Cluster Randomized Test-Negative Design (CR-TND) Trials: A Novel and Efficient Method to Assess the Efficacy of Community Level Dengue Interventions.
We describe a novel cluster randomized trial methodology with a test-negative design, which offers advantages over traditional approaches. It utilizes outcome-based sampling of patients presenting with a syndrome consistent with the disease of interest, who are subsequently classified as test-positive cases or test-negative controls on the basis of diagnostic testing. We use simulations of a cluster trial to demonstrate validity of efficacy estimates under the test-negative approach. This demonstrates that, provided study arms are balanced for both test-negative and test-positive illness at baseline and that other test-neg...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Anders KL, Cutcher Z, Kleinschmidt I, Donnelly CA, Ferguson NM, Indriani C, O'Neill SL, Jewell NP, Simmons CP Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Ramadan, Pregnancy, Nutrition, and Epidemiology.
Abstract Ramadan is observed by 1.6 billion Muslims. In a paper published this month that uses data from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System site in Burkina Faso, it is found that experiencing Ramadan in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of child mortality. Ramadan exposes observant individuals to a specific pattern of nutrition and other behaviors, including changes in sleep patterns. How these behaviors might result in child mortality is not yet understood, and the findings reported in the paper should be replicated in other settings. PMID: 29741561 [PubMed - as supplied ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Stein AD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Matter of Survival: The Detrimental Consequences of Adverse Early Life Conditions.
Abstract Studies across different species have shown that moderate dietary restriction is associated with longer lifespan. Surprisingly however, when diet is restricted in prenatal life, the effect is completely the opposite. Animal work and human epidemiologic data have shown that undernutrition in utero negatively affects health in later life and reduces lifespan considerably. In this issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology, Schoeps et al. provide new evidence that variations in nutritional conditions during pregnancy relate to the future health of the unborn child (1). In a detailed analysis of data from ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: de Rooij SR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Authors' Response to Commentaries.
9741572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Authors' Response to Commentaries. Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Ramadan Exposure In utero and Child Mortality in Burkina Faso: Analysis of a Population-Based Cohort Including 41,025 Children.
te; A, Gabrysch S Abstract Ramadan exposure in utero can be regarded as a natural experiment to study how nutritional conditions in utero influence susceptibility to disease later in life. We analyzed data from rural Burkina Faso on 41,025 children born between 1993 and 2012, of which 25,093 to Muslim mothers. Ramadan exposure was assigned based on overlap between Ramadan dates and gestation, creating seven exclusive categories. We used proportional hazards regression with difference-in-differences to estimate the association between Ramadan exposure at different gestational ages and under-five mortality. Under-fi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schoeps A, van Ewijk R, Kynast-Wolf G, Nebié E, Zabré P, Sié A, Gabrysch S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "a decade of war: prospective trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among deployed us military personnel and the influence of combat exposure".
RE: "A DECADE OF WAR: PROSPECTIVE TRAJECTORIES OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER SYMPTOMS AMONG DEPLOYED US MILITARY PERSONNEL AND THE INFLUENCE OF COMBAT EXPOSURE". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 May 04;: Authors: Nevin RL PMID: 29733340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nevin RL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Four authors reply.
FOUR AUTHORS REPLY. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 May 04;: Authors: Donoho CJ, Bonanno GA, Porter B, Powell TM PMID: 29733346 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Donoho CJ, Bonanno GA, Porter B, Powell TM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "modeling risk-factor trajectories when measurement tools change sequentially during follow-up in cohort studies: application to dietary habits in prodromal dementia".
RE: "MODELING RISK-FACTOR TRAJECTORIES WHEN MEASUREMENT TOOLS CHANGE SEQUENTIALLY DURING FOLLOW-UP IN COHORT STUDIES: APPLICATION TO DIETARY HABITS IN PRODROMAL DEMENTIA". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 May 01;187(5):1135 Authors: PMID: 29718212 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Editorial: Synthesizing the Evidence on Prisoner Health-Taking Stock and Moving Forward.
PMID: 29718088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fazel S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Medical History, Medication Use, and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
Abstract Because persistent inflammation may render the nasopharyngeal mucosa susceptible to carcinogenesis, chronic ear/nose/throat (ENT) disease and its treatment might influence the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Existing evidence is, however, inconclusive and often based on methodologically suboptimal epidemiologic studies. In a population-based case-control study in southern China, we enrolled 2532 NPC cases and 2597 controls aged 20-74 years from 2010 to 2014. Odds ratios were estimated for associations between NPC risk and history of ENT and related medications. Any history of chronic ENT disease w...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Xiao X, Zhang Z, Chang ET, Liu Z, Liu Q, Cai Y, Chen G, Huang QH, Xie SH, Cao SM, Shao JY, Jia WH, Zheng Y, Liao J, Chen Y, Lin L, Ernberg I, Huang G, Zeng Y, Zeng YX, Adami HO, Ye W, Guangxi Medical University Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Measurement of Current Substance Use in a Cohort of HIV-infected Persons in Continuity HIV Care, 2007-2015.
Abstract Accurate, routine measurement of recent illicit substance use is challenging. The Johns Hopkins Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinical Cohort (Baltimore, MD) collects two imperfect but routine measurements of recent substance use: medical record review and self-interview. We used Bayesian latent class modeling to estimate sensitivity and specificity of each measurement, and prevalence of substance use among 2,064 patients engaged in care from 2007 to 2015. Sensitivity of medical record review was higher than sensitivity of self-interview for cocaine and heroin use; posterior estimates ranged from 44% to 76...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lesko CR, Keil AP, Moore RD, Chander G, Fojo AT, Lau B Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Names Have Been Changed to Protect the . . . Humanity: Person-First Language in Correctional Health Epidemiology.
Abstract After objections surfaced following a call for papers on "Prisoner Health," the editors of Epidemiologic Reviews decided to rename this year's volume "Incarceration and Health." In this commentary, we trace the origins of person-first language and explain why using appropriate terms in correctional health, including correctional health epidemiology, matters. We discuss the potential consequences of person-first language for justice-involved individuals and how inclusive language might affect the social, emotional, and physical well-being of individuals, families, and communities. Futur...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 25, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bedell PS, Spaulding AC, So M, Sarrett JC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Development, Construct Validity, and Predictive Validity of a Continuous Frailty Scale: Results from Two Large U.S. Cohorts.
We examined the association of the continuous frailty scale with mortality and disability. The unidimensional model fit the data satisfactorily; similar factor structure was observed across two cohorts. Gait speed and weight loss were the strongest and weakest indicators, respectively; grip strength, exhaustion, and physical activity had similar strength in measuring frailty. In each cohort, the continuous frailty scale was strongly associated with mortality and disability and persisted to be associated with outcomes among robust and prefrail persons classified by the FP scale. PMID: 29688247 [PubMed - as supplied by ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wu C, Geldhof GJ, Xue QL, Kim DH, Newman AB, Odden MC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression Analysis of Cohort Studies.
Abstract Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic during pregnancy. Evidence of neuro-disruptive properties is accumulating. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring of women exposed to acetaminophen during pregnancy. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane up to January 2017. Data were independently extracted and assessed by two researchers. Seven eligible retrospective cohorts included 132,738 mother and child pairs and with a follow-up period of 3-11 years. Pooled risk ratio (RR)...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Masarwa R, Levine H, Gorelik E, Reif S, Perlman A, Matok I Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Life-course longitudinal studies are needed to advance integration of genomics and social epidemiology.
LIFE-COURSE LONGITUDINAL STUDIES ARE NEEDED TO ADVANCE INTEGRATION OF GENOMICS AND SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Apr 11;: Authors: Belsky DW PMID: 29659654 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Belsky DW Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Real World Evidence for Regulatory Decisions: Concomitant Administration of Zoster Vaccine Live and Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine.
Abstract The US Food and Drug Administration is charged with expanding the use of real world evidence (RWE) for regulatory decisions. As a test case for RWE to support regulatory decisions, we present the scenario of concomitant vaccination with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). The prescribing information states that these vaccines should not be given concurrently, based on a small trial using varicella zoster virus antibody levels as a correlate of ZVL efficacy, even though ZVL protects against herpes zoster via cell-mediated immunity. We conducted an observati...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bruxvoort K, Sy LS, Luo Y, Tseng HF Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Getting serious about embodiment: cautions about interpreting novel findings of socioeconomic patterns in biological function.
GETTING SERIOUS ABOUT EMBODIMENT: CAUTIONS ABOUT INTERPRETING NOVEL FINDINGS OF SOCIOECONOMIC PATTERNS IN BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Apr 11;: Authors: Huang JY, Kaufman JS PMID: 29659674 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Huang JY, Kaufman JS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Multilevel Regression and Poststratification: A Modelling Approach to Estimating Population Quantities From Highly Selected Survey Samples.
Abstract Large-scale population health studies face increasing difficulties in recruiting representative samples of participants. Non-participation, item non-response and attrition, when follow-up is involved, often result in highly selected samples even in well-designed studies. We aimed to assess the potential value of multilevel regression and poststratification, a method previously used to successfully forecast US presidential election results, for addressing biases due to non-participation in the estimation of population descriptive quantities in large cohort studies. The investigation was performed as an ext...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Downes M, Gurrin LC, English DR, Pirkis J, Currier D, Spittal MJ, Carlin JB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Impact of public health responses during a measles outbreak in an Amish community in Ohio: modelling the dynamics of transmission.
ell B Abstract We quantified measles transmissibility during a measles outbreak in Ohio in 2014 to evaluate the impact of public health responses. Case incidence and the serial interval (time between symptom onset in primary and secondary cases) were used to assess trends in the effective reproduction number R (average number of secondary cases generated per case). A mathematical model was parameterized by early R values to determine outbreak size and duration if containment measures had not been initiated, and the impact of vaccination. As containment started, we found a fourfold decline in R (~4 to 1) over 2 wee...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gastañaduy PA, Funk S, Paul P, Tatham L, Fisher N, Budd J, Fowler B, de Fijter S, DiOrio M, Wallace GS, Grenfell B Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Chronic Medical Conditions and Perinatal Mental Illness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the association between maternal chronic medical conditions (CMC) and perinatal mental illness. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched to September, 2017. Data were extracted and quality was assessed using standardized instruments. We generated unadjusted and adjusted pooled odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using DerSimonian and Laird random effects models. The review included 16 papers representing 12 studies and 1,626,260 women. CMC overall was associated with perinatal mental illness overall (aPOR = 1.43, ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Brown HK, Qazilbash A, Rahim N, Dennis CL, Vigod SN Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Contribution of Smoking to Tuberculosis Incidence and Mortality in High Tuberculosis Burden Countries.
Abstract Globally, 10 million incident tuberculosis (TB) cases are reported annually; 95% of TB cases and 80% of tobacco users reside in low- and middle-income countries. Smoking approximately doubles the risk of TB disease and TB mortality. We estimated the proportion of annual incident TB cases and TB mortality attributable to tobacco smoking in 32 high TB burden countries. We obtained country-specific estimates of TB incidence, TB mortality, and smoking prevalence from the World Health Organization Global TB Report (2017), tobacco surveillance reports (2015), and the Tobacco Atlas. Risk ratios for the effect of...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Amere GA, Nayak P, Salindri AD, Venkat Narayan KM, Magee MJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Parental Unemployment and Offspring Psychotropic Medication Purchases: A Longitudinal Fixed-Effects Analysis of 138,644 Adolescents.
Abstract Parental unemployment is associated with worse adolescent mental health, but prior evidence is primarily based on cross-sectional studies subject to reverse causality and confounding. We assess the association between parental unemployment and changes in adolescent psychotropic medication purchases with longitudinal individual-level fixed-effects models that control for time-invariant confounding. We use a large register-based panel of Finnish adolescents aged 13-20 in 1987-2012 (N = 138,644), with annual measurements of mothers' and fathers' employment and offspring psychotropic medication purc...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Moustgaard H, Avendano M, Martikainen P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Improving Estimation of HIV Viral Suppression in the United States: A Method to Adjust HIV Surveillance Estimates From the Medical Monitoring Project Using Cohort Data.
Abstract CDC has estimated HIV viral suppression (VS) using two data sources. The National HIV Surveillance System estimate (50% of HIV-diagnosed persons in 2012) is derived from viral load reporting from a subset of jurisdictions that vary yearly. The Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) estimate (42% in 2012) is based on a sample of persons receiving HIV care during the first 4 months of each year. We developed the Cohort-adjustment Method to reconstruct VS estimates, accounting for persons receiving care later in the year. Using the HIV Outpatient Study cohort, we assessed timing of care receipt, demographics, and VS at last test (
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rosenberg ES, Bradley H, Buchacz K, McKenney J, Paz-Bailey G, Prejean J, Brooks JT, Shouse L, Sullivan PS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Microbiome and Population Health: Considerations to Enhance Study Design and Data Analysis in Observational and Interventional Epidemiology.
Abstract Measurement and characterization of the human microbiome in large population-based human studies has recently become a reality secondary to technological advances in high throughput DNA sequencing. These advances bring new challenges and knowledge gaps for study planning, data analysis and interpretation that are novel to large-scale epidemiological studies. In this issue of The Journal, Sinha et al. have provided data to inform statistical power and sample size requirements for microbiome studies in population-based settings. This work serves as a helpful starting point for study planning while also serv...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 3, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Demmer RT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Causal Model of Social Support on Antepartum Depression: A Marginal Structural Modeling Approach.
Abstract We used marginal structural models to evaluate associations of social support with antepartum depression in late pregnancy, had everyone had high social support both pre-pregnancy and during early pregnancy, as compared to having low social support at one of the two-time points or low social support at both time points. In 2012-2014, pregnant Peruvian women (N = 3,336) were recruited into a prospective cohort study (mean gestational age: 9 weeks). A follow-up interview (N = 2,279) was conducted (26-28 weeks of gestation). Number of available support providers and satisfaction with soci...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 3, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zhong QY, Gelaye B, VanderWeele TJ, Sanchez SE, Williams MA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Chlamydial ompA Diversity in Trachoma-Hyperendemic Communities Treated With Azithromycin.
This study found no evidence to support the theory that ompA diversity is associated with transmission of ocular chlamydia. PMID: 29617922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 3, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chin SA, Morberg DP, Alemayehu W, Melese M, Lakew T, Chen MC, Zhou Z, Doan T, Cevallos V, Lietman TM, Keenan JD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Breastfeeding And Childhood Wheeze: Age-Specific Analyses And Longitudinal Wheezing Phenotypes As Complimentary Approaches To The Analysis Of Cohort Data.
Abstract Systematic reviews suggest that breastfeeding is associated with a lower risk of asthma, although marked heterogeneity exists. Using UK Millennium Cohort Study data (n = 10,126 children born 2000-2001), we examined the association between breastfeeding duration and wheezing in the past year, first at each age-group separately (age 9 months, 3, 5, 7 and 11 years) and then as a longitudinal wheezing phenotype: 'early transient' (wheezing any time up to age 5 but not thereafter); 'late onset' (any time from age 7 but not beforehand); 'persistent' (any time up to age 5 and any time from age 7). The ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 3, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Quigley MA, Carson C, Kelly Y Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Estimating Counterfactual Risk Under Hypothetical Interventions in the Presence of Competing Events: Crystalline Silica Exposure and Mortality From two Causes of Death.
In this study we estimated risk for both these outcomes in relation to occupational silica exposure as well as the reduction in risk that would result from hypothetical interventions on exposure in a cohort of exposed workers. Analyses were carried out in an all-male study population consisting of 2342 California diatomaceous earth workers regularly exposed to crystalline silica, followed between 1942 and 2011. We estimated subdistribution risk for each event under the natural course and interventions of interest using the parametric g-formula to adjust for healthy worker survivor bias. The risk ratio for lung cancer morta...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 3, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Neophytou AM, Picciotto S, Brown DM, Gallagher LE, Checkoway H, Eisen EA, Costello S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Relationship of Lipids and Lipid-Lowering Medications With Cognitive Function: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Abstract Studies on the relationship of cholesterol concentrations and lipid-lowering medications with dementia risk have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we investigated the association of lipid concentrations and lipid-lowering medications with cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis across 3 different cognitive domains assessed by means of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI; version 2), the Digit Symbol Coding (DSC) Test, and the Digit Span (DS) Test in 2010-2012. After adjustment for sociodemographic and confounding factors, including concentrations of other lip...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ong KL, Morris MJ, McClelland RL, Hughes TM, Maniam J, Fitzpatrick AL, Martin SS, Luchsinger JA, Rapp SR, Hayden KM, Sandfort V, Allison MA, Rye KA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

2017 Articles of the Year, Reviewers of the Year, and Figure of the Year.
Authors: PMID: 29617948 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

RE: "Deployment And Preterm Birth Among US Army Soldiers".
RE: "Deployment And Preterm Birth Among US Army Soldiers". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Apr 01;187(4):897 Authors: PMID: 29617949 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Pre-Bombing Population Density in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Its Measurement and Impact on Radiation Risk Estimates in the Life Span Study of Atomic Bomb Survivors.
Abstract In the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors, differences in urbanicity between high-dose and low-dose survivors could confound the association between radiation dose and adverse outcomes. We obtained data on the pre-bombing population distribution in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and quantified the impact of adjustment for population density on radiation risk estimates for mortality (1950-2003) and incident solid cancer (1958-2009). Population density ranged from 4,671-14,378 and 5,748-19,149 people/km2 in urban regions of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. Radiation risk estimates for solid cancer morta...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 29, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: French B, Funamoto S, Sugiyama H, Sakata R, Cologne J, Cullings HM, Mabuchi K, Preston DL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mortality Among Mothers Whose Children Were Taken Into Care by Child Protection Services: A Discordant Sibling Analysis.
This study examines whether mothers who had a child taken into care by child protection services have higher mortality rates compared with rates seen in their biological sisters who did not have a child taken into care. We conducted this retrospective cohort study with 3,948 mothers whose oldest child was born in Manitoba, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2015 using linkable administrative data. These mothers were from 1,974 families where one sister had a child taken into care and one sister did not. We computed rate differences and hazard ratios of all-cause, avoidable, and unavoidable mortality. There were an ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wall-Wieler E, Roos LL, Nickel NC, Chateau D, Brownell M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Commentary: Gaze Aversion and Unnoticed Phenomena.
Abstract Child abuse is a social phenomenon that has been under-researched and under-supported. The scale of the problem is large with over 3 million US children reported for abuse or neglect each year. An estimated 15% of confirmed victims may be placed in out-of-home care to ensure their safety. Studies have not previously examined the impact of losing a child into foster care on maternal health and mortality. Family and maternal risk factors, such as teen pregnancy, intimate partner violence or drug and alcohol abuse, have been well documented as risk factors for maltreatment. The findings of Wall-Wieler, et al...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Runyan DK Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Quantification of Human Microbiome Stability Over Six Months: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies.
Abstract Temporal variation in microbiome measurements can reduce power. Quantification of this variation is essential for designing chronic disease studies. We analyzed 16S rRNA profiles in paired specimens separated by six months from three studies. We evaluated temporal stability by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Sample sizes to detect microbiome differences between equal numbers of cases and controls for a nested case-control design were calculated based on estimated ICCs. Across body sites, 12 phylum-level ICCs were greater than 0.5. Similarly, 11 alpha-diversity ICCs were greater tha...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sinha R, Goedert JJ, Vogtmann E, Hua X, Porras C, Hayes R, Safaeian M, Yu G, Sampson J, Ahn J, Shi J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Randomized Controlled Trial to Measure Spillover Effects of a Combined Water, Sanitation, and Handwashing Intervention in Rural Bangladesh.
Abstract Water, sanitation, and handwashing interventions may confer spillover effects on neighbors of intervention recipients by interrupting pathogen transmission. We measured geographically local spillovers in WASH Benefits, a cluster-randomized trial in rural Bangladesh, by comparing outcomes among neighbors of intervention vs. control participants. WASH Benefits randomly allocated geographically-defined clusters to a compound-level intervention (chlorinated drinking water, upgraded sanitation, and handwashing promotion) or control. From January to August 2015, in 180 clusters, we enrolled 1,799 neighboring ch...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Benjamin-Chung J, Amin N, Ercumen A, Arnold BF, Hubbard AE, Unicomb L, Rahman M, Luby SP, Colford JM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Dietary Protein and Preservation of Physical Functioning Among Middle-aged and Older Adults in the Framingham Offspring Study.
This study examines the independent relation between dietary protein and longitudinal changes in physical functioning among Framingham Offspring Study adults from Exams 5 (1991-1995) to 8 (2005-2008). Protein intakes were derived from three-day diet records during exams 3 and 5; functional status was determined over 12 years using seven items selected from standardized questionnaires. Multivariable models were used to adjust for age, sex, education, physical activity, smoking, height, and energy intake. Functional tasks that benefitted most from a higher-protein diet (≥1.2 vs.
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mustafa J, Ellison RC, Singer MR, Bradlee ML, Kalesan B, Holick MF, Moore LL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and exposure to diesel exhaust in a Danish cohort.
In this study, we investigated the association between occupational exposures to DE and odds of ALS. ALS cases were identified from the Danish National Patient Registry 1982 to 2013 and individually matched to 100 controls per case based on birth year and sex. Using occupational history since 1964 from the Danish Pension Fund, Cumulative DE exposures were estimated using a job exposure matrix. Associations were evaluated using conditional logistic regression analyses and stratified by sex. DE exposure at 10-year lag periods was positively associated with ALS in men ever exposed (aOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.38). For men with...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dickerson AS, Hansen J, Gredal O, Weisskopf MG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Ten Year Immunopersistence Study of Hepatitis E Antibodies in Rural Bangladesh.
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute, viral hepatitis in Southeast Asia. Several studies have suggested that antibody persistence after HEV infection may be transient, possibly increasing the risk of re-infection and contributing to the frequency of outbreaks in HEV endemic regions. The specific conditions under which antibodies to HEV are lost, or "sero-reversion" occurs, are poorly understood. Here, one hundred participants from population-based studies in rural Bangladesh were revisited in 2015, ten years after a documented HEV infection to examine long-term antibody persistence....
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kmush BL, Zaman K, Yunus M, Saha P, Nelson KE, Labrique AB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Landmark Models for Optimizing the Use of Repeated Measurements of Risk Factors in Electronic Health Records to Predict Future Disease Risk.
We present a computationally feasible statistical approach to address the methodological challenges in utilizing historical repeat measures of multiple risk factors recorded in electronic health records to systematically identify patients at high risk of future disease. The approach is principally based on a two-stage dynamic landmark model. The first stage estimates current risk factor values from all available historical repeat risk factor measurements by landmark-age-specific multivariate linear mixed-effects models with correlated random-intercepts, which account for sporadically recorded repeat measures, unobserved da...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Paige E, Barrett J, Stevens D, Keogh RH, Sweeting MJ, Nazareth I, Petersen I, Wood AM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Dietary Protein Intake and Early Menopause.
PMID: 29584818 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Macdonald HM, Yang T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Antiretroviral Therapy and Mortality in Rural South Africa: A Comparison of Causal Modeling Approaches.
n T Abstract Estimation of causal effects from observational data is a primary goal of epidemiology. The use of multiple methods with different assumptions relating to exchangeability improves causal inference by demonstrating robustness across assumptions. We estimate the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on mortality in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa from 2007-2011 using two methods with substantially different assumptions: the regression discontinuity design (RDD), and inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models (IPW). The RDD analysis took advantage of a CD4 count-based threshold for AR...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Oldenburg CE, Seage GR, Tanser F, De Gruttola V, Mayer KH, Mimiaga MJ, Bor J, Bärnighausen T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "best practices for gauging evidence of causality in air pollution epidemiology".
RE: "BEST PRACTICES FOR GAUGING EVIDENCE OF CAUSALITY IN AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Mar 23;: Authors: Cox LA PMID: 29584873 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cox LA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response to AJE-00136-2018 - Dietary Protein Intake and Early Menopause (Macdonald) -Letter to the Editor.
PMID: 29584892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bertone-Johnson ER Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations Between Maternal Obesity and Pregnancy Hyperglycemia and Timing of Pubertal Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Population-Based Study.
Abstract Early puberty is associated with adverse health outcomes. We investigated whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity is associated with daughters' pubertal timing using 15,267 racially/ethnically diverse Kaiser Permanente Northern California members age 6-11 years with pediatrician-assessed Tanner staging (2003-2017). We extracted maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy from the electronic health record. Using a proportional hazards model with interval censoring we examined the associations between maternal obesity and girl's pubertal timing, and effect modification by race/ethnicity and mediat...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kubo A, Deardorff J, Laurent CA, Ferrara A, Greenspan LC, Quesenberry CP, Kushi LH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Relative Performance of Propensity Score Matching Strategies for Subgroup Analyses.
Abstract Post-approval drug safety studies often use propensity scores (PS) to adjust for a large number of baseline confounders. These studies may involve examining whether treatment safety varies across subgroups. There are many ways a PS could be used to adjust for confounding in subgroup analyses. These methods have trade-offs that are not well understood. We conducted a plasmode simulation to compare relative performance of 5 methods involving PS matching for subgroup analysis, including methods frequently used in applied literature whose performance has not been previously directly compared. These methods va...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wang SV, Jin Y, Fireman B, Gruber S, He M, Wyss R, Shin H, Ma Y, Keeton S, Karami S, Major JM, Schneeweiss S, Gagne JJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Association of Arsenic Exposure and Arsenic Metabolism with the Metabolic Syndrome and its Individual Components: Prospective Evidence from the Strong Heart Family Study.
Abstract Inorganic arsenic exposure is ubiquitous and both exposure and inter-individual differences in its metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk. The association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic syndrome and its individual components, however, is relatively unknown. We used poisson regression with robust variance to evaluate the association between baseline arsenic exposure (urine arsenic levels) and metabolism (relative percentage of arsenic species over their sum) with incident metabolic syndrome and its individual components (elevated waist circumference, eleva...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Spratlen MJ, Grau-Perez M, Best LG, Yracheta J, Lazo M, Vaidya D, Balakrishnan P, Gamble MV, Francesconi KA, Goessler W, Cole SA, Umans JG, Howard BV, Navas-Acien A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Prognostic impact of main frailty domain trajectories on 5-year mortality in very old adults: results from the PARTAGE cohort study.
The objectives were to identify trajectories of nutrition, cognitive function and autonomy over time in very old adults and to assess their impact on mortality. A cohort, including subjects aged≥80 years in 2007-2008, who were followed for 5 years, in 72 Italian and French nursing homes, was used for post-hoc analyses. Body mass index (BMI), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and index of activities of daily living (ADL) were assessed at 4 time points. Vital status was collected during the follow-up. Latent trajectory and Cox models were used. In the 710 subjects included, the mean(SD) age at inclusion was 88.0(0.8) ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Agrinier N, Erpelding ML, Labat C, Gautier S, Guillemin F, Benetos A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "prospective cohort study of uterine fibroids and miscarriage risk".
RE: "PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY OF UTERINE FIBROIDS AND MISCARRIAGE RISK". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Mar 14;: Authors: Nezhat CH, Pfeifer S, Bhagavath B, Lindheim SR, Petrozza JC, Chan PTK, Palter SF PMID: 29547879 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nezhat CH, Pfeifer S, Bhagavath B, Lindheim SR, Petrozza JC, Chan PTK, Palter SF Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations Between the Built Environment and Objective Measures of Sleep: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Abstract Although dense neighborhood built environments support increased physical activity and lower obesity, these features may also disturb sleep. Therefore, we sought to understand the association between the built environment and objectively measured sleep. From 2010 to 2013, we analyzed data from examination 5 of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a diverse population from 6 US cities. We fit multilevel models that assessed the association between the built environment (Street Smart Walk Score, social engagement destinations, street intersections, and population density) and sleep duration or efficie...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Johnson DA, Hirsch JA, Moore KA, Redline S, Diez Roux AV Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research