Proportion of Tubal Factor Infertility due to Chlamydia: Finite Mixture Modeling of Serum Antibody Titers.
In this study, we examined whether the proportion of tubal factor infertility (TFI) that is attributable to Chlamydia trachomatis, the population excess fraction (PEF), can be estimated from serological data using finite mixture modeling. Whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence serum antibody titers were recorded among infertile women seen at St. Michael's Hospital in Bristol, United Kingdom, during the period 1985-1995. Women were classified as TFI cases or controls based on laparoscopic examination. Finite mixture models were used to identify the number of component titer distributions and the proportion of serum samples...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ades AE, Price MJ, Kounali D, Akande VA, Wills GS, McClure MO, Muir P, Horner PJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Inflammatory Cytokines and Lung Cancer Risk in 3 Prospective Studies.
Abstract To further investigate the role of inflammation in lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated associations between proinflammatory cytokines and lung cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study nested within 3 prospective cohort studies-the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (1990-1994), the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (1991-1996), and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (initiated in 1985)-involving 807 incident lung cancer cases and 807 smoking-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models adjusting for serum cotinine concentrations were used to estimate odds ratios for lung cancer ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 20, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Brenner DR, Fanidi A, Grankvist K, Muller DC, Brennan P, Manjer J, Byrnes G, Hodge A, Severi G, Giles GG, Johansson M, Johansson M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) Genotype and Breast Cancer Recurrence in Tamoxifen-Treated Patients: Evaluating the Importance of Loss of Heterozygosity.
Abstract Tamoxifen therapy for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer reduces the risk of recurrence by approximately one-half. Cytochrome P-450 2D6, encoded by the polymorphic cytochrome P-450 2D6 gene (CYP2D6), oxidizes tamoxifen to its most active metabolites. Steady-state concentrations of endoxifen (4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen), the most potent antiestrogenic metabolite, are reduced in women whose CYP2D6 genotypes confer poor enzyme function. Thirty-one studies of the association of CYP2D6 genotype with breast cancer survival have yielded heterogeneous results. Some influential studies genotyped DNA from...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ahern TP, Hertz DL, Damkier P, Ejlertsen B, Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Rae JM, Regan MM, Thompson AM, Lash TL, Cronin-Fenton DP Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Systems Science Approach to Understanding Polytrauma and Blast-Related Injury: Bayesian Network Model of Data From a Survey of the Florida National Guard.
Abstract We sought to further define the epidemiology of the complex, multiple injuries collectively known as polytrauma/blast-related injury (PT/BRI). Using a systems science approach, we performed Bayesian network modeling to find the most accurate representation of the complex system of PT/BRI and identify key variables for understanding the subsequent effects of blast exposure in a sample of Florida National Guard members (1,443 deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom and 1,655 not deployed) who completed an online survey during the period from 2009 to 2010. We found that postdeployment ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Toyinbo PA, Vanderploeg RD, Belanger HG, Spehar AM, Lapcevic WA, Scott SG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Cesarean Section and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in a Population-Based, Record-Linkage Study in California.
This study included 5,081 cases and 18,927 matched controls born in 1978-2009; more detailed data were available on type of C-section (i.e., elective vs. emergency) for a subset of 1,552 cases and 5,688 controls. No association was observed between C-section overall and childhood ALL risk (
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wang R, Wiemels JL, Metayer C, Morimoto L, Francis SS, Kadan-Lottick N, DeWan AT, Zhang Y, Ma X Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Collection Methods for Fecal Samples in Microbiome Studies.
In conclusion, all fecal sample collection methods appear relatively reproducible, stable, and accurate. Future studies could use these collection methods for microbiome analyses. PMID: 27986704 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vogtmann E, Chen J, Amir A, Shi J, Abnet CC, Nelson H, Knight R, Chia N, Sinha R Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Exposure to Neighborhood Foreclosures and Changes in Cardiometabolic Health: Results From MESA.
ux AV Abstract Home foreclosures can precipitate declines in health among the individuals who lost their homes. Whether home foreclosures can "spillover" to affect the health of other neighborhood residents is largely unknown. Using longitudinal data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis that were linked to foreclosure data from 2005 to 2012, we assessed whether greater exposure to neighborhood foreclosures was associated with temporal changes in 3 objectively measured cardiometabolic risk factors: body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose level. We used fixed-effects models ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Christine PJ, Moore K, Crawford ND, Barrientos-Gutierrez T, Sánchez BN, Seeman T, Diez Roux AV Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Editorial Consultants.
Authors: PMID: 27979814 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Duration of Analgesic Use and Risk of Hearing Loss in Women.
Abstract Aspirin, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID), and acetaminophen are commonly used. Frequent use of analgesics has been associated with a higher risk of hearing loss. However, the association between duration of analgesic use and the risk of hearing loss is unclear. We investigated the relationship between duration of analgesic use and self-reported hearing loss among 55,850 women in the Nurses' Health Study. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. During 873,376 person-years of follow-up (1990-2012), longer durations of NSAID use (for>6 years of use compared with
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 14, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lin BM, Curhan SG, Wang M, Eavey R, Stankovic KM, Curhan GC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Association Between Preterm Birth and Lower Adult Height in Women.
We examined whether being born preterm was associated with changes in adult anthropometry in women. We assessed data on 201,382 women (born in 1973-1988) from the Swedish Birth Register. The mean age was 26.0 years. Of the women in our cohort, 663 were born very preterm (
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 9, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Derraik JG, Lundgren M, Cutfield WS, Ahlsson F Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Causal Inference in Observational Studies.
Abstract Estimation of causal effects using observational data continues to grow in popularity in the epidemiologic literature. While many applications of causal effect estimation use propensity score methods or G-computation, targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) is a well-established alternative method with desirable statistical properties. TMLE is a doubly robust maximum-likelihood-based approach that includes a secondary "targeting" step that optimizes the bias-variance tradeoff for the target parameter. Under standard causal assumptions, estimates can be interpreted as causal effects. Becaus...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 9, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schuler MS, Rose S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Donald Ainslie Henderson, 1928-2016.
PMID: 27932418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 8, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Klag MJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Bias Due to Correlation Between Times-at-Risk for Infection in Epidemiologic Studies Measuring Biological Interactions Between Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Case Study Using Human Papillomavirus Type Interactions.
son M Abstract The clustering of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in some individuals is often interpreted as the result of common risk factors rather than biological interactions between different types of HPV. The intraindividual correlation between times-at-risk for all HPV infections is not generally considered in the analysis of epidemiologic studies. We used a deterministic transmission model to simulate cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies measuring associations between 2 HPV types. When we assumed no interactions, the model predicted that studies would estimate odds ratios and inciden...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 7, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Malagón T, Lemieux-Mellouki P, Laprise JF, Brisson M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Outdoor Temperature, and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.
In this study, we prospectively examined the long-term associations of air pollution, defined as particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and temperature with the development of metabolic syndrome and its components. Using covariate-adjustment Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated associations of mean annual PM2.5 concentration and temperature with risk of incident metabolic dysfunctions between 1993 and 2011 in 587 elderly (mean = 70 (standard deviation, 7) years of age) male participants in the Normative Aging Study. A 1-μg/m(3) increase in mean annual PM...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 7, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wallwork RS, Colicino E, Zhong J, Kloog I, Coull BA, Vokonas P, Schwartz JD, Baccarelli AA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Optimism and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study.
Abstract Growing evidence has linked positive psychological attributes like optimism to a lower risk of poor health outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease. It has been demonstrated in randomized trials that optimism can be learned. If associations between optimism and broader health outcomes are established, it may lead to novel interventions that improve public health and longevity. In the present study, we evaluated the association between optimism and cause-specific mortality in women after considering the role of potential confounding (sociodemographic characteristics, depression) and intermediary (health...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 7, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kim ES, Hagan KA, Grodstein F, DeMeo DL, De Vivo I, Kubzansky LD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Population Attributable Risk of Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer.
We examined the proportions of multiple types of breast cancers in the population that were attributable to established risk factors, focusing on behaviors that are modifiable at menopause. We estimated the full and partial population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) by combining the relative risks and the observed prevalence rates of the risk factors of interest. A total of 8,421 cases of invasive breast cancer developed in postmenopausal women (n = 121,700) in the Nurses' Health Study from 1980-2010. We included the following modifiable risk factors in our analyses: weight change since age 18 years, alcohol...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 6, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tamimi RM, Spiegelman D, Smith-Warner SA, Wang M, Pazaris M, Willett WC, Eliassen AH, Hunter DJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Comparing Arterial Function Parameters for the Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease Events: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
We examined the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the model with full adjustment plus the addition of each measure individually. C2 provided additional discrimination for the prediction of CHD (area under the curve = 0.736 vs. 0.743; P = 0.04). Lower C2 was associated with a higher risk of future CHD events. PMID: 27923782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 6, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hom EK, Duprez DA, Jacobs DR, Bluemke DA, Brumback LC, Polak JF, Peralta CA, Greenland P, Magzamen SL, Lima JA, Redheuil A, Herrington DM, Stein JH, Vaidya D, Ouyang P, Kaufman JD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Residential Proximity to Gasoline Stations and Risk of Childhood Leukemia.
Abstract Significant elevations in the risk of childhood leukemia have been associated with environmental exposure to gasoline; aromatic hydrocarbons from refinery pollution, petroleum waste sites, and mobile sources (automobile exhaust); paints, paint products, and thinners; and secondary cigarette smoke in the home. These higher risks have also been associated with parental exposure to benzene, gasoline, motor vehicle-related jobs, painting, and rubber solvents. These exposures and jobs have 1 common chemical exposure-benzene, a recognized cause of acute leukemia in adults-and raise the question of whether child...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 6, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Infante PF Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Steinmaus and Smith Respond to "Proximity to Gasoline Stations and Childhood Leukemia".
Steinmaus and Smith Respond to "Proximity to Gasoline Stations and Childhood Leukemia". Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Dec 06; Authors: Steinmaus C, Smith MT Abstract Benzene is an established cause of adult leukemia, but its role in childhood leukemia is less clear. In a recent meta-analysis, we identified associations of childhood leukemia with occupational and household product benzene exposure and traffic-related pollution. Residential proximity to gasoline stations or automobile repair facilities may be another source of benzene, and in 3 studies assessing these sources, we identified a summary r...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 6, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Steinmaus C, Smith MT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Fetuin-A and Risk of Diabetes Independent of Liver Fat Content: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
In this study, we observed a particularly strong association of fetuin-A with diabetes risk in women that could not be explained by liver fat. PMID: 27856445 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Aroner SA, Mukamal KJ, St-Jules DE, Budoff MJ, Katz R, Criqui MH, Allison MA, de Boer IH, Siscovick DS, Ix JH, Jensen MK Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Improving Estimates of Numbers of Children With Severe Acute Malnutrition Using Cohort and Survey Data.
Abstract Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is reported to affect 19 million children worldwide. However, this estimate is based on prevalence data from cross-sectional surveys and can be expected to miss some children affected by an acute condition such as SAM. The burden of acute conditions is more appropriately represented by cumulative incidence data. In the absence of incidence data, a method for burden estimation has been proposed that corrects available prevalence estimates to account for incident cases using an "incidence correction factor." We used data from 3 West African countries (Mali, Niger, a...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Isanaka S, Boundy EO, Grais RF, Myatt M, Briend A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Maternal Antibodies to Herpes Virus Antigens and Risk of Gastroschisis in Offspring.
Abstract Gastroschisis risk is highest in offspring of young women and is increasing in prevalence, suggesting that exposures that are increasingly common among younger females may be causal. Some infections by viruses in the herpes family are more common in the earlier childbearing years and have been increasing in prevalence over time. Data from the Finnish Maternity Cohort were linked to Finnish malformation and birth registers (1987-2012) for this study, a nested case-control study of mothers of offspring with gastroschisis and age-matched controls. Maternal antibody responses in early pregnancy (mean gestatio...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Werler MM, Parker SE, Hedman K, Gissler M, Ritvanen A, Surcel HM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Sex-Specific and Time-Varying Associations Between Cigarette Smoking and Telomere Length Among Older Adults.
Abstract Inconsistent associations between smoking and telomere length (TL) have been reported in epidemiologic studies, perhaps because of the time-varying nature of smoking behaviors. We estimated the associations of TL, which was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using saliva DNA, with concurrent and past smoking status reported biennially for up to 16 years before TL measurement in 5,624 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (1992-2008). Smoking was associated with reduced TL when we used prospective data on smoking statuses among men and women, but the association was strongly ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zhang C, Lauderdale DS, Pierce BL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Improving Estimates of Severe Acute Malnutrition Requires More Data.
Abstract In this issue of the Journal, Isanaka et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;000(00):000-000) set out to update an incidence correction factor used for estimating numbers of cases of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children aged 6-59 months. The total number of current SAM cases (prevalent cases) increases by the number of new (incident) cases and decreases as a result of recovery or death. Prevalence estimates are obtained from cross-sectional surveys. Calculation of incidence typically requires longitudinal data, which evidently are rarely collected for SAM, and so a correction factor is applied instead. Isanak...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hure A, Oldmeadow C, Attia J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Is More Area-Level Crime Associated With More Sitting and Less Physical Activity? Longitudinal Evidence From 37,162 Australians.
Abstract Does a rise in crime result in increased sitting time and a reduction in physical activity? We used unobserved ("fixed")-effects models to examine associations between change in objectively measured crime (nondomestic violence, malicious damage, breaking and entering, and stealing, theft, and robbery) in Australia and measures of sitting time, walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a residentially stable sample of 17,474 men and 19,688 women at baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010). Possible sources of time-varying confounding included age, income, economic status...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Astell-Burt T, Feng X, Kolt GS, Jalaludin B Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

County-Level Variation in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States in 2009-2013: Comparative Assessment of Contributing Factors.
We examined factors responsible for variation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality across US counties in 2009-2013. We linked county-level census, survey, administrative, and vital statistics data to examine 4 sets of features: demographic factors, social and economic factors, health-care utilization and features of the environment, and population health indicators. County-level associations of these features (standardized to a mean of 0 with a standard deviation of 1) with cardiovascular deaths per 100,000 person-years among adults aged 45-74 years was modeled using 2-level hierarchical linear regression with random ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Patel SA, Ali MK, Narayan KM, Mehta NK Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "comparison of statistical approaches for dealing with immortal time bias in drug effectiveness studies".
RE: "COMPARISON OF STATISTICAL APPROACHES FOR DEALING WITH IMMORTAL TIME BIAS IN DRUG EFFECTIVENESS STUDIES". Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Nov 16; Authors: Wolkewitz M, Beyersmann J, Ohneberg K, Schumacher M PMID: 27852601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wolkewitz M, Beyersmann J, Ohneberg K, Schumacher M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The authors reply.
THE AUTHORS REPLY. Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Nov 16; Authors: Karim ME, Gustafson P, Petkau J, Tremlett H PMID: 27852602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Karim ME, Gustafson P, Petkau J, Tremlett H Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Controlling for Informed Presence Bias Due to the Number of Health Encounters in an Electronic Health Record.
Abstract Electronic health records (EHRs) are an increasingly utilized resource for clinical research. While their size allows for many analytical opportunities, as with most observational data there is also the potential for bias. One of the key sources of bias in EHRs is what we term informed presence-the notion that inclusion in an EHR is not random but rather indicates that the subject is ill, making people in EHRs systematically different from those not in EHRs. In this article, we use simulated and empirical data to illustrate the conditions under which such bias can arise and how conditioning on the number ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Goldstein BA, Bhavsar NA, Phelan M, Pencina MJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Longitudinal Examination of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as a Long-Term Outcome of Iraq War Deployment.
Abstract The mental health toll of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars on military veterans has been considerable, yet little is known about the persistence of these adverse outcomes, especially relative to predeployment status. We prospectively examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a long-term consequence of warzone deployment, integrating data collected from 2003-2014. In the Neurocognition Deployment Health Study, we measured PTSD symptoms in US Army soldiers before and shortly after Iraq War deployment. We used the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version and a structured clinical interview (i.e., Clinician-Admini...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vasterling JJ, Aslan M, Proctor SP, Ko J, Marx BP, Jakupcak M, Schnurr PP, Gleason T, Huang GD, Concato J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Local Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake: A Geographically Weighted Regression Approach in the ORiEL Study.
Abstract Studies that explore associations between the local food environment and diet routinely use global regression models, which assume that relationships are invariant across space, yet such stationarity assumptions have been little tested. We used global and geographically weighted regression models to explore associations between the residential food environment and fruit and vegetable intake. Analyses were performed in 4 boroughs of London, United Kingdom, using data collected between April 2012 and July 2012 from 969 adults in the Olympic Regeneration in East London Study. Exposures were assessed both as ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Clary C, Lewis DJ, Flint E, Smith NR, Kestens Y, Cummins S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Intracranial Distribution of Gliomas in Relation to Exposure From Mobile Phones: Analyses From the INTERPHONE Study.
PK Abstract When investigating the association between brain tumors and use of mobile telephones, accurate data on tumor position are essential, due to the highly localized absorption of energy in the human brain from the radio-frequency fields emitted. We used a point process model to investigate this association using information that included tumor localization data from the INTERPHONE Study (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Our main analysis included 792 regular mobile phone users diagnosed with a glioma between 2...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 3, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Grell K, Frederiksen K, Schüz J, Cardis E, Armstrong B, Siemiatycki J, Krewski DR, McBride ML, Johansen C, Auvinen A, Hours M, Blettner M, Sadetzki S, Lagorio S, Yamaguchi N, Woodward A, Tynes T, Feychting M, Fleming SJ, Swerdlow AJ, Andersen PK Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Peripheral Arterial Disease and Its Association With Arsenic Exposure and Metabolism in the Strong Heart Study.
Abstract At high levels, inorganic arsenic exposure is linked to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and cardiovascular disease. To our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the association between low-to-moderate arsenic exposure and incident PAD by ankle brachial index (ABI). We evaluated this relationship in the Strong Heart Study, a large population-based cohort study of American Indian communities. A total of 2,977 and 2,966 PAD-free participants who were aged 45-74 years in 1989-1991 were reexamined in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999, respectively, for incident PAD defined as either ABI 1.4. A total of 286 and 206 i...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 3, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Newman JD, Navas-Acien A, Kuo CC, Guallar E, Howard BV, Fabsitz RR, Devereux RB, Umans JG, Francesconi KA, Goessler W, Best LT, Tellez-Plaza M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Residential Proximity to Traffic-Related Pollution and Atherosclerosis in 4 Vascular Beds Among African-American Adults: Results From the Jackson Heart Study.
Abstract To our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of long-term exposure to traffic pollution with markers of atherosclerosis in 4 vascular beds simultaneously in an all-African-American cohort. Among participants in the Jackson Heart Study (Jackson, Mississippi; baseline mean age = 55.5 (standard deviation, 12.7) years), we used linear regression to estimate percent differences in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) at baseline (2004) and used modified Poisson regression (robust error variance) to estimate prevalence ratios for peripheral artery disease (PAD), coronary artery calcification (CA...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 27, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wang Y, Wellenius GA, Hickson DA, Gjelsvik A, Eaton CB, Wyatt SB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Consumption of Unprocessed and Processed Red Meat and the Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study of Men.
Abstract Consumption of both processed and unprocessed red meat has been associated with a higher risk of major chronic diseases. However, only processed meat consumption has been studied in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, we endeavored to determine the association between the risk of COPD and consumption of processed and unprocessed red meat while taking into account smoking status. The population-based prospective Cohort of Swedish Men included 43,848 men who were 45-79 years of age and had no history of COPD or cancer at baseline. Meat consumption was assessed using a self-a...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 27, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kaluza J, Larsson SC, Linden A, Wolk A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Hutcheon et al. Respond to "Maternal Influenza Immunization and Birth Outcomes".
Hutcheon et al. Respond to "Maternal Influenza Immunization and Birth Outcomes". Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Oct 26; Authors: Hutcheon JA, Fell DB, Jackson ML, Kramer MS, Ortiz JR, Savitz DA, Platt RW PMID: 27784656 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 26, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hutcheon JA, Fell DB, Jackson ML, Kramer MS, Ortiz JR, Savitz DA, Platt RW Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Maternal Influenza Immunization and Adverse Birth Outcomes: Using Data and Practice to Inform Theory and Research Design.
Abstract Maternal influenza immunization can reduce influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and infants who are too young to be vaccinated. Data from empirical studies also support the hypothesis that immunization can protect the fetus against adverse outcomes if the mother is exposed to influenza. In their theoretical analysis in the Journal, Hutcheon et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;184(3):227-232) critiqued the existing evidence of the fetal benefits of maternal influenza immunization by calculating the sample sizes needed to demonstrate hypothetical reductions in risk and concluded that ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 26, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Phadke VK, Steinhoff MC, Omer SB, MacDonald NE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Persistent User Bias in Case-Crossover Studies in Pharmacoepidemiology.
In this study, our aim was to assess the occurrence of this bias and to evaluate whether it is remedied by including a control group (the case-time-control design). Using Danish data resources from 1995-2012, we conducted case-crossover and case-time-control analyses for 3 medications (statins, insulin, and thyroxine) in relation to 3 outcomes (retinal detachment, wrist fracture, and ischemic stroke), all with assumed null associations. Controls were matched on age, sex, and index date, and exposure over the preceding 12 months was ascertained. For retinal detachment, the case-crossover odds ratio was 1.60 (95% confidence ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 25, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hallas J, Pottegård A, Wang S, Schneeweiss S, Gagne JJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Association Between Short-Term Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 and Mortality in Susceptible Subgroups: A Multisite Case-Crossover Analysis of Individual Effect Modifiers.
Abstract We performed a multisite study to evaluate demographic and clinical conditions as potential modifiers of the particulate matter (PM)-mortality association. We selected 228,619 natural deaths of elderly persons (ages ≥65 years) that occurred in 12 Italian cities during the period 2006-2010. Individual data on causes of death, age, sex, location of death, and preexisting chronic and acute conditions from the previous 5 years' hospitalizations were collected. City-specific conditional logistic regression models were applied within the case-crossover "time-stratified" framework, followed by rando...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 25, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Alessandrini ER, Stafoggia M, Faustini A, Berti G, Canova C, De Togni A, Di Biagio K, Gherardi B, Giannini S, Lauriola P, Pandolfi P, Randi G, Ranzi A, Simonato L, Zauli Sajani S, Cadum E, Forastiere F, , on behalf of the EpiAir2 Study Group Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer and Socioeconomic Status in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer.
n A Abstract Prostate cancer (PC) screening remains controversial. We investigated whether screening reduces the difference in prostate cancer risk by socioeconomic status (SES). In 1996-2011, a total of 72,139 men from the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer were analyzed. Outcome measures were PC incidence, mortality, and participation in screening. SES indicators were educational level, income, and home ownership status (data obtained from the Statistics Finland registry). The mean duration of follow-up was 12.7 years. Higher SES was associated with a higher incidence of low- to moderate-r...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kilpeläinen TP, Talala K, Raitanen J, Taari K, Kujala P, Tammela TL, Auvinen A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

What Level of Risk Compensation Would Offset the Preventive Effect of Early Antiretroviral Therapy? Simulations From the TEMPRANO Trial.
Anglaret X, Ouattara E Abstract Whether risk compensation could offset the preventive effect of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission remains unknown. Using virological and behavioral data collected 12 months after inclusion in the TEMPRANO randomized trial of early ART (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 2009-2012), we estimated the risk of HIV transmission and compared it between the intervention (early ART; n = 490) and control (deferred ART; n = 467) groups. We then simulated increases in various sexual risk behaviors in the intervent...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jean K, Boily MC, Danel C, Moh R, Badjé A, Desgrées-du-Loû A, Eholié S, Lert F, Dray-Spira R, Anglaret X, Ouattara E Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Statistical Methods for Unusual Count Data: Examples From Studies of Microchimerism.
eisenring W Abstract Natural acquisition of small amounts of foreign cells or DNA, referred to as microchimerism, occurs primarily through maternal-fetal exchange during pregnancy. Microchimerism can persist long-term and has been associated with both beneficial and adverse human health outcomes. Quantitative microchimerism data present challenges for statistical analysis, including a skewed distribution, excess zero values, and occasional large values. Methods for comparing microchimerism levels across groups while controlling for covariates are not well established. We compared statistical models for quantitativ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 21, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Guthrie KA, Gammill HS, Kamper-Jørgensen M, Tjønneland A, Gadi VK, Nelson JL, Leisenring W Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Standardization Methods for the Harmonization of Phenotype Data: An Application to Cognitive Measures.
Abstract Standardization procedures are commonly used to combine phenotype data that were measured using different instruments, but there is little information on how the choice of standardization method influences pooled estimates and heterogeneity. Heterogeneity is of key importance in meta-analyses of observational studies because it affects the statistical models used and the decision of whether or not it is appropriate to calculate a pooled estimate of effect. Using 2-stage individual participant data analyses, we compared 2 common methods of standardization, T-scores and category-centered scores, to create c...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 21, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Griffith LE, van den Heuvel E, Raina P, Fortier I, Sohel N, Hofer SM, Payette H, Wolfson C, Belleville S, Kenny M, Doiron D Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations of Accelerometry-Assessed and Self-Reported Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Among US Adults.
Abstract The US physical activity (PA) recommendations were based primarily on studies in which self-reported data were used. Studies that include accelerometer-assessed PA and sedentary behavior can contribute to these recommendations. In the present study, we explored the associations of PA and sedentary behavior with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a nationally representative sample. Among the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort, 3,809 adults 40 years of age or older wore an accelerometer for 1 week and self-reported their PA levels. Mortality data were veri...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 19, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Evenson KR, Wen F, Herring AH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Little Steps Lead to Huge Steps-It's Time to Make Physical Inactivity Our Number 1 Public Health Enemy.
Abstract The analysis plan and article in this issue of the Journal by Evenson et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;000(000):0000-0000) is well-conceived, thoughtfully conducted, and tightly written. The authors utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set to examine the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity level and mortality and found that meeting the 2013 federal Physical Activity Guidelines resulted in a 35% reduction in risk of mortality. The timing of these findings could not be better, given the ubiquitous nature of personal accelerometer devices. The masses are alre...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 19, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Church TS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Direct Participation in and Indirect Exposure to the Occupy Central Movement and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Hong Kong Adults.
Abstract Despite the extensive history of social movements around the world, the evolution of population mental health before, during, and after a social movement remains sparsely documented. We sought to assess over time the prevalence of depressive symptoms during and after the Occupy Central movement in Hong Kong and to examine the associations of direct and indirect exposures to Occupy Central with depressive symptoms. We longitudinally administered interviews to 909 adults who were randomly sampled from the population-representative FAMILY Cohort at 6 time points from March 2009 to March 2015: twice each befo...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 19, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ni MY, Li TK, Pang H, Chan BH, Yuan BY, Kawachi I, Schooling CM, Leung GM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Influence of Maternal Gestational Hypertensive Disorders on Microvasculature in School-Age Children: The Generation R Study.
This study was performed as part of the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (2002-2012), among 3,748 pregnant mothers and their children for whom information was available on maternal blood pressure in different periods of pregnancy and gestational hypertensive disorders. Childhood retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were assessed at the age of 6 years. We found that higher maternal systolic and diastolic blood pressures in early pregnancy were associated with childhood retinal arteriolar narrowing (P
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yesil GD, Gishti O, Felix JF, Reiss I, Ikram MK, Steegers EA, Hofman A, Jaddoe VW, Gaillard R Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Relationship Between School Holidays and Transmission of Influenza in England and Wales.
Abstract School closure is often considered as an influenza control measure, but its effects on transmission are poorly understood. We used 2 approaches to estimate how school holidays affect the contact parameter (the per capita rate of contact sufficient for infection transmission) for influenza using primary care data from England and Wales (1967-2000). Firstly, we fitted an age-structured susceptible-infectious-recovered model to each year's data to estimate the proportional change in the contact parameter during school holidays as compared with termtime. Secondly, we calculated the percentage difference in th...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jackson C, Vynnycky E, Mangtani P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Smokeless Tobacco-An Important Contributor to Cancer, but More Work Is Needed.
Abstract In this issue of the Journal, Wyss et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;000(00):000-000) describe the association between use of smokeless tobacco and head and neck cancer in 11 US case-control studies. Despite use by an estimated 300 million people worldwide and prior evidence for a causal association with cancer, these products remain understudied. Data are particularly needed for persons who do not use cigarettes or other smoking tobacco products. With 6,772 cancer cases and 8,375 controls, the current study is larger than previous efforts, allowing evaluation of associations among never cigarette smokers. Imp...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Freedman ND Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Dietary Intakes Between a Large Online Cohort Study (Etude NutriNet-Sant é) and a Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé) in France: Addressing the Issue of Generalizability in E-Epidemiology.
Comparison of Dietary Intakes Between a Large Online Cohort Study (Etude NutriNet-Santé) and a Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé) in France: Addressing the Issue of Generalizability in E-Epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Oct 15; Authors: Andreeva VA, Deschamps V, Salanave B, Castetbon K, Verdot C, Kesse-Guyot E, Hercberg S Abstract Despite some advantages over traditional methods, Web-based studies elicit concerns about generalizability. To address this issue, we compared dietary intakes between an electronic (e-) cohort study and a nationa...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Andreeva VA, Deschamps V, Salanave B, Castetbon K, Verdot C, Kesse-Guyot E, Hercberg S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research