Trajectories of Nonagenarian Health: Gender, Age, and Period Effects.
Abstract The US population aged 90 years and older is growing rapidly and there are limited data on their health. The Cardiovascular Health Study is a prospective study of black and white adults ≥65 years recruited in two waves (1989-90 and 1992-93) from Medicare eligibility lists in Forsyth County, North Carolina; Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We created a synthetic cohort of the 1,889 participants who had reached age 90 at baseline or during follow-up through July 16th, 2015. Participants entered the cohort at 90 years and we evaluated their changes ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Odden MC, Koh WJH, Arnold AM, Rawlings AM, Psaty BM, Newman AB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Healthy Lifestyle Index in Relation to Risk of Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer Among Women in the Women's Health Initiative Study.
Abstract Lifestyle-related factors influence risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers, but few studies have examined their joint associations with risk of these cancers. Using multivariable Cox regression models, we assessed the association of a healthy lifestyle index ((HLI) - a composite score (range 0-20) involving diet, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index and smoking; higher scores represent healthier behavior) - with risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers among 108,136 postmenopausal women who were recruited in the Women's Health Initiative study between 1993 and 1998. After a median follo...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Arthur R, Brasky TM, Crane TE, Felix AS, Kaunitz A, Shadyab AH, Qi L, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Rohan TE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Role of Comorbidity on Mortality after Hip Fracture: A Nationwide Norwegian Study of 38,126 Women with Hip Fracture Matched to a General Population Comparison Cohort.
en HT Abstract Hip fracture patients often have comorbidities. We investigated whether the combination of comorbidity and hip fracture could explain the previously observed excess mortality among hip fracture patients compared to the general population. Using a population-based matched design with 38,126 Norwegian women suffering a hip fracture in the period 2009-2015 and the same number women in a matched comparison cohort, we matched on pre-fracture comorbidity, age, and education. We estimated relative survival, and additive and multiplicative comorbidity-hip fracture interaction. An additive comorbidity-hip fr...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lunde A, Tell GS, Pedersen AB, Scheike T, Apalset EM, Ehrenstein V, Sørensen HT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Do Birthweight and Weight Gain During Infancy and Early Childhood Explain Variation in Mammographic Density in Women in Midlife? Results From Cohort and Sibling Analyses.
Abstract High birthweight is associated with increased breast cancer risk, and less consistently with higher mammographic density (MD). In contrast, adolescent body size has been consistently, inversely associated with both MD and breast cancer risk. It is unclear when the direction of these associations change and whether weight gain in infancy is associated with MD. We evaluated the associations of birthweight and postnatal weight (measured at 4 months, 1 year and 4 years) by absolute and velocity measures (relative within-cohort percentile changes) with adult MD, assessed using Cumulus, using linear regression ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Terry MB, Cohn BA, Goldberg M, Flom JD, Wei Y, Houghton LC, Tehranifar P, McDonald JA, Protacio A, Cirillo P, Michels KB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Statistical Inference on Health Disparity Indices for Complex Surveys.
Abstract The National Cancer Institute developed the Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) to facilitate research on health disparities. HD*Calc calculates multiple measures of health disparities using data collected from population-based disease surveillance systems, such as cancer registries. In this paper, we extend the use of HD*Calc to complex survey data by developing plug-in point estimators and Taylor linearization variance estimators that consider complex designs: stratification, multistage clustering, and differential weighting. Our simulation indicates that the plug-in estimators are approximately unb...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Li Y, Yu M, Zhang J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Retraction: "analysis of the strength of legal firearms restrictions for perpetrators of domestic violence and their associations with intimate partner homicide".
RETRACTION: "ANALYSIS OF THE STRENGTH OF LEGAL FIREARMS RESTRICTIONS FOR PERPETRATORS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDE". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Nov 01;187(11):2491 Authors: PMID: 30383262 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Analysis of the Strength of Legal Firearms Restrictions for Perpetrators of Domestic Violence and Their Associations With Intimate Partner Homicide.
Abstract In this research, we estimate the association of firearm restrictions for domestic violence offenders with intimate partner homicides (IPHs) on the basis of the strength of the policies. We posit that the association of firearm laws with IPHs depends on the following characteristics of the laws: 1) breadth of coverage of high-risk individuals and situations restricted; 2) power to compel firearm surrender or removal from persons prohibited from having firearms; and 3) systems of accountability that prevent those prohibited from doing so from obtaining guns. We conducted a quantitative policy evaluation us...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zeoli AM, McCourt A, Buggs S, Frattaroli S, Lilley D, Webster DW Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The authors reply.
THE AUTHORS REPLY. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Oct 31;: Authors: PMID: 30380002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 31, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "socioeconomic position and dna methylation age acceleration across the lifecourse".
RE: "SOCIOECONOMIC POSITION AND DNA METHYLATION AGE ACCELERATION ACROSS THE LIFECOURSE". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Oct 31;: Authors: PMID: 30380005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 31, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mortality and Chronic Disease Risk Associated With Poor Life Satisfaction: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
The objective was to estimate the risk of developing chronic disease and death according to life satisfaction among a population-based cohort in Ontario, Canada (N = 73,904). The cohort included three pooled cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003-2008), linked to 6 years of follow-up (to 2015) using population-based health databases and validated disease-specific registries. The databases capture incident and prevalent diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease and mortality. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazards of incident chronic disease and ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rosella LC, Fu L, Buajitti E, Goel V Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Propensity Score-Based Estimators with Multiple Error-Prone Covariates.
Abstract Propensity score methods are an important tool to help reduce confounding in non-experimental studies. Most propensity score methods assume that covariates are measured without error. However, covariates are often measured with error, which leads to biased causal effect estimates if the true underlying covariates are the actual confounders. Although some studies have investigated the impact of a single mismeasured covariate on estimating a causal effect and proposed methods for handling the measurement error, even fewer papers have investigated the case where multiple covariates are mismeasured, and none ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hong H, Aaby DA, Siddique J, Stuart EA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Is the Black-White Mental Health Paradox Consistent across Gender and Psychiatric Disorders?
This study assessed whether the Black-White mental health epidemiological paradox (i.e. Blacks' lower or similar rates of mental disorder relative to Whites) extends across 12 lifetime and past-year psychiatric disorders and varies by gender. We used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) and National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003 (N=4,584 African Americans; 6,668 non-Hispanic Whites). Results showed overwhelming evidence of the paradox across lifetime and past-year disorders for women and men. In addition, Blacks' mental health advantage over Whites widened after adjusting for socioecono...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Erving CL, Thomas CS, Frazier C Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Prospective Cohort Study Examining the Association Between Maternal Arsenic Exposure, Fetal Loss, and Neonatal Mortality.
Abstract Arsenic crosses the placenta, possibly increasing the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. We aimed to examine the association between maternal arsenic exposure and fetal/neonatal survival using a prospective cohort of 1,616 maternal-infant pairs recruited at ≤ 16 weeks gestational age in Bangladesh (2008-2011). Arsenic concentration was measured in maternal drinking water at enrollment. Extended Cox regression (both time-dependent coefficients and step functions) was used to estimate the time-varying association between maternal arsenic exposure and fetal/neonatal death (all mortality between enroll...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ahmed SM, Noble BN, Joya SA, Hasan OS, Lin PI, Rahman ML, Mostofa G, Quamruzzaman Q, Rahman M, Christiani DC, Kile ML Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Restrictive Immigration Law and Birth Outcomes of Immigrant Women.
Abstract Unauthorized immigration is one of the most contentious policy issues in the United States. In an attempt to curb unauthorized migration, many states have considered restrictive laws intended to make life so difficult for unauthorized immigrants that they would choose to leave the country. Arizona's Senate Bill 1070, enacted in 2010, pioneered these efforts. Using population-level natality data and causal inference methods, we examine the effect of SB1070 on infants exposed before birth in Arizona. Prenatal exposure to the bill resulted in lower birthweight among Latina immigrant women, but not among US-b...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Torche F, Sirois C Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Estimating the Severity Profile of Enterovirus A71 Infections in Children: A Bayesian Synthesis Framework.
Abstract Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is responsible for the majority of severe hand- foot-and-mouth disease, but little evidence is available on the severity profile of EV-A71 infections. We formulated a hierarchical Bayesian model which synthesized data on EV-A71 associated diseases/events and EV-A71 antibody responses to infection among unvaccinated children from large clinical trials of EV-A71 vaccination which were conducted in Jiangsu and Beijing during 2012 and 2013, to reconstruct the severity profile in a unified framework. On average 15.1% of the children aged 6 to 35 months were infected by EV-A71 during on...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yang B, Lau EHY, Cowling BJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Integrating Clinical and Epidemiological Data on Allergic Diseases Across Birth Cohorts: a MeDALL Harmonization Study.
as I, Narduzzi S, Petherick ES, Porta D, Rancière F, Standl M, Torrent M, Wijga AH, Wright J, Kogevinas M, Guerra S, Sunyer J, Keil T, Bousquet J, Maier D, Anto JM, Garcia-Aymerich J Abstract International collaborations among birth cohorts to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original individual participant data. We harmonized data from 14 birth cohorts, with three to 20 follow-ups, from nine European countries, as part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Asthma and Allergies (MeDALL) proje...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Benet M, Albang R, Pinart M, Hohmann C, Tischer CG, Annesi-Maesano I, Baïz N, Bindslev-Jensen C, Lødrup Carlsen KC, Carlsen KH, Cirugeda L, Eller E, Fantini MP, Gehring U, Gerhard B, Gori D, Hallner E, Kull I, Lenzi J, McEachan R, Minina E, Momas I, Nar Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Development and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Rule to Predict Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Nursing Homes.
Abstract The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among nursing home residents is high. Healthcare workers (HCWs) often serve as a vector in the transmission of MRSA. The ability to identify residents who are likely to transmit MRSA to HCWs' hands and clothing during clinical care is important so that infection control measures, such as Contact Precautions, can be employed. We developed a clinical prediction rule with demographics and clinical characteristics as predictors of MRSA transmission to HCWs' gowns collected from residents of community nursing homes in Maryland an...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jackson SS, Lydecker AD, Magder LS, Roghmann MC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Looking Back, Looking Forward.
Abstract In commemoration of the centennial of the 1918 influenza pandemic, the American Journal of Epidemiology has convened a collection of 12 articles that further illuminate the epidemiology of that pandemic and consider whether we would be more prepared if an equally deadly influenza virus were to emerge again. In the present commentary, we place these 12 articles in the context of a growing body of work on the archeo-epidemiology of past pandemics, the socioeconomic and geographic drivers of influenza mortality and natality impact, and renewed interest in immune imprinting mechanisms and the development of n...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 20, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Viboud C, Lessler J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

General Relative Rate Models for the Analysis of Case-Cohort Designs.
We describe how standard statistical software can be used to fit a broad class of general relative rate models to case-cohort data and derive confidence intervals. We focus on a case-cohort design in which a roster has been assembled and events ascertained, but additional information needs to be collected on explanatory variables. The additional information is ascertained just for individuals who experience the event of interest and for a sample of the cohort members enumerated at study entry. One appeal of such a case-cohort design is that this sample of the cohort may be used to support analyses of several outcomes. The ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Richardson DB, Langholz B, Kelly-Reif K Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Dynamic Model for Evaluation of the Bias of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates from Observational Studies.
Abstract As influenza vaccination is now widely recommended in the United States, observational studies based on patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI) remain the only option to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We developed a dynamic probability model to evaluate bias of VE estimates from passive surveillance cohort, test-negative, and traditional case-control studies. The model includes two covariates (health status and health awareness), which may affect the probabilities of vaccination, developing ARI, and seeking medical care. Our results suggest that test-negative studies produce unbiased...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ainslie KEC, Shi M, Haber M, Orenstein WA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Analyzing Vaccine Trials in Epidemics with Mild and Asymptomatic Infection.
Abstract Vaccine efficacy against susceptibility to infection (VES), regardless of symptoms, is an important endpoint of vaccine trials for pathogens with a high proportion of asymptomatic infection, as such infections may contribute to onward transmission and long-term sequelae such as Congenital Zika Syndrome. However, estimating VES is resource-intensive. We aim to identify approaches to accurately estimate VES when limited information is available and resources are constrained. We model an individually randomized vaccine trial by generating a network of individuals and simulating an epidemic. The disease natur...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kahn R, Hitchings M, Wang R, Bellan S, Lipsitch M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Social Isolation and Mortality in US Black and White Men and Women.
Abstract Social isolation is associated with higher mortality in studies of mostly white adults, yet associations among black adults is unclear. This prospective cohort study evaluated whether associations of social isolation with all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality differ by race and sex. Adults enrolled into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982/1983 were followed for mortality through 2012 (n = 580,182). Sex- and race-specific multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for associations of a five-point social isolation score with risk of death. Soci...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Alcaraz KI, Eddens KS, Blase JL, Diver WR, Patel AV, Teras LR, Stevens VL, Jacobs EJ, Gapstur SM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Identification of the Fraction of Indolent Tumors and Associated Overdiagnosis in Breast Cancer Screening Trials.
Abstract It is generally accepted that some screen-detected breast cancers are overdiagnosed and would not progress to symptomatic cancer if left untreated. However, precise estimates of the fraction of non-progressive cancers remain elusive. In recognition of the weaknesses of overdiagnosis estimation methods based on excess incidence, there is a need for model-based approaches that accommodate non-progressive lesions. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of a generalized breast cancer natural history model that allows for a mixture of progressive and indolent lesions. We provide a formal proof of global structu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ryser MD, Gulati R, Eisenberg MC, Shen Y, Hwang ES, Etzioni RB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Misclassification in Assessment of First Trimester In-Utero Exposure to Drugs used Proximally to Conception - The Example of Letrozole Utilization for Infertility Treatment.
Abstract Letrozole is an aromatase inhibitor with an unapproved use for ovulation induction with infertility. Because of the proximity of this use to conception, we selected letrozole to explore the effect of imperfect estimation in the pregnancy start on misclassification in measurement of first-trimester exposure. Using electronic health data from the United States Sentinel database (2001-2015), we identified live-birth pregnancies conceived through in-vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination. The pregnancy start was calculated using 1) a validated algorithm to estimate the last menstrual period (LMP), 2...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bird ST, Toh S, Sahin L, Andrade SE, Gelperin K, Taylor L, Song J, Hampp C Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Persistent Signal from Television Viewing in Childhood on Overweight and Obesity Throughout the Life Course.
Abstract Few studies address the association between television (TV) viewing in childhood and overweight/obesity across the life course. Among 30,921 mother-daughter dyads from the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort (2001) and the Nurses' Health Study II (1989 and 1991), the following information was collected: daughter's TV viewing and physical activity (PA) at ages 3─5 and 5─10, somatotype at ages 5 and 10, and body mass index at age 18 and in adulthood (ages 26─45). Using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, TV viewing for ≥4 hours/day versus no TV at ages 3─5 was associated with odds ratios of ov...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tahir MJ, Willett WC, Forman MR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Addressing Gaps in HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Care to Reduce Racial Disparities in HIV Incidence in the United States.
Abstract The potential for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the racial disparities in HIV incidence in the United States may be limited by racial gaps in PrEP care. We used a network-based mathematical model of HIV transmission for younger black and white men who have sex with men (B/WMSM) in the Atlanta area to evaluate how race-stratified transitions through the PrEP care continuum from initiation to adherence and retention could impact HIV incidence overall and disparities in incidence between races, using current empirical estimates of BMSM continuum parameters. Relative to a no-PrEP scenario, impl...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jenness SM, Maloney KM, Smith DK, Hoover KW, Goodreau SM, Rosenberg ES, Weiss KM, Liu AY, Rao DW, Sullivan PS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Multi-state Model for Analysing Transitions between Body Mass Index Categories During Childhood - Generation XXI Birth Cohort Study.
Abstract Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young children has risen dramatically in the last decades in most developed countries. Childhood overweight and obesity are known to have immediate and long-term health consequences and are now recognized important public health concerns. We used a Markov 4-state model with states defined by four body mass index (BMI) categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) to study the rates of transition of children aged 4 to 10 years to higher or lower BMI categories. This model was also used to study the relation of explanatory variables to their transitio...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Moreira C, Meira-Machado L, Fonseca MJ, Santos AC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Methods to Generalize Randomized Clinical Trial Results without Individual-Level Data for the Target Population.
e R Abstract Our study explored the application of methods to generalize randomized controlled trial results to a target population without individual-level data. We compared four methods using aggregate data for the target population to generalize the JUPITER trial results to a target population of trial-eligible patients in Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The gold-standard method used individual data from both the trial and CPRD to predict probabilities of being sampled in the trial and reweight trial participants to reflect CPRD patient characteristics. Methods 1 and 2 used weighting methods based o...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hong JL, Webster-Clark M, Funk MJ, Stürmer T, Dempster S, Cole SR, Herr I, LoCasale R Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Target Validity and the Hierarchy of Study Designs.
Abstract In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to problems of external validity, specifically to methodological approaches for both quantitative generalizability and transportability of study results. However, most approaches to these issues have considered external validity separately from internal validity. Here, we argue that considering either internal or external validity in isolation may be problematic. Further, we argue that a joint measure of the validity of an effect estimate with respect to a specific population of interest may be more useful: we call this proposed measure target validity. ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Westreich D, Edwards JK, Lesko CR, Cole SR, Stuart EA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Life expectancy with and without dementia: a population-based study of dementia burden and preventive potential.
Abstract Reliable population estimates of life-expectancy with dementia are required for shaping health care policy. 10,348 persons from the population-based Rotterdam Study were followed from 1990-2015 for dementia and death. We created multi-state lifetables, and assessed the effect of postponing disease onset. During 120,673 person-years, 1,666 persons developed dementia, and 6,150 died. Overall life-expectancy of women ranged from 18.0 years (95% confidence interval:17.8-18.2) at age 65 to 2.3 years (2.2-2.3) at age 95. Of total life-expectancy at age 65, 5.7%, i.e. 1.0 year (1.0-1.1), was lived with dementia,...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wolters FJ, Tinga LM, Dhana K, Koudstaal PJ, Hofman A, Bos D, Franco OH, Ikram MA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Reductions in Cigarettes per Day and Mortality Among Older Adults in The United States.
We examined the association of changes in CPD with subsequent mortality (2004-2011) among 253,947 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We identified cigarette smokers who quit, decreased, maintained, or increased their CPD between ages 25-29 and 50-59 using a questionnaire assessing smoking history in 2004-2005. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were from multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression. Relative to never smokers, smokers who maintained a consistent CPD had 2.93 times (95%CI: 2.82, 3.05) higher all-cause mortality risk, with still higher risks observed in partici...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Inoue-Choi M, Hartge P, Park Y, Abnet CC, Freedman ND Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mediators of the Association Between Religious Service Attendance and Mortality.
Abstract Mounting evidence consistently shows associations between religious service attendance and reduced risk of mortality; yet research identifying mediators remains limited. Using prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study (2006-2014; n=5,200), we evaluated a range of potential mediators. After robust control for confounders (demographic, health, health behaviors, and social factors), among positive psychological factors, we observed mediation through increased life satisfaction (5.27% ; P=
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kim ES, VanderWeele TJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Diffusion of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in British India.
Abstract The factors that drive spatial heterogeneity and diffusion of pandemic influenza remain debated. Here, we characterize the spatio-temporal mortality patterns of the 1918 influenza pandemic in British India and study the role of demographic factors, environmental variables, and mobility processes on the observed patterns of spread. We analyze fever and all-cause excess mortality across 206 districts in India during the period of January 1916 to December 1920, and control for variation in seasonality particular to India. Our analysis reveals that the 1918 autumn wave in India matches signature features of i...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 25, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Reyes O, Lee EC, Sah P, Viboud C, Chandra S, Bansal S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Association Between Age and Plasmodium falciparum Infection Dynamics.
This study provides new insights into P. falciparum infection dynamics that should be considered when designing malaria control strategies. PMID: 30252032 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 25, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Buchwald AG, Sorkin JD, Sixpence A, Chimenya M, Damson M, Wilson ML, Seydel K, Hochman S, Mathanga D, Taylor TE, Laufer MK Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Prenatal Exposure to Cadmium and Child Growth, Obesity and Cardiometabolic Traits.
Abstract Prenatal cadmium exposure has been associated with impaired fetal growth, much less is known about the impact during later childhood on growth and cardiometabolic traits. To elucidate the impact of prenatal cadmium exposure on child growth, adiposity and cardiometabolic traits in 515 mother-child pairs in the "Rhea" cohort (Heraklion-Greece, 2007-2012), we measured urinary cadmium concentrations during early pregnancy, and assessed associations with repeated weight and height measurements from birth through childhood, and waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, blood pressure, serum levels of...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 25, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chatzi L, Ierodiakonou D, Margetaki K, Vafeiadi M, Chalkiadaki G, Roumeliotaki T, Fthenou E, Pentheroudaki E, McConnell R, Kogevinas M, Kippler M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Prospective Study of Dairy Food Intake and Early Menopause.
Abstract Early natural menopause, the cessation of ovarian function prior to age 45, affects ~10% of women and increases risk of cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Laboratory evidence suggests a potential role of dairy foods in the ovarian aging process; however, no prior epidemiologic studies have evaluated how dairy intake is associated with risk of early menopause. We therefore evaluated how intakes of total, low-fat, high-fat and individual dairy foods are associated with early menopause in the Nurses' Health Study II. Women who were premenopausal at the start of follow-up in 1991 were followed until...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 18, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Purdue-Smithe AC, Whitcomb BW, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Rosner BA, Troy LM, Bertone-Johnson ER Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Interpretation and potential biases of Mendelian randomization estimates with time-varying exposures.
Abstract Mendelian randomization (MR) is used to answer a variety of epidemiologic questions. One stated advantage of MR is that it estimates a "lifetime effect" of exposure though this term remains vaguely-defined. Instrumental variable analysis, on which MR is based, has focused on estimating the effects of point or time-fixed exposures rather than "lifetime effects". We use an empirical example with data from the Rotterdam Study to demonstrate how confusion can arise when estimating "lifetime effects". We provide one possible definition of a lifetime effect: the average change in o...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Labrecque JA, Swanson SA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Alcohol Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study.
Abstract To investigate the association of alcohol intake with colorectal cancer risk by race/ethnicity as well as sex, lifestyle-related factors, alcoholic beverage type, and anatomical subsite, we analyzed data from 190,698 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and whites in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, with 4,923 incident cases during a 16.7-year follow-up period (1993-2013). In multivariate Cox regression models, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.34) for 15.0‒29.9 g/day of alcohol and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.45) for ≥30.0 g/day in men, and 1.06...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Park SY, Wilkens LR, Setiawan VW, Monroe KR, Haiman CA, Le Marchand L Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Timing of Puberty in Sons and Daughters: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
Abstract As early puberty has been linked to diseases later in life, identification of modifiable causes of early puberty is of interest. We explore the possible associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and pubertal development in sons and daughters. Between 2012 and 2017, 15,819 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort, born during 2000-2003, provided half-yearly information on puberty from the age of 11 years. We estimated adjusted age differences (in months) at attaining various pubertal milestones, including Tanner stages, per 10 daily cigarettes smoked in first trimester. In sons, smoking ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Brix N, Ernst A, Lauridsen LLB, Parner ET, Olsen J, Henriksen TB, Ramlau-Hansen CH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Origins and Early Evolution of Epidemiologic Research in Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD): A Tabular Record of Cohort and Case-Control Studies and Preventive Trials Initiated from 1946-1976.
This article provides a ready reference to the pioneering formal studies in CVD epidemiology during three decades of its evolution into an established academic field making contributions to the public health. The article is not intended to be a history of CVD epidemiology nor an editorial about its significance. The appended tables include the title and starting date of the early studies, the name of their principal investigator, and reference to a single defining article from each. The early observational studies of CVD epidemiology provided a widely useful CVD risk-factor paradigm. The early clinical trials justified the...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Blackburn H Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Religious Upbringing and Health and Well-Being From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: An Outcome-Wide Analysis.
This study prospectively examined the associations between religious involvement in adolescence (including religious service attendance and prayer or meditation) and a wide array of psychosocial well-being, mental health, health behaviors, physical health and character strengths outcomes in young adulthood. Longitudinal data from the Growing Up Today Study (Ns ranged from 5,681 to 7,458, depending on outcome; mean baseline age was 14.74 years) with 8-14 year follow-up (1999-2010/2013/2007 questionnaire wave) were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chen Y, VanderWeele TJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Cohort Differences in Cognitive Impairment and Cognitive Decline among Mexican-Americans Aged 75 and Older.
Abstract Research suggests the prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment among older adults is decreasing. This analysis used data from nine waves (1993-2016) of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to assess the cognitive status and cognitive decline for two cohorts of Mexican-Americans aged ≥75 in 1993/94 versus 2004/05. Logistic regression, joint longitudinal-survival models, and illness-death models for interval-censored data were used to examine cohort differences in the odds of prevalent cognitive impairment, trajectories of cognitive decline, and the risk...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Downer B, Garcia MA, Raji M, Markides KS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Exposure During Pregnancy and Pubertal Development in Boys and Girls From a Nationwide Puberty Cohort.
This study explored the association between exposure to acetaminophen during pregnancy and pubertal development using data from 15,822 boys and girls in the longitudinal Puberty Cohort, nested within The Danish National Birth Cohort. Use of acetaminophen was reported three times during pregnancy and six months postpartum. In total, 54% of mothers indicated use at least once during pregnancy. Between 2012 and 2017, sons and daughters provided information on a wide range of pubertal milestones, including Tanner stages, axillary hair growth and age at menarche or voice break and first ejaculation, every six months from 11 yea...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ernst A, Brix N, Lauridsen LLB, Olsen J, Parner ET, Liew Z, Olsen LH, Ramlau-Hansen CH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The population-level impacts of excluding norovirus infected food workers: a mathematical modeling study.
Abstract Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and of foodborne disease in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration recommends foodworkers infected with norovirus be excluded from work while symptomatic and 48 hours after their symptoms subside. Compliance with this recommendation is not ideal and the population-level impacts of changes in foodworker compliance have yet to be quantified. We aimed to assess population impacts of varying degrees of compliance with the current recommendation through a compartmental model. We modeled the number and proportion of symptomatic norovirus cases...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yang W, Steele M, Lopman B, Leon JS, Hall AJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Reassessing the global mortality burden of the 1918 influenza pandemic.
Abstract Mortality estimates of the 1918 influenza pandemic vary considerably, and recent estimates have suggested that there were 50-100 million deaths worldwide. We investigated the global mortality burden using an indirect estimation approach and two publically available datasets: the Human Mortality Database (13 countries) and data extracted from the records of the Statistical Abstract for British India. The all-cause Human Mortality Database allowed us to estimate mortality annually in 1916-1921 for detailed age groups. Three different calculation methods were applied to the data (low, medium and high scenari...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Spreeuwenberg P, Kroneman M, Paget J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Trajectory of Postconcussive Symptoms 12-Months Post-Deployment in Soldiers with and without Mild Traumatic Brain Injury - Warrior STRONG Study.
Abstract Postconcussive symptoms are believed to resolve in days or months in most instances for civilian injuries, though recent evidence suggests that recovery may be slower for injuries sustained during military deployment. The present study is based on a cohort of recently deployed soldiers from two US Army military bases (Fort Carson and Fort Bragg, followed from 2009-2015). Soldiers with and without a recent history of a deployment mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were evaluated within days of return and at 3, 6, and 12-months. Those with mTBI were more likely than non-mTBI to endorse one or more postconcu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ferdosi H, Schwab KA, Metti A, Brenner LA, Terrio H, Pazdan RM, Cole WR, Scher AI Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Causal Effect of Education on Tooth Loss: Evidence from UK Schooling Reforms.
l S Abstract Associations between education and oral health have frequently been reported, but until now there is no causal evidence. Exploiting exogenous variation in years of schooling due to 1947 and 1972 reforms in mandatory schooling in the UK; we examined the causal relationship between education and tooth loss in older age. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (waves 3, 5 and 7). A Two-Stage Least Squares instrumental variables approach was employed. 5,667 respondents (average age = 67.8; 44.4% were men) were included in the analyses, of which 819 (1...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Matsuyama Y, Jürges H, Listl S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Loose Ends in the Epidemiology of the 1918 Pandemic: Explaining the Extreme Mortality Risk in Young Adults.
Abstract In the century since the 1918 influenza pandemic, insights have been sought to explain the pandemic's signature pattern of high death rates in young adults and low death rates in the elderly and infants. Our understanding of the origin and evolution of the pandemic has shifted considerably. We review evidence of the characteristic age-related pattern of death during the 1918 pandemic relative to the "original antigenic sin" hypothesis. We analyze age-stratified mortality data from Copenhagen around 1918 to identify break points associated with unusual death risk. Whereas infants had no meaningfu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: van Wijhe M, Ingholt MM, Andreasen V, Simonsen L Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Reply to letter to the editor "Like a Rolling Stone: Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder".
Reply to letter to the editor "Like a Rolling Stone: Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Sep 06;: Authors: Matok I, Masarwa R, Levine H, Perlman A PMID: 30192910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Matok I, Masarwa R, Levine H, Perlman A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response to Letter-to-the-Editor Re: "Invited commentary: Diesel exhaust and lung cancer - aftermath of becoming an IARC Group 1 carcinogen" by Ellen T. Chang, Edmund C. Lau, Cynthia Van Landingham, Kenny S. Crump, Roger O. McClellan, Suresh H. Moolgavkar.
Response to Letter-to-the-Editor Re: "Invited commentary: Diesel exhaust and lung cancer - aftermath of becoming an IARC Group 1 carcinogen" by Ellen T. Chang, Edmund C. Lau, Cynthia Van Landingham, Kenny S. Crump, Roger O. McClellan, Suresh H. Moolgavkar. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Sep 06;: Authors: Silverman DT PMID: 30192912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Silverman DT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research