Supportive housing and its impact on diabetes among New York City homeless population.
Abstract Supportive housing addresses a fundamental need for living among homeless individuals, which can lead to reduced diabetes risk and improved diabetes care. The authors tested the association between supportive housing and diabetes outcomes among homeless adults who were eligible for the New York City supportive housing program in 2007-2012. They used multiple administrative data sources, identifying 7,525 Medicaid-eligible adults. The outcomes included receiving evaluation and management services, hemoglobin A1C and lipid testing (those with baseline diabetes, N=1,489), and incidence of new diabetes diagno...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lim S, Miller-Archie SA, Singh TP, Wu WY, Walters SC, Gould LH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Enigmatic gender difference in cancer incidence: evidences from childhood cancers.
Abstract We aimed to investigate the differences in cancer incidence between boys and girls. The incidence data for pediatric cancer were retrieved from the International Incidence of Childhood Cancer. Poisson regression was applied to detect the gender differences in cancer incidence at global and regional levels. Boys were more susceptible to childhood cancers than girls, with a global boy-to-girl incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.27 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.26-1.28) for leukaemia, 1.48 (95% CI 1.46-1.51) for lymphomas, 1.10 (95% CI 1.08-1.11) for central nervous system neoplasms, 1.11 (95% CI 1.08-1.13) f...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Liu Z, Yang Q, Cai N, Jin L, Zhang T, Chen X Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Controlled Direct Effect of Early Life Socioeconomic Position on Periodontitis in a Birth Cohort.
Conclusion: Early life SEP has an effect on the development of periodontitis in adulthood that is not mediated by adulthood SEP and behaviors. PMID: 30834447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schuch HS, Nascimento GG, Peres KG, Mittinty MN, Demarco FF, Correa MB, Gigante DP, Horta BL, Peres MA, Do LG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Opioid Use, Misuse, and Suicidal Behaviors in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. Adults.
Abstract Prior research has shown associations between opioid misuse and suicidal behaviors, but the relationship between medical opioid use and suicidal behaviors is not known. We assessed associations between opioid use and misuse to suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts among adults 18-64 years old (n=86,186) using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2015-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate associations between opioid use/misuse and suicidal behaviors and propensity score weighted logistic regression to examine the counterfact...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Samples H, Stuart EA, Olfson M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Age at Immigration, Generational Status, and Mortality among Children of Immigrant Mothers: a Longitudinal Analysis of Siblings.
m A Abstract Previous studies document that age at immigration and generational status are important predictors of socioeconomic outcomes among children of immigrants. Whether these characteristics are related to long-term mortality is unknown. Leveraging variation within sib-ships, we evaluated the association of age at immigration and generational status (first or second generation) with mortality among children of immigrant mothers to Sweden. Data included 272,429 individuals (126,701 sib-ships) aged 15+ from the total Swedish population who were followed between 1990 and 2009. Population-average and sibling fi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mehta NK, Martikainen P, Cederström A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

To What Extent Does Age at Death Account for Sex Differences in Alzheimer's Disease Mortality Rates?
Abstract Our objective was to compare sex-specific rates of death with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or dementia as the underlying or associated cause using death records. De-identified individual records of causes of death of all people aged of 60 or more who died in Australia during 2006-2014 (n = 1,104,684) were analyzed. There were 184,562 records dementia codes (AD, vascular dementia, or unspecified dementia). Death rate ratios for women compared to men were estimated using Poisson regression. Women had a greater crude death rate of all-types of dementia compared with men (5.9 per 1,000 person-years comp...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Buckley RF, Waller M, Masters CL, Dobson A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Examining sex/gender differences in risk of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias: Challenges and future directions.
Abstract The majority of people living with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are women. Longer life expectancy is one factor thought to contribute to this observation, but possible sex-specific biological mechanisms have received considerable attention from the research community. In the current issue of the Journal, Buckley et al. (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX-XXXX) use death certificate information on all deaths among adults ages 60 years and older in Australia between 2006 and 2014 to evaluate sex/gender differences in rates of death with dementia (all-types), Alzheimer's disease dementia, and vas...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mayeda ER Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

RE:"Reassessing the global mortality burden of the 1918 influenza pandemic".
RE:"Reassessing the global mortality burden of the 1918 influenza pandemic". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Mar 02;: Authors: Spreeuwenberg P, Kroneman M, Paget J PMID: 30824908 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Spreeuwenberg P, Kroneman M, Paget J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Estimating the Impact of Tuberculosis Case Detection in Constrained Health Systems: An Example of Case Finding in South Africa.
Abstract Mathematical models are increasingly used to compare strategies for tuberculosis control and inform policy decisions. Models often do not consider financial and other constraints on implementation and may overestimate the impact that can be achieved. We developed a pragmatic approach for incorporating resource constraints into mathematical models of tuberculosis. Using a transmission model calibrated for South Africa, we estimated the epidemiologic impact and resource requirements (financial, human resource (HR) and diagnostic) of nine case finding interventions. We compared the model-estimated resources ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sumner T, Bozzani F, Mudzengi D, Hippner P, Houben RM, Cardenas V, Vassall A, White RG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "reassessing the global mortality burden of the 1918 influenza pandemic".
RE: "REASSESSING THE GLOBAL MORTALITY BURDEN OF THE 1918 INFLUENZA PANDEMIC". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Mar 02;: Authors: Chandra S, Christensen J PMID: 30824934 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chandra S, Christensen J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "quantification of human microbiome stability over 6 months: implications for epidemiologic studies".
RE: "QUANTIFICATION OF HUMAN MICROBIOME STABILITY OVER 6 MONTHS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 25;: Authors: McSkimming DI, Banack HR, Genco R, Wactawski-Wende J, LaMonte MJ PMID: 30801627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: McSkimming DI, Banack HR, Genco R, Wactawski-Wende J, LaMonte MJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Three authors reply.
THREE AUTHORS REPLY. Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 25;: Authors: Shi J, Sinha R, Goedert JJ PMID: 30801631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Shi J, Sinha R, Goedert JJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Pregnancy Cohort to Study Multidimensional Correlates of Preterm Birth in India: Study Design, Implementation, and Baseline Characteristics of the Participants.
We report baseline characteristics and outcomes of the first 2,000 enrolled participants. A high frequency of preterm births (14.9% among 1,662 live births) is noteworthy. The cohort database and the repositories will become global resources to answer critical questions on preterm birth and other birth outcomes. PMID: 30770926 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bhatnagar S, Majumder PP, Salunke DM, Interdisciplinary Group for Advanced Research on Birth Outcomes—DBT India Initiative (GARBH-Ini) Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

RE: RE: Risk Set Matching to Assess the Impact of Hospital-Acquired Bloodstream Infections.
PMID: 30759175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Watson D, Spaulding AB, Dreyfus J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Sleep Characteristics and Cognitive Function and Decline Among Older Adults.
Abstract Sleep laboratory studies find that restricted sleep duration leads to worse short-term cognition, especially memory. Observational studies find associations between self-reported sleep duration or quality and cognitive function. However self-reported sleep characteristics may not be very accurate and misreporting could relate to cognition. In the Sleep Study of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally-representative cohort of US older adults (2010-2015), we examine whether self-report and actigraph measured sleep are associated with cross-sectional cognitive function and 5...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: McSorley VE, Bin YS, Lauderdale DS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

RE: "Risk Set Matching to Assess the Impact of Hospital-Acquired Bloodstream Infections."
RE: "Risk Set Matching to Assess the Impact of Hospital-Acquired Bloodstream Infections." Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 13;: Authors: Ohneberg K, Wolkewitz M, Schumacher M PMID: 30759196 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ohneberg K, Wolkewitz M, Schumacher M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "Associations of dietary protein intake with fat-free mass and grip strength: A cross-sectional study in 146,816 UK Biobank participants".
Re: "Associations of dietary protein intake with fat-free mass and grip strength: A cross-sectional study in 146,816 UK Biobank participants". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 12;: Authors: Tong TYN, Bradbury KE, Key TJ PMID: 30753259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 12, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tong TYN, Bradbury KE, Key TJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response to Letter to the Editor: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and exposure to diesel exhaust in a Danish cohort".
Response to Letter to the Editor: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and exposure to diesel exhaust in a Danish cohort". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 11;: Authors: Dickerson AS, Hansen J, Gredal O, Weisskopf MG PMID: 30753256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 11, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dickerson AS, Hansen J, Gredal O, Weisskopf MG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "Re: Associations of dietary protein intake with fat free mass and grip strength: cross-sectional study in 146,816 UK Biobank participants".
Re: "Re: Associations of dietary protein intake with fat free mass and grip strength: cross-sectional study in 146,816 UK Biobank participants". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 11;: Authors: Celis-Morales CA, Gill JMR, Gray SR PMID: 30753260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 11, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Celis-Morales CA, Gill JMR, Gray SR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Marginal Structural Models for Risk or Prevalence Ratios for a Point Exposure Using a Disease Risk Score.
Abstract The disease risk score is a summary score that can be used to control for confounding with a potentially large set of covariates. While less widely used than the exposure propensity score, the disease risk score approach may be useful for novel or unusual exposures, when treatment indications or exposure patterns are rapidly changing, or when more is known about the nature of how covariates cause disease than is known about factors influencing propensity for the exposure of interest (sometimes called "treatment"). Focusing on the simple case of a binary point exposure, we describe a marginal str...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Richardson DB, Keil AP, Kinlaw AC, Cole SR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Elective Deliveries and Neonatal Outcomes in Full-Term Pregnancies.
In this study, we use population-level data on births in New Jersey between 1997 and 2011 to document trends in elective deliveries (induced vaginal delivery, caesarean section with no labor trial, and caesarean section after induction) and estimate logistic and linear regression models of associations between delivery method and neonatal morbidities and cost-related outcomes in low-risk pregnancies. We found that elective deliveries more than doubled during the observation period and were associated with neonatal morbidities and cost-related outcomes even at 39 and 40 weeks of GA. Findings suggest that delaying beyond 39 ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Teitler JO, Hegyi T, Plaza R, Kruse L, Reichman NE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Nonparametric Bounds for the Risk Function.
Abstract Nonparametric bounds for the risk difference are straightforward to calculate and make no untestable assumptions about unmeasured confounding or selection bias due to missing data (e.g., drop out). These bounds are often wide and communicate uncertainty due to possible systemic errors. PMID: 30698633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cole SR, Hudgens MG, Edwards JK, Brookhart MA, Richardson DB, Westreich D, Adimora AA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Exposure to Total Hydrocarbons During Clean-up of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Risk of Heart Attack Across Five Years of Follow-up.
Abstract Exposure to total hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds from air pollution is associated with risk of coronary heart disease. Total hydrocarbon (THC) exposure from oil spills might similarly be associated, but no research has examined this. We assessed the relationship between THC exposure during the response and clean-up of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and heart attack risk among 24,375 oil spill workers enrolled in the Gulf Long-Term Follow-up Study. There were 312 first heart attacks (self-reported physician-diagnosed myocardial infarction, or fatal coronary heart disease) ascertained during t...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Strelitz J, Sandler DP, Keil AP, Richardson DB, Heiss G, Gammon MD, Kwok RK, Stewart PA, Stenzel MR, Engel LS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Case-Control Studies of the Efficacy of Screening Tests That Seek to Prevent Cancer Incidence: Results of an Approach That Utilizes Administrative Claims Data That Do Not Provide Information Regarding Test Indication.
This study utilizes US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data, which do not include information about colonoscopy indication, to evaluate the efficacy of colonoscopy in preventing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Cases were Medicare enrollees diagnosed with CRC between 1996 and 2013; up to 3 controls were matched to each case. Colonoscopy receipt prior to presumed onset of occult cancer was associated with an approximately 60% reduction in CRC incidence (odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.42). The association was robust to differing exposure windows and estimates of occult cance...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Doria-Rose VP, Kamineni A, Barrett MJ, Ko CW, Weiss NS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Multi-Ancestry Genome-Wide Association Study of Lipid Levels Incorporating Gene-Alcohol Interactions.
Lohman KK, Manning AK, Rankinen T, Smith AV, Tajuddin SM, Evangelou E, Graff M, Alver M, Boissel M, Chai JF, Chen X, Divers J, Gandin I, Gao C, Goel A, Hagemeijer Y, Harris SE, Hartwig FP, He M, Horimoto ARVR, Hsu FC, Jackson AU, Kasturiratne A, Komulainen P, Kühnel B, Laguzzi F, Lee JH, Luan J, Lyytikäinen LP, Matoba N, Nolte IM, Pietzner M, Riaz M, Said MA, Scott RA, Sofer T, Stancáková A, Takeuchi F, Tayo BO, van der Most PJ, Varga TV, Wang Y, Ware EB, Wen W, Yanek LR, Zhang W, Zhao JH, Afaq S, Amin N, Amini M, Arking DE, Aung T, Ballantyne C, Boerwinkle E, Broeckel U, Campbell A, Canouil M, Cha...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: de Vries PS, Brown MR, Bentley AR, Sung YJ, Winkler TW, Ntalla I, Schwander K, Kraja AT, Guo X, Franceschini N, Cheng CY, Sim X, Vojinovic D, Huffman JE, Musani SK, Li C, Feitosa MF, Richard MA, Noordam R, Aschard H, Bartz TM, Bielak LF, Deng X, Dorajoo R Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Error in Rainfall Data: Consequences for Epidemiologic Analysis of Waterborne Diseases.
Abstract The relationship between rainfall, especially extreme rainfall, and increases in waterborne infectious diseases is widely reported in the literature. Most of this research, however, has not formally considered the impact of exposure measurement error contributed by the limited spatiotemporal fidelity of precipitation data. Here, we evaluate bias in effect estimates associated with exposure misclassification due to precipitation data fidelity, using extreme rainfall as an example. We accomplish this via a simulation study, followed by analysis of extreme rainfall and incident diarrheal disease in an epidem...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Levy MC, Collender PA, Carlton EJ, Chang HH, Strickland MJ, Eisenberg JNS, Remais JV Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Marginal Time-Dependent Causal Effects in Mediation Analysis With Survival Data.
Abstract The main aim of mediation analysis is to study the direct and indirect effects of an exposure on an outcome. To date, the literature on mediation analysis with multiple mediators has mainly focused on continuous and dichotomous outcomes. However, the development of methods for multiple mediation analysis of survival outcome is still limited. Here we extend to survival outcomes a method for multiple mediation analysis based on the computation of appropriate weights. The approach considered has the advantage of not requiring specific models for mediators, allowing non-independent mediators of any nature and...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fasanelli F, Giraudo MT, Ricceri F, Valeri L, Zugna D Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Predictors of Response Outcomes for Research Recruitment Through a Central Cancer Registry: Evidence From 17 Population-Based Studies.
Abstract When recruiting research participants through central cancer registries, high response fractions help ensure population-based representation. Using data from 17 recruitment efforts undertaken by the Utah Cancer Registry from 2007 to 2016, we conducted multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to identify case and study characteristics associated with making contact and obtaining cooperation of Utah cancer cases for the following studies: A Population-Based Childhood Cancer Survivor Cohort Study in Utah, Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation for Prostate Cancer (CEASAR Study), C...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Millar MM, Kinney AY, Camp NJ, Cannon-Albright LA, Hashibe M, Penson DF, Kirchhoff AC, Neklason DW, Gilsenan AW, Dieck GS, Stroup AM, Edwards SL, Bateman C, Carter ME, Sweeney C Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations of Public Transport Use With Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Public transport provides an opportunity to incorporate physical activity into journeys, but potential health impacts have not been systematically examined. Literature searches were carried out up to December 2017 using Medline, Embase, Transport Database, Scopus, Cochrane Library, opengrey.eu and Google. We identified longitudinal studies which examined associations between public transport and cardio-metabolic health including: adiposity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies and performed meta-analyses where possible....
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Patterson R, Webb E, Hone T, Millett C, Laverty AA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associating Locality-Level Characteristics With Surviving the Holocaust: A Multilevel Approach to Chance of Being Deported and to Risk of Death of Jews Living in Dutch Municipalities.
This study examined associations between locality-level and individual-level characteristics with chance of being deported by applying multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models on about 118,000 Jews in 102 Dutch municipalities listed in 1941-42 and linked to post-war victims and returnees lists. Next, it examined associations between individual-level characteristics and risk of death of deported Jews in multilevel mixed-effects Weibull regression models. Locality-level characteristics (per standard deviation increase) associated with higher deportation chance were: more collaborating policemen (OR = 1.0...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tammes P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

RE: "Measurement of Vaccine Direct Effects Under the Test-Negative Design".
RE: "Measurement of Vaccine Direct Effects Under the Test-Negative Design". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Jan 25;: Authors: Dean NE PMID: 30689690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dean NE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Accounting for unobserved and differential susceptible time at risk in retrospective studies: response to Dean (2019).
PMID: 30689694 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lewnard JA, Tedijanto C, Cowling BJ, Lipsitch M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Improving Accessibility of the Human Microbiome Project Data Through Integration With R/Bioconductor.
PMID: 30689687 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Waldron L, Schiffer L, Azhar R, Ramos M, Geistlinger L, Segata N Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Comparison of the Associations of Early-Life Factors on Wheezing Phenotypes in Preterm-Born Children and Term-Born Children.
Abstract Although respiratory symptoms, including wheezing, are common in preterm-born subjects, the natural history of the wheezing phenotypes and the influence of early-life factors and characteristics on phenotypes are unclear. Participants from the Millennium Cohort Study who were born between 2000 and 2002 were studied at 9 months and at 3, 5, 7, and 11 years. We used data-driven methods to define wheezing phenotypes in preterm-born children and investigated whether the association of early-life factors and characteristics with wheezing phenotypes was similar between preterm- and term-born children. A total o...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kotecha SJ, Watkins WJ, Lowe J, Granell R, Henderson AJ, Kotecha S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Depressive Symptomatology, Racial Discrimination Experience and MRI Brain Tissue Volumes: The CARDIA Study.
Abstract Not much is known about brain structural change in younger populations and minorities. The cross-sectional relationship between depressive symptomatology and racial discrimination with structural measures of brain tissue volume was investigated using magnetic resonance images for 710 participants in the CARDIA Study in 2010. Those reporting depressive symptoms and racial discrimination had lower total brain matter tissue volume compared to those who reported neither (-8.8 mL; 95% CI: -16.4, -1.2), compared to those with depressive symptoms only (-10.9 mL; 95% CI: -20.4, -1.4), and compared to th...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Meyer CS, Schreiner PJ, Lim K, Battapady H, Launer LJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Sense of Mission and Subsequent Health and Well-being among Young Adults:An Outcome-Wide Analysis.
This study prospectively examined an aspect of purpose in life, specifically having a sense of mission, and a wide range of psychosocial well-being, mental health, health behaviors and physical health outcomes in young adults. Longitudinal data from the Growing Up Today Study (2007 to either 2010 or 2013 questionnaire wave; mean baseline age was 22.97 years) were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Sample sizes ranged from 6,323 to 7,463, depending on outcome. Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing. All models controlled for sociodemographic characteristics, religious service attendance...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 12, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chen Y, Kim ES, Koh HK, Frazier AL, VanderWeele TJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Electric Shock and Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure and the Risk of ALS: Euro-MOTOR.
rtium Abstract We explored the association between occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and electric shocks and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a pooled case-control study (Euro-MOTOR) from three European countries. ALS patients and population-based controls were recruited in Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands between 2010 and 2015. Lifetime occupational and lifestyle histories were obtained using structured questionnaires. We applied previously developed job-exposure matrices assigning exposure to ELF-MF and potential for electric shocks. Odds ratios (OR) an...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Peters S, Visser AE, D'Ovidio F, Beghi E, Chiò A, Logroscino G, Hardiman O, Kromhout H, Huss A, Veldink J, Vermeulen R, van den Berg LH, Euro-MOTOR consortium Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Levels and Changes in Childhood Body Mass Index in Relation to Risk of Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter in Adulthood.
In conclusion, risks of AFF in adulthood increased with higher childhood BMIs. Remission from overweight by age 13 years reduced AFF risks, especially in women. PMID: 30649157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Adelborg K, Ängquist L, Ording A, Gjærde LK, Bjerregaard LG, Sørensen HT, Sørensen TIA, Baker JL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Unified Model for the Analysis of Gene-Environment Interaction.
We describe a software program, GxEScan, which can be used to fit standard and unified models for genomewide G × E studies. PMID: 30649161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gauderman WJ, Kim A, Conti DV, Morrison J, Thomas DC, Vora H, Lewinger JP Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Evaluating Flexible Modeling of Continuous Covariates in Inverse Weighted Estimators.
Abstract Correct specification of the exposure model is essential for unbiased estimation in marginal structural models with inverse-probability-of-treatment weights. However, although flexible modeling is commonplace when estimating effects of continuous covariates in outcome models, its use is less frequent in estimation of inverse probability weights. Using simulations, we assess the accuracy of the treatment effect estimates and covariate balance, obtained with different exposure model specifications when the true relationship between a continuous possibly time-varying covariate Lt and the logit of the probabi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kyle RP, Moodie EEM, Klein MB, Abrahamowicz M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

HMP16SData: Efficient Access to the Human Microbiome Project through Bioconductor.
Abstract Phase 1 of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) investigated 18 body subsites of 239 healthy American adults, to produce the first comprehensive reference for the composition and variation of the "healthy" human microbiome. Publicly-available data sets from amplicon sequencing of two 16S ribosomal RNA variable regions, with extensive controlled-access participant data, provide a reference for ongoing microbiome studies. However, utilization of these data sets can be hindered by the complex bioinformatic steps required to access, import, decrypt, and merge the various components in formats suitable...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schiffer L, Azhar R, Shepherd L, Ramos M, Geistlinger L, Huttenhower C, Dowd JB, Segata N, Waldron L Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Improving accessibility of the Human Microbiome Project data through integration with R/Bioconductor.
Abstract Alterations in the composition of the microbiota have been implicated in many diseases. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) provides a comprehensive reference dataset of the "normal" human microbiome of 242 healthy adults at five major body sites. The HMP used both 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and whole-genome metagenomic sequencing to profile the subjects' microbial communities. However, accessing and analyzing the HMP dataset still presents technical and bioinformatic challenges, as researchers must import the microbiome data, integrate phylogenetic trees, and access and merge public and r...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Griffith JC, Morgan XC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Limiting Alcohol Outlet Density to Prevent Alcohol Use and Violence? Estimating Policy Interventions Through Agent-Based Modeling.
te; M Abstract Increasing alcohol outlet density is well-documented to be associated with increased alcohol use and problems, leading to the policy recommendation that limiting outlet density will decrease alcohol problems. Yet few studies of decreasing problematic outlets and outlet density have been conducted. We estimated the association between closing alcohol outlets and alcohol use and alcohol-related violence, using an agent-based model of the adult population in New York City. The model was calibrated according to the empirical distribution of the parameters across the city's population, including the dens...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Castillo-Carniglia A, Pear VA, Tracy M, Keyes KM, Cerdá M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The influence of a breast cancer diagnosis on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
Abstract Prospective and retrospective studies of vitamin D and breast cancer have produced discrepant results. This may be due to variations in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations over time, including systematic changes after breast cancer diagnosis. We measured total serum 25(OH)D in Sister Study participants who provided samples at baseline (2003-2009) and 4-10 years later (2013-2015). This included 827 women with an intervening breast cancer and 771 without. Although modestly correlated over time (R=0.42), 25(OH)D concentrations increased in both groups, with larger increases among cases (averag...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, House M, Taylor JA, Weinberg CR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Observational Studies That Seek to Emulate a Randomized Trial of Screening to Reduce the Incidence of Cancer: Do They Address the Question to Which We'd Like to Have an Answer?
Abstract Some forms of cancer screening have the potential to reduce cancer incidence, if the screening modality can identify not only a malignancy but a treatable pre-malignant condition (such as a colon polyp) as well. Cohort studies of the efficacy of these forms of screening in reducing the incidence of cancer face many challenges, notably the difficulty in distinguishing whether a test performed in a given individual was screening or diagnostic in nature. Downward bias in the estimated efficacy of screening resulting from misclassification of test indication is a particular problem in cohort studies that seek...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Weiss NS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Rethinking Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance: A Role for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling.
Abstract Global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a key component of the Global Action Plan on AMR. Laboratory-based surveillance is inherently biased and lacks local relevance due to aggregation of data. We assessed the feasibility, sensitivity, and affordability of a population-based AMR survey using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), which classifies a population as having a high or low prevalence of AMR based on a-priori defined criteria. Three studies were carried out in Medan and Bandung, Indonesia between April 2014 and June 2017. LQAS classifications for 15 antibiotics were compared wit...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ginting F, Sugianli AK, Bijl G, Saragih RH, Kusumawati RL, Parwati I, de Jong MD, Schultsz C, van Leth F Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Impact of Screening and Partner Notification on Chlamydia in the United States, 2000-2015: Evaluation of Epidemiologic Trends Using a Pair-Formation Transmission Model.
In this study, we calibrated a novel sex- and age-stratified pair-formation transmission model of chlamydial infection to epidemiological data in the United States for 2000-2015. We used sex- and age-specific prevalence estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, case report data from national chlamydia surveillance, and survey data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey on the proportion of sexually active 15-18 year-old population. We were able to reconcile national prevalence estimates and case report data by allowing for changes over time in screening coverage and reporting completeness. In retro...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rönn MM, Tuite AR, Menzies NA, Wolf EE, Gift TL, Chesson HW, Torrone E, Berruti A, Mazzola E, Galer K, Hsu K, Salomon JA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Toenail-Based Metal Concentrations and Young-Onset Breast Cancer.
Abstract Several metals have carcinogenic properties, but their associations with breast cancer are not established. We studied cadmium, a "metalloestrogen", and nine other metals in relation to young-onset breast cancer (diagnosis age
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: O'Brien KM, White AJ, Jackson BP, Karagas MR, Sandler DP, Weinberg CR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Intensive Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal Cancer in China: A Community-Based Study.
This study showed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is an effective population-level screening test for EC in high-risk regions. PMID: 30608546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Liu M, He Z, Guo C, Xu R, Li F, Ning T, Pan Y, Li Y, Ding H, Zheng L, Zhou Y, Tian X, Yang W, Wang X, Lu F, Zhang Y, Zhao Y, Guo F, Chen K, Gao L, Sun M, Liu Y, Liu F, Hang D, Shen N, Li J, Xu Z, Wang Q, Zhang C, Abliz A, Deng Q, Li X, Liu Z, Zhang C, Yua Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Natural Direct and Indirect Effects' Risk Ratio Expressions in Causal Mediation Analysis of Binary Mediator and Binary Outcome: A Fresh Look at the Formulas.
PMID: 30590386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Samoilenko M, Lefebvre G Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research