in the types of patients enrolled. Pseudo-cluster randomization is a novel study design tha...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 1, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Pence BW, Gaynes BN, Thielman NM, Heine A, Mugavero MJ, Turner EL, Quinlivan EB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Is Surgical Menopause Associated With Future Levels of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Independent of Antecedent Levels? The CARDIA Study.
Abstract In the present study, we compared changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) before and after natural menopause (NM), hysterectomy with at least 1 ovary conserved (HOC), or hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy (HBSO). Data were obtained from women 18-30 years of age who were enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (1985-2011). Piecewise linear mixed models were used to examine changes in CVD risk factors from baseline to the index visit (the first visit after the date of NM or hysterectomy) and after index visit until the end of follow-up. During 25 years o...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 1, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Appiah D, Schreiner PJ, Bower JK, Sternfeld B, Lewis CE, Wellons MF Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine.
Abstract We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within t...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 1, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Khoury MJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Pneumococcal Acquisition Among Infants Exposed to HIV in Rural Malawi: A Longitudinal Household Study.
Abstract The prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) carriage is higher in adults who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in adults who are not. We hypothesized that infants exposed to HIV become carriers of nasopharyngeal pneumococcus earlier and more frequently than infants who are not exposed to HIV. We compared infant pneumococcal acquisition by maternal HIV status and household exposure in Karonga District, Malawi, in 2009-2011, before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected every 4-6 weeks in the first year of life from infan...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 1, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Heinsbroek E, Tafatatha T, Chisambo C, Phiri A, Mwiba O, Ngwira B, Crampin AC, Read JM, French N Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Association of Coffee Consumption With Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Large US Prospective Cohort Study.
Abstract Concerns about high caffeine intake and coffee as a vehicle for added fat and sugar have raised questions about the net impact of coffee on health. Although inverse associations have been observed for overall mortality, data for cause-specific mortality are sparse. Additionally, few studies have considered exclusively decaffeinated coffee intake or use of coffee additives. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by self-report in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 90,317 US adults without cancer at stu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 27, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Loftfield E, Freedman ND, Graubard BI, Guertin KA, Black A, Huang WY, Shebl FM, Mayne ST, Sinha R Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Diabetes Pathology and Risk of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Evaluating Causal Mechanisms by Using Genetic Information.
Abstract Although type 2 diabetes (T2D) predicts glaucoma, the potential for unmeasured confounding has hampered causal conclusions. We performed separate sample genetic instrumental variable analyses using the Genetic Epidemiology Research Study on Adult Health and Aging cohort (n = 69,685; 1995-2013) to estimate effects of T2D on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; 3,554 cases). Genetic instrumental variables for overall and mechanism-specific (i.e., linked to T2D via influences on adiposity, β-cell function, insulin regulation, or other metabolic processes) T2D risk were constructed by using 39 genetic poly...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 25, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Shen L, Walter S, Melles RB, Glymour MM, Jorgenson E Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Premenstrual Syndrome and Subsequent Risk of Hypertension in a Prospective Study.
Abstract The prevalence of hypertension is increasing among younger women, and new strategies are needed to identify high-risk women who should be targets for early intervention. Several mechanisms underlying hypertension might also contribute to premenstrual syndrome (PMS), but whether women with PMS have a higher risk of subsequently developing hypertension has not been assessed. We prospectively evaluated this possibility in a substudy of the Nurses' Health Study II. Participants were 1,257 women with clinically significant PMS (1991-2005) and 2,463 age-matched comparison women with few menstrual symptoms. Part...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 24, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bertone-Johnson ER, Whitcomb BW, Rich-Edwards JW, Hankinson SE, Manson JE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentrations and Association of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Concentrations With Incident Coronary Heart Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Abstract High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in numerous but not all observational studies, and whether low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) alter this association is unknown. In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012), we prospectively assessed the association of hs-CRP concentrations with incident CHD in participants who did not receive lipid-lowering therapy, as well as in those with LDL-C concentrations less than 130 mg/dL (n = 3,106) and those with LDL-C concentrations of 130 mg/dL or greater (n = 1,716) at basel...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 22, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lin GM, Liu K, Colangelo LA, Lakoski SG, Tracy RP, Greenland P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Parental, In Utero, and Early-Life Exposure to Benzene and the Risk of Childhood Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Benzene is an established cause of adult leukemia, but whether it is associated with childhood leukemia remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis in which we reviewed the epidemiologic literature on this topic and explored causal inference, bias, and heterogeneity. The exposure metrics that we evaluated included occupational and household use of benzenes and solvents, traffic density, and traffic-related air pollution. For studies of occupational and household product exposure published from 1987 to 2014, the summary relative risk for childhood leukemia was 1.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2....
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 20, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Carlos-Wallace FM, Zhang L, Smith MT, Rader G, Steinmaus C Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Impact of Sparse Follow-up on Marginal Structural Models for Time-to-Event Data.
Abstract The impact of risk factors on the amount of time taken to reach an endpoint is a common parameter of interest. Hazard ratios are often estimated using a discrete-time approximation, which works well when the by-interval event rate is low. However, if the intervals are made more frequent than the observation times, missing values will arise. We investigated common analytical approaches, including available-case (AC) analysis, last observation carried forward (LOCF), and multiple imputation (MI), in a setting where time-dependent covariates also act as mediators. We generated complete data to obtain monthly...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 20, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mojaverian N, Moodie EE, Bliu A, Klein MB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Toward Rigorous Data Harmonization in Cancer Epidemiology Research: One Approach.
We describe a 6-step harmonization process, including: 1) identification of questions the harmonized data set is required to answer; 2) identification of high-level data concepts to answer those questions; 3) assessment of data availability for data concepts; 4) development of common data elements for each data concept; 5) mapping and transformation of individual data points to common data elements; and 6) quality-control procedures. Our aim here is not to claim a "correct" way of doing data harmonization but to encourage others to describe their processes in order that we can begin to create rigorous approaches....
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 20, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rolland B, Reid S, Stelling D, Warnick G, Thornquist M, Feng Z, Potter JD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.
Abstract Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 18, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Klebanoff MA, Keim SA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Laboratory Measures as Proxies for Primary Care Encounters: Implications for Quantifying Clinical Retention Among HIV-Infected Adults in North America.
This study included 83,041 HIV-infected adults from 14 clinical cohorts in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) who had ≥1 HIV primary care encounters during 2000-2010, contributing 468,816 person-years of follow-up. Encounter-based retention (REB) was defined as ≥2 encounters in a calendar year, ≥90 days apart. Laboratory-based retention (RLB) was defined similarly, using the dates of CD4-positive cell counts or HIV-1 RNA measurements. Percentage of agreement and the κ statistic were used to characterize agreement between RLB and REB. Logistic regression with gener...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rebeiro PF, Althoff KN, Lau B, Gill J, Abraham AG, Horberg MA, Kitahata MM, Yehia BR, Samji H, Brooks JT, Buchacz K, Napravnik S, Silverberg MJ, Rachlis A, Gebo KA, Sterling TR, Moore RD, Gange SJ, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Association of Aging-Related Endophenotypes With Mortality in 2 Cohort Studies: the Long Life Family Study and the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.
Abstract One method by which to identify fundamental biological processes that may contribute to age-related disease and disability, instead of disease-specific processes, is to construct endophenotypes comprising linear combinations of physiological measures. Applying factor analyses methods to phenotypic data (2006-2009) on 28 traits representing 5 domains (cognitive, cardiovascular, metabolic, physical, and pulmonary) from 4,472 US and Danish individuals in 574 pedigrees from the Long Life Family Study (United States and Denmark), we constructed endophenotypes and assessed their relationship with mortality. The...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Singh J, Kammerer CM, Schupf N, Boudreau R, Matteini AM, Prasad T, Newman AB, Liu Y, Christensen K Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The authors reply.
THE AUTHORS REPLY. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Nov 17; Authors: Teras LR, Gaudet MM, Blase JL, Gapstur SM PMID: 26582778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Teras LR, Gaudet MM, Blase JL, Gapstur SM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: parental age at birth and risk of hematological malignancies in older adults.
RE: PARENTAL AGE AT BIRTH AND RISK OF HEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES IN OLDER ADULTS. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Nov 17; Authors: Radin RG, Sallmén M, Kristensen P PMID: 26582779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Radin RG, Sallmén M, Kristensen P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research