Depression and incident HIV in adolescent girls and young women in HPTN 068: Targets for prevention and mediating factors.
Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa is a critical public health problem. We assessed whether depressive symptoms in AGYW were longitudinally associated with incident HIV, and identified potential social and behavioral mediators. Data came from a randomized trial of a cash transfer conditional on school attendance among AGYW (ages 13 - 21) in rural Mpumalanga Province, South Africa during 2011-2017. We estimated the relationship between depressive symptoms and cumulative HIV incidence using a linear probability model, and asses...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 28, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Goin DE, Pearson RM, Craske MG, Stein A, Pettifor A, Lippman SA, Kahn K, Neilands TB, Hamilton EL, Selin A, MacPhail C, Wagner RG, Gomez-Olive FX, Twine R, Hughes JP, Agyei Y, Laeyendecker O, Tollman S, Ahern J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Fluoroquinolone Use and Seasonal Patterns of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Community-acquired Urinary Escherichia coli in a Large Urban Center.
Abstract Urinary tract infections caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli are among the most frequently encountered infections and a common reason for antimicrobial prescriptions. Resistance to fluoroquinolone antimicrobials, and in particular ciprofloxacin, has increased in recent decades. It is intuitive that variation in resistance is driven by changes in antimicrobial use, but careful study of this association requires the use of time-series methods. We studied seasonal variation in ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin resistance in community-acquired urinary E. coli isolates in Montrea...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 28, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Soucy JR, Schmidt AM, Quach C, Buckeridge DL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Premenopausal Use of Progestogens and Cutaneous Melanoma Risk: A French Prospective Cohort Study.
Abstract The influence of sex hormones on melanoma risk has been suggested, but the influence of premenopausal use of progestogens on this cancer has never been investigated. E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale) is a prospective cohort of 98,995 French women aged 40-65 years at inclusion. We used Cox models adjusted for age and melanoma risk factors. Over 1992-2008, 540 melanoma cases were ascertained among 79,558 women. We found a modest association between self-reported progestogen use and melanoma risk (Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02-1.47...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 28, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cervenka I, Rahmoun MA, Mahamat-Saleh Y, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fournier A, Kvaskoff M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Cardenas et al. Reply to "DNA Methylation and Prenatal Exposures".
Cardenas et al. Reply to "DNA Methylation and Prenatal Exposures". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Oct 24;: Authors: Cardenas A, Lutz SM, Everson TM, Hivert MF PMID: 31647094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cardenas A, Lutz SM, Everson TM, Hivert MF Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Is DNA Methylation an Actionable Mediator of Prenatal Exposure Effects on Child Health?
Abstract A substantial body of literature has shown robust associations between prenatal smoking exposure and DNA methylation levels. The pattern of DNA methylation can be used as a molecular signature of past prenatal smoking exposure and might also provide mechanistic insights into associations between prenatal smoking exposure and adverse health outcomes. In this issue of the Journal, Cardenas et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2019;000(0):000-000) evaluated whether DNA methylation mediates the association between prenatal smoking and low birth weight in a tissue that is mechanistically relevant to birth weight-the placen...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ladd-Acosta C, Fallin MD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Association of Body Mass Index with Pancreatic Cancer: Variation by Age at Body Mass Index Assessment.
We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among 963,317 adults aged 30-89 years at enrollment into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982. During follow-up through 2014, 8,354 participants died of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) per 5 BMI-units, calculated using proportional hazards regression, declined steadily with age at BMI assessment, from 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18, 1.33) in those aged 30-49 at enrollment to 1.13 (95% CI 1.02, 1.26) in those aged 70-89 (p-trend=0.005). Based on a HR of 1.25 per 5 BMI-units at age 45, we estimate 28% of US pancreatic cancer deaths in those...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jacobs EJ, Newton CC, Patel AV, Stevens VL, Islami F, Flanders WD, Gapstur SM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "association between maternal iodine intake in pregnancy and childhood neurodevelopment at age 18 months".
RE: "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL IODINE INTAKE IN PREGNANCY AND CHILDHOOD NEURODEVELOPMENT AT AGE 18 MONTHS". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Oct 23;: Authors: PMID: 31642467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Inflammation and Risk of Depression in HIV: Prospective Findings From the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.
We examined a sample of men who have sex with men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in prospective analyses of the association between inflammation and clinically relevant depression symptoms, defined as scores>20 on Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. We included 1,727 participants who contributed 9,287 person-visits from 1984 to 2010 (8,218 with HIV (HIV+) and 1,069 without (HIV-)). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to characterize underlying inflammatory processes from 19 immune markers. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to evaluate associations between ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lu H, Surkan PJ, Irwin MR, Treisman GJ, Breen EC, Sacktor N, Stall R, Wolinsky SM, Jacobson LP, Abraham AG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Validation of an Optimized Algorithm to Identify Persons Living with Diagnosed HIV from the New York State Medicaid Data, 2006-2014.
Abstract Algorithms are regularly used to identify persons living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) in the Medicaid data. To the authors knowledge, there are no published reports of an HIV algorithm from claims codes that have been compared to an HIV surveillance system to assess its sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value in identifying PLWDH. The aims of this study were to: 1) develop an algorithm that could identify PLWDH in New York Medicaid data from 2006-2014; and 2) validate this algorithm using the New York HIV surveillance system. Classification and regression tree analy...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Macinski SE, Gunn JKL, Goyal M, Neighbors C, Yerneni R, Anderson BJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Serum Retinol and Risk of Overall and Site-Specific Cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study.
Abstract Retinol, the most biologically active form of vitamin A, may influence cancer-related biologic pathways. However, results from observational studies of serum retinol and cancer risk have been mixed. We prospectively examined serum retinol and risk of overall and site-specific cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (n=29,104 men) conducted between 1985-1993, with follow-up through 2012. Serum retinol concentration was measured using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the association between baseline serum retinol qu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hada M, Mondul AM, Weinstein SJ, Albanes D Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Population-Level Sexual Mixing By HIV Status and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Montreal, Canada: Implications for HIV Prevention.
Abstract There are limited data on population-level mixing patterns by HIV status or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use. Using cross-sectional survey data (Engage, 2017-2018) of 1137 men who have sex with men ≥16 year-old in Montreal, we compared observed seroconcordance in the past-6-month sexual partnerships to what would have been observed by chance if zero individuals serosort. Of 5 recent partnerships where both individuals were HIV-negative, we compared observed concordance in PrEP use to the counterfactual if zero individuals selected partners based on PrEP use. We estimated the concordance by chance us...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wang L, Moqueet N, Lambert G, Grace D, Rodrigues R, Cox J, Lachowsky NJ, Noor SW, Armstrong HL, Tan DHS, Burchell AN, Ma H, Apelian H, Knight J, Messier-Peet M, Jollimore J, Baral S, Hart TA, Moore DM, Mishra S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Prospective Study of Dietary Patterns and Hearing Threshold Decline.
Abstract Healthier dietary patterns were associated with lower risk of self-reported hearing loss, but associations with worsening audiometric hearing thresholds have not been prospectively studied. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study among 3135 women (mean age 59 years) in the Nurses' Health Study II (2012-2018). Diet adherence scores for the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Alternate Mediterranean (AMED) diets and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) were calculated using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Baseline and 3-year follow-up hearing sensitivities were assessed...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Curhan SG, Halpin C, Wang M, Eavey RD, Curhan GC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Life expectancy disparities among adults with hiv in the united states and canada: the impact of a reduction in drug- and alcohol-related deaths using the lives saved simulation (lisso) model.
LIFE EXPECTANCY DISPARITIES AMONG ADULTS WITH HIV IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA: THE IMPACT OF A REDUCTION IN DRUG- AND ALCOHOL-RELATED DEATHS USING THE LIVES SAVED SIMULATION (LISSO) MODEL. Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Oct 11;: Authors: Althoff KN, Chandran A, Zhang J, Arevalo WM, Gange SJ, Sterling TR, Gill MJ, Justice AC, Palella FJ, Rebeiro PF, Silverberg MJ, Mayor AM, Horberg MA, Thorne JE, Rabkin CS, Mathews WC, Klein MB, Humes E, Lee J, Hogg R, Moore RD, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) of IeDEA Abstract Improvements in life expectancy among people with HIV ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Althoff KN, Chandran A, Zhang J, Arevalo WM, Gange SJ, Sterling TR, Gill MJ, Justice AC, Palella FJ, Rebeiro PF, Silverberg MJ, Mayor AM, Horberg MA, Thorne JE, Rabkin CS, Mathews WC, Klein MB, Humes E, Lee J, Hogg R, Moore RD, North American AIDS Cohort Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Association of Body Mass Index with Pancreatic Cancer: Variation by Age at Body Mass Index Assessment.
We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among 963,317 adults aged 30-89 years at enrollment into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982. During follow-up through 2014, 8,354 participants died of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) per 5 BMI-units, calculated using proportional hazards regression, declined steadily with age at BMI assessment, from 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18, 1.33) in those aged 30-49 at enrollment to 1.13 (95% CI 1.02, 1.26) in those aged 70-89 (p-trend=0.005). Based on a HR of 1.25 per 5 BMI-units at age 45, we estimate 28% of US pancreatic cancer deaths in those...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jacobs EJ, Newton CC, Patel AV, Stevens VL, Islami F, Flanders WD, Gapstur SM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Distinguishing Causation from Correlation in the Use of Correlates of Protection to Evaluate and Develop Influenza Vaccines.
Abstract There is increasing attention on the need to identify new immune markers for the evaluation of existing and new influenza vaccines. Immune markers that could predict individual protection against infection and disease, commonly called "correlates of protection" (CoPs), play an important role in vaccine development and licensing. Here, we discuss the epidemiological considerations when evaluating immune markers as potential CoPs for influenza vaccines and emphasize the distinction between correlation and causation. While an immune marker that correlates well with protection from infection may be ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 9, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lim WW, Leung NHL, Sullivan SG, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Cowling BJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Approaches for Equating Different Versions of the MMSE Administered in 22 Studies.
Abstract The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) is one of the most widely used cognitive screening tests in the world. However, its administration and content differs by country and region, precluding direct comparison of scores across versions. Our objective was to compare two methods of deriving comparable scores across MMSE versions. The International Neuropsychological Normative Database Initiative collected MMSE scores on over 120,000 individuals from 47 studies in 35 countries. We used MMSE data from N=80,559 adults aged 41-99 years from 22 studies that provided item-level response data. We first equated 14-point...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 9, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gross AL, Kueider-Paisley AM, Sullivan C, Schretlen D, International Neuropsychological Normative Database Initiative Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

State School Policies as Predictors of Physical and Mental Health: A Natural Experiment in the REGARDS Cohort.
Abstract We used differences in state school policies as natural experiments to evaluate the joint influence of educational quantity and quality on late-life physical and mental health. Using US census microsample data, historical measures of state compulsory schooling and school quality (term length, student-teacher ratio, and attendance rates) were combined via regression modeling on a scale corresponding to years of education (Policy Predicted Years of Education [PPYEd]). PPYEd values were linked to individual-level records for 8,920 black and 14,605 white participants aged 45+ in the REasons for Geographic and...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Brenowitz WD, Manly JJ, Murchland AR, Xuan Nguyen TT, Liu SY, Glymour MM, Levine DA, Crowe M, Hohman TJ, Dufouil C, Launer LJ, Hedden T, Eng CW, Wadley VG, Howard VJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Incidence of initial renal replacement therapy over the course of kidney disease in children.
;oz A Abstract The prospective Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort with data collected from 2003 to 2018 provided the first opportunity to characterize the incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) initiation over the life course of pediatric kidney diseases. Parametric generalized gamma models were fit and extrapolated for overall RRT, and by specific modality (dialysis or preemptive transplant). Children were stratified by diagnosis: n=650 with non-glomerular (mostly congenital), n=49 glomerular-hemolytic uremic syndrome, and n=216 with glomerular-non-HUS (heterogeneous childhood onset). Estimated years...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ng DK, Matheson MB, Warady BA, Mendley SR, Furth SL, Muñoz A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Thyroid incidentalomas in association with low-dose computed tomography in the National Lung Screening Trial.
Abstract Advances in cancer screening methods have opened avenues for incidental findings and cancer overdiagnosis. We performed a secondary analysis of the National Lung Screening Trial (enrollment from 2002-2004), a randomized controlled trial comparing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT, n=26,722) to chest radiography (CXR, n=26,732) for lung cancer detection, to examine incidental findings related to thyroid cancer (ThCa). Three screening rounds were included, and median follow-up was 6.6 and 6.5 years for LDCT and CXR, respectively. Radiologists reported lung and non-lung-related abnormalities. In the LDCT ar...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Loomans-Kropp HA, Dunn BK, Kramer BS, Pinsky P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Changing Science of HIV Epidemiology in the U.S.
Abstract In 1984, a large prospective study of the natural history of HIV infection, the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), was established; ten years later, the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was launched. Motivated by the merger and redesign of these long-standing HIV cohort studies in 2019, we review ways in which HIV epidemiology in the U.S. has transformed over the life of these studies and how this evolution has influenced planning for enrollment and follow-up. We highlight changes that have occurred in the three major domains that are central to epidemiologic science: changes to key populations at ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: D'Souza G, Golub ET, Gange SJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Religious Service Attendance, Religious Coping, and Risk of Hypertension in Women Participating in the Nurses' Health Study II.
Abstract The association between religious service attendance, religious coping, and hypertension is unclear. Prospective research and assessment of potential mediators is needed to understand this relationship. From 2001-2013, we prospectively followed 44,281 non-hypertensive women who provided information on religious service attendance and religious coping in the Nurses' Health Study II. Cox regression and mediation analyses were conducted to assess associations between religion and hypertension. There were 453,706 person-years of follow-up and 11,773 incident hypertension cases. Women who attended religious se...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Spence ND, Farvid MS, Warner ET, VanderWeele TJ, Tworoger SS, Argentieri MA, Shields AE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Growth During Infancy and Early Childhood and Its Association with Metabolic Risk Biomarkers at 11.5 Years.
Abstract The evidence that fetal life and early infancy are "critical" or "sensitive" ages for later cardiometabolic disease is based on flawed methods for comparing different age periods. Moreover, most previous studies have limited their focus to weight gain, rather than growth in length/height or body mass index (BMI). We undertook a secondary analysis of PROBIT (1996-2010), a birth cohort study nested within a large cluster-randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus, with repeated measures of weight and length/height from birth to 11.5 years of age. We used mixed effects linear models to a...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kramer MS, Zhang X, Martin RM, Oken E, Aris IM, Yang S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The critical importance of asking good questions: The role of epidemiology doctoral training programs.
Abstract Epidemiologic methods have seen tremendous advances in the last several decades. As important as they are, even the most sophistical approaches are unable to provide meaningful answers when the user lacks a clear study question. And yet instructors have more and more resources on how to conduct studies and analyze data, but few resources on how to ask clearly defined study questions that will guide those methods. Training programs have limited time for coursework, and if novel statistical estimation methods become the focus of instruction, programs that go this route may end up underemphasizing the proces...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fox MP, Edwards JK, Platt R, Balzer LB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Social Media as an Emerging Data Resource for Epidemiologic Research: Characteristics of Social Media Users and Non-users in the Nurses' Health Study II.
Abstract With advances in natural language processing and machine learning, researchers are leveraging social media as a low-cost, low-burden method to measure various psychosocial factors. Yet, it is unclear whether information derived from social media is generalizable to broader populations, especially middle-aged and older adults. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study II (2017-2018; n=49,045) including women aged 53-70 years, we assessed differences in sociodemographics, health conditions, behaviors, and psychosocial factors between regular and non-regular Facebook users. We evaluated effect sizes with phi ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kim ES, James P, Zevon ES, Trudel-Fitzgerald C, Kubzansky LD, Grodstein F Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Heterogeneous Exposure Associations in Observational Cohort Studies: The Example of Blood Pressure in Older Adults.
Abstract Heterogeneous exposure associations (HEAs) can be defined as differences in the association of a exposure with an outcome among subgroups that differ by a set of characteristics. This manuscript intends to foster discussion of HEAs in the epidemiological literature, and present a variant of the random forest algorithm that can be used to identify HEAs. We demonstrate the use of this algorithm in the setting of the association of systolic blood pressure and death in older adults. The training set included pooled data from the baseline examination of the Cardiovascular Health Study (1989-1993), the Health, ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Odden MC, Rawlings AM, Khodadadi A, Fern X, Shlipak MG, Bibbins-Domingo K, Covinsky K, Kanaya AM, Lee A, Haan MN, Newman AB, Psaty BM, Peralta CA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Win-win: Reconciling Social Epidemiology and Causal Inference.
;n MA Abstract Social epidemiology is concerned with the health effects of forces that are "above the skin". Although causal inference should be a key goal for social epidemiology, social epidemiology and quantitative causal inference have been seemingly at odds over the years. This does not have to be the case and in fact both fields stand to gain through a closer engagement of social epidemiology with formal causal inference approaches. We discuss the misconceptions that have led to an uneasy relationship between these two fields, propose a way forward that illustrates how the two areas can come togeth...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Galea S, Hernán MA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations Between Midlife but not Late-Life, Elevated Coronary Heart Disease Risk and Lower Cognitive Performance: Results From the Framingham Offspring Study.
Abstract It is unclear how coronary heart disease (CHD) risk across the adult lifespan affects latelife cognition. We estimated associations of mid-life and late-life elevated CHD risk with cognitive trajectories (general cognitive performance, processing speed/executive function, memory) in later life (after age 55 or 70 years) in N=2,892 Framingham Offspring Study participants who completed CHD risk assessments approximately every four years since 1971 and underwent neuropsychological testing between 1999-2014. We stratified analyses by apolipoprotein (APOE)-ε4 status. Using linear mixed effects models, ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Armstrong NM, Bangen KJ, Au R, Gross AL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Reply to: The Disillusionment of DOHaD Epidemiology.
PMID: 31576399 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Masarwa R, Perlman A, Levine H, Matok I Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Disillusionment of DOHaD Epidemiology.
Abstract DOHaD (the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) promises a greater understanding of early development but has left unresolved the balance of risks and benefits to offspring of medication use during pregnancy. Masarwa et al. (Am J Epi 2018;187(8):1817-1827) conducted a meta-analysis of the association between in utero acetaminophen exposure and risks for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A challenge of meta-analyzing results from observational studies is that summary measures of risk do not correspond to welldefined interventions when the individual...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gilman SE, Hornig M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Is this a Portrait of John Graunt? An Art History Mystery.
PMID: 31576411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Murray EJ, Farland LV, Caniglia EC, Dorans KS, DuPre NC, Hughes KC, Kim IY, Pernar CH, Tanz LJ, Zack RM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Exercise During the First Trimester and Infant Size at Birth: Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Causal Risk Difference.
Abstract This cohort study sought to estimate the differences in risk of delivering small and large for gestational age infants (SGA and LGA, respectively) for exercise during the first trimester of pregnancy (versus no exercise) among 2,286 women receiving care at Kaiser Permanente Northern California in 2013-2017. Exercise was assessed by questionnaire. SGA and LGA were determined by the sex and gestational age specific birthweight distributions of the 2017 U.S. Natality file. Risk differences were estimated by targeted maximum likelihood estimation, with and without data-adaptive prediction (machine learning). ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ehrlich SF, Neugebauer RS, Feng J, Hedderson MM, Ferrara A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response to Commentary.
PMID: 31573027 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Baranyi G, Sieber S, Cullati S, Pearce J, Dibben C, Courvoisier DS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Longitudinal Association of Perceived Neighborhood Disorder and Lack of Social Cohesion With Depression Among Adults Aged 50 and Over: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis From 16 High-Income Countries.
Abstract Although residential environment might be an important predictor of depression among older adults, systematic reviews point to a lack of longitudinal investigations and the generalizability of the findings is limited to a few countries. We used longitudinal data collected after 2012 in three surveys, including 15 European countries and the United States, and comprising 32,531 adults aged 50 and over. The risk of perceived neighborhood disorder and lack of social cohesion on depression was estimated using two-stage individual participant data metaanalysis; country-specific parameters were analyzed by meta-...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Baranyi G, Sieber S, Cullati S, Pearce J, Dibben C, Courvoisier DS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Social cohesion, depression and the role of welfare states.
Abstract In this issue of the journal, Baranyi et al. (1) examine the longitudinal associations between perceived neighborhood disorder, social cohesion and depressive symptoms among 50-year-olds in 16 different countries. An important contribution of their article is that they study how neighborhood-level social capital relates to depression in different welfare state contexts. Although the authors provide empirical evidence for some significant differences between welfare states in the relationship between social capital and depression, they offer us very little on the potential explanations. In this commentary,...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rostila M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Making Causal Inference More Social and (Social) Epidemiology More Causal.
Abstract A society's social structure and the interactions of its members determine when key drivers of health occur, for how long they last, and how they operate. Yet, it has been unclear whether causal inference methods can help us find meaningful interventions on these fundamental social drivers of health. Galea and Hernán propose that we place hypothetical interventions on a spectrum and estimate their effects by emulating trials, either through individual-level data analysis or systems science modeling (Galea & Hernán. Am J Epidemiol. 2019;XX(XX):XXXX-XXXX)). In this commentary, by way of ex...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jackson JW, Arah OA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Longitudinal Changes in the Genital Hiatus Preceding the Development of Pelvic Organ Prolapse.
;oz A PMID: 31565742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Handa VL, Blomquist JL, Caroll M, Roem J, Muñoz A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

RE: Extended Mortality Follow-up of a Cohort of 25,460 Workers Exposed to Acrylonitrile.
PMID: 31566207 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Young S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Counterfactuals in Social Epidemiology: Thinking Outside of "The Box".
Counterfactuals in Social Epidemiology: Thinking Outside of "The Box". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Sep 30;: Authors: VanderWeele TJ Abstract There are tensions inherent between many of social exposures examined within social epidemiology and the quantitative potential-outcomes-based causal inference framework. The potential outcomes framework characteristically requires a well-defined hypothetical intervention. As noted by Galea and Hernán (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX-XXXX), for many social exposures, such well-defined hypothetical exposures do not exist or there is no consensus on wha...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: VanderWeele TJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response to "RE: Extended Mortality Follow-up of a Cohort of 25,460 Workers Exposed to Acrylonitrile".
Response to "RE: Extended Mortality Follow-up of a Cohort of 25,460 Workers Exposed to Acrylonitrile". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Sep 30;: Authors: Koutros S, Lubin JH, Graubard BI, Blair A, Beane Freeman LE, Silverman DT PMID: 31566210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Koutros S, Lubin JH, Graubard BI, Blair A, Beane Freeman LE, Silverman DT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

What social epidemiology brings to the table: reconciling social epidemiology and causal inference.
Abstract In response to Galea & Hernán article, "AJE-00585-2019.R1 - Win-win: Reconciling social epidemiology and causal inference," we offer a definition of social epidemiology. We then argue that methodological challenges most salient to social epidemiology have not been adequately addressed in quantitative causal inference, that identifying causes is a worthy scientific goal, and that quantitative causal inference can learn from social epidemiology's methodological innovations. Finally, we make three recommendations for quantitative causal inference. PMID: 31566211 [PubMed - as supplie...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robinson WR, Bailey ZD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Win-win: Reconciling Social Epidemiology and Causal Inference.
;n MA PMID: 31566213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Galea S, Hernán MA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Public Transport Strikes and Their Relationship With Air Pollution, Mortality and Hospital Admissions.
In this study we aimed to assess whether public transport strikes were associated with increases in health events (overall, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, and cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations). We also explored if air pollution mediated those associations. We used data on strikes, health events and ambient air pollution (Nitrogen dioxide, NO2; Nitrogen monoxide, NO; Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, PM10; Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5μm, PM2.5; Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1μm, PM1; partic...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Triguero-Mas M, Martínez-Solanas È, Barrera-Gómez J, Agis D, Pérez N, Reche C, Alastuey A, Querol X, Pérez K, Basagaña X Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Two-phase, generalized case-control designs for quantitative longitudinal outcomes and Evolution of the case-control study.
Abstract The case-control study design has evolved substantially over the past half century. The design has been long-recognized as a way to increase efficiency by studying fewer subjects than would be required for a full-cohort study. Historically, it was thought that case-control studies required a rare disease assumption for valid risk ratio estimation, but it was later realized that rare disease wasn't necessary. Over time, the design and analysis methods were further modified to allow estimation of ratio ratios or to allow each person to serve as his/her own control, for example as we see with case-cohort, an...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Flanders WD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "scaling up hepatitis c prevention and treatment interventions for achieving elimination in the united states: a rural and urban comparison".
RE: "SCALING UP HEPATITIS C PREVENTION AND TREATMENT INTERVENTIONS FOR ACHIEVING ELIMINATION IN THE UNITED STATES: A RURAL AND URBAN COMPARISON". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Sep 25;: Authors: PMID: 31553430 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 24, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +53 new citations
53 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/09/18PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Dietary Inflammatory Index and Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Risk: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in New Caledonia.
P, Truong T Abstract Despite research efforts, current knowledge on the etiology of thyroid carcinoma remains limited. To explore the potential role of diet-induced inflammation, we examined the association between differentiated thyroid cancer risk and the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII®) in a population-based case-control study conducted in New Caledonia - a Pacific archipelago with one of the highest recorded thyroid cancer incidence rates in the world. The E-DII was computed from food frequency questionnaire information on usual dietary intake. Logistic regression analyses were performed...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Paquet M, Shivappa N, Hébert JR, Baron-Dubourdieu D, Boutron-Ruault MC, Guénel P, Truong T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Estimating the intracluster correlation coefficient for trachomatous inflammation-follicular in population-based trachoma prevalence surveys: results from a meta-regression of 261 standardised pre-intervention surveys in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Nigeria.
Abstract Sample sizes in cluster surveys must be greater than those in surveys using simple random sampling to provide similarly precise prevalence estimates, because results from subjects examined in the same cluster cannot be assumed to be independent. Therefore, a crucial aspect of cluster sampling is estimation of the intracluster correlation coefficient ($\rho$): the degree of relatedness of outcomes in a given cluster, defined as the proportion of total variance accounted for by between-cluster variation. In infectious diseases, this coefficient is related to transmission patterns and the natural history of ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Macleod CK, Bailey RL, Dejene M, Shafi O, Kebede B, Negussu N, Mpyet C, Olobio N, Alada J, Ablada M, Willis R, Hayes R, Solomon AW Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Centennial of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Department of Epidemiology: A Century of Epidemiologic Discovery and Education.
Abstract The Department of Epidemiology in the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health was founded in 1919, with Wade Hampton Frost as its inaugural Chair. In our Centennial Year, we review how our research and educational programs have changed. The early years focused on doctoral education in epidemiology and some limited undergraduate training for practice. Foundational work on concepts and methods linked to the infectious diseases of the day made major contributions to study designs and analytical methodologies, largely still in use. With the epidemiologic transition from infectious to chronic disease...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Celentano DD, Platz E, Mehta SH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Evolving Field Of Genetic Epidemiology: From Familial Aggregation To Genomic Sequencing.
Abstract The field of genetic epidemiology is relatively young and brings together genetics, epidemiology and biostatistics to identify and implement the best study designs and statistical analyses for identifying genes controlling risk to complex and heterogeneous diseases (i.e. those where genes and environmental risk factors both contribute to etiology). The field has moved quickly over the past 40 years partly because the technology of genotyping and sequencing has forced it to adapt while adhering to the fundamental principles of genetics. In the last two decades, the available tools for genetic epidemiology ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Duggal P, Ladd-Acosta C, Ray D, Beaty TH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

What Is Machine Learning: a Primer for the Epidemiologist.
Abstract Machine learning is a branch of computer science that has the potential to transform epidemiological sciences. Amid a growing focus on "Big Data," it offers epidemiologists new tools to tackle problems for which classical methods are not well-suited. In order to critically evaluate the value of integrating machine learning algorithms and existing methods, however, it is essential to address language and technical barriers between the two fields that can make it difficult for epidemiologists to read and assess machine learning studies. Here, we provide an overview of the concepts and terminology ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bi Q, Goodman KE, Kaminsky J, Lessler J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research