Role of Age in Spread of Influenza, 2011-2019, U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 16:kwab205. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab205. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntra-season timing of influenza infection among persons of different ages could reflect relative contributions to propagation of seasonal epidemics and has not been examined among ambulatory patients. We calculated risk ratios derived from comparing weekly influenza cases pre-peak versus post-peak during the 2010-2011 through 2018-2019 influenza seasons using data from the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness network. We sought to determine age specific differences during the ascent versus the descent of a season by influenza virus ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Eric P Griggs Brendan Flannery Ivo M Foppa Manjusha Gaglani Kempapura Murthy Michael L Jackson Lisa A Jackson Edward A Belongia Huong Q McLean Emily T Martin Arnold S Monto Richard K Zimmerman Goundappa K Balasubramani Jessie R Chung Manish Patel On Behal Source Type: research

Role of Age in Spread of Influenza, 2011-2019, U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 16:kwab205. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab205. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntra-season timing of influenza infection among persons of different ages could reflect relative contributions to propagation of seasonal epidemics and has not been examined among ambulatory patients. We calculated risk ratios derived from comparing weekly influenza cases pre-peak versus post-peak during the 2010-2011 through 2018-2019 influenza seasons using data from the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness network. We sought to determine age specific differences during the ascent versus the descent of a season by influenza virus ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Eric P Griggs Brendan Flannery Ivo M Foppa Manjusha Gaglani Kempapura Murthy Michael L Jackson Lisa A Jackson Edward A Belongia Huong Q McLean Emily T Martin Arnold S Monto Richard K Zimmerman Goundappa K Balasubramani Jessie R Chung Manish Patel On Behal Source Type: research

Role of Age in Spread of Influenza, 2011-2019, U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 16:kwab205. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab205. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntra-season timing of influenza infection among persons of different ages could reflect relative contributions to propagation of seasonal epidemics and has not been examined among ambulatory patients. We calculated risk ratios derived from comparing weekly influenza cases pre-peak versus post-peak during the 2010-2011 through 2018-2019 influenza seasons using data from the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness network. We sought to determine age specific differences during the ascent versus the descent of a season by influenza virus ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Eric P Griggs Brendan Flannery Ivo M Foppa Manjusha Gaglani Kempapura Murthy Michael L Jackson Lisa A Jackson Edward A Belongia Huong Q McLean Emily T Martin Arnold S Monto Richard K Zimmerman Goundappa K Balasubramani Jessie R Chung Manish Patel On Behal Source Type: research

Demystifying Statistical Inference When Using Machine Learning in Causal Research
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab200. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab200. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn this issue, Naimi et al. (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX-XXXX) discuss a critical topic in public health and beyond: obtaining valid statistical inference when using machine learning in causal research. In doing so, the authors review recent prominent methodological work and recommend: (i) double robust estimators, such as targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE); (ii) ensemble methods, such as Super Learner, to combine predictions from a diverse library of algorithms, and (iii) sample-splitting to reduce bias and improv...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Laura B Balzer Ted Westling Source Type: research

Challenges in Obtaining Valid Causal Effect Estimates with Machine Learning Algorithms
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab201. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab201. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUnlike parametric regression, machine learning (ML) methods do not generally require precise knowledge of the true data generating mechanisms. As such, numerous authors have advocated for ML methods to estimate causal effects. Unfortunately, ML algorithmscan perform worse than parametric regression. We demonstrate the performance of ML-based single- and double-robust estimators. We use 100 Monte Carlo samples with sample sizes of 200, 1200, and 5000 to investigate bias and confidence interval coverage under several scenarios. In a ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ashley I Naimi Alan E Mishler Edward H Kennedy Source Type: research

Metals and Breast Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study Using Toenail Biomarkers
This study offers little support for metals individually or as mixtures as risk factors for breast cancer. Mechanisms for inverse associations with some metals warrant further study.PMID:34268559 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab204 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nicole M Niehoff Katie M O'Brien Alexander P Keil Keith E Levine Chamindu Liyanapatirana Laura G Haines Suramya Waidyanatha Clarice R Weinberg Alexandra J White Source Type: research

AIPW: An R Package for Augmented Inverse Probability Weighted Estimation of Average Causal Effects
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab207. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab207. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAn increasing number of recent studies suggest doubly robust estimators with cross-fitting should be used when estimating causal effects with machine learning methods. However, existing programs that implement doubly robust estimators do not all support machine learning methods and cross-fitting, or provide estimates on multiplicative scales. To address these needs, we developed the AIPW package implementing the augmented inverse probability weighting (AIPW) estimation of average causal effects in R. Key features of the AIPW packag...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yongqi Zhong Edward H Kennedy Lisa M Bodnar Ashley I Naimi Source Type: research

Practical Strategies for Mitigating the Unknowable
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab202. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab202. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34268571 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab202 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ashley I Naimi Alan E Mishler Edward H Kennedy Source Type: research

Demystifying Statistical Inference When Using Machine Learning in Causal Research
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab200. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab200. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn this issue, Naimi et al. (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX-XXXX) discuss a critical topic in public health and beyond: obtaining valid statistical inference when using machine learning in causal research. In doing so, the authors review recent prominent methodological work and recommend: (i) double robust estimators, such as targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE); (ii) ensemble methods, such as Super Learner, to combine predictions from a diverse library of algorithms, and (iii) sample-splitting to reduce bias and improv...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Laura B Balzer Ted Westling Source Type: research

Challenges in Obtaining Valid Causal Effect Estimates with Machine Learning Algorithms
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab201. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab201. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUnlike parametric regression, machine learning (ML) methods do not generally require precise knowledge of the true data generating mechanisms. As such, numerous authors have advocated for ML methods to estimate causal effects. Unfortunately, ML algorithmscan perform worse than parametric regression. We demonstrate the performance of ML-based single- and double-robust estimators. We use 100 Monte Carlo samples with sample sizes of 200, 1200, and 5000 to investigate bias and confidence interval coverage under several scenarios. In a ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ashley I Naimi Alan E Mishler Edward H Kennedy Source Type: research

Metals and Breast Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study Using Toenail Biomarkers
This study offers little support for metals individually or as mixtures as risk factors for breast cancer. Mechanisms for inverse associations with some metals warrant further study.PMID:34268559 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab204 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nicole M Niehoff Katie M O'Brien Alexander P Keil Keith E Levine Chamindu Liyanapatirana Laura G Haines Suramya Waidyanatha Clarice R Weinberg Alexandra J White Source Type: research

AIPW: An R Package for Augmented Inverse Probability Weighted Estimation of Average Causal Effects
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab207. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab207. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAn increasing number of recent studies suggest doubly robust estimators with cross-fitting should be used when estimating causal effects with machine learning methods. However, existing programs that implement doubly robust estimators do not all support machine learning methods and cross-fitting, or provide estimates on multiplicative scales. To address these needs, we developed the AIPW package implementing the augmented inverse probability weighting (AIPW) estimation of average causal effects in R. Key features of the AIPW packag...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yongqi Zhong Edward H Kennedy Lisa M Bodnar Ashley I Naimi Source Type: research

Practical Strategies for Mitigating the Unknowable
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab202. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab202. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34268571 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab202 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ashley I Naimi Alan E Mishler Edward H Kennedy Source Type: research

Demystifying Statistical Inference When Using Machine Learning in Causal Research
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab200. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab200. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn this issue, Naimi et al. (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX-XXXX) discuss a critical topic in public health and beyond: obtaining valid statistical inference when using machine learning in causal research. In doing so, the authors review recent prominent methodological work and recommend: (i) double robust estimators, such as targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE); (ii) ensemble methods, such as Super Learner, to combine predictions from a diverse library of algorithms, and (iii) sample-splitting to reduce bias and improv...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Laura B Balzer Ted Westling Source Type: research

Challenges in Obtaining Valid Causal Effect Estimates with Machine Learning Algorithms
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab201. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab201. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUnlike parametric regression, machine learning (ML) methods do not generally require precise knowledge of the true data generating mechanisms. As such, numerous authors have advocated for ML methods to estimate causal effects. Unfortunately, ML algorithmscan perform worse than parametric regression. We demonstrate the performance of ML-based single- and double-robust estimators. We use 100 Monte Carlo samples with sample sizes of 200, 1200, and 5000 to investigate bias and confidence interval coverage under several scenarios. In a ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ashley I Naimi Alan E Mishler Edward H Kennedy Source Type: research

Metals and Breast Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study Using Toenail Biomarkers
This study offers little support for metals individually or as mixtures as risk factors for breast cancer. Mechanisms for inverse associations with some metals warrant further study.PMID:34268559 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab204 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nicole M Niehoff Katie M O'Brien Alexander P Keil Keith E Levine Chamindu Liyanapatirana Laura G Haines Suramya Waidyanatha Clarice R Weinberg Alexandra J White Source Type: research

AIPW: An R Package for Augmented Inverse Probability Weighted Estimation of Average Causal Effects
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab207. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab207. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAn increasing number of recent studies suggest doubly robust estimators with cross-fitting should be used when estimating causal effects with machine learning methods. However, existing programs that implement doubly robust estimators do not all support machine learning methods and cross-fitting, or provide estimates on multiplicative scales. To address these needs, we developed the AIPW package implementing the augmented inverse probability weighting (AIPW) estimation of average causal effects in R. Key features of the AIPW packag...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yongqi Zhong Edward H Kennedy Lisa M Bodnar Ashley I Naimi Source Type: research

Practical Strategies for Mitigating the Unknowable
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 15:kwab202. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab202. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34268571 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab202 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ashley I Naimi Alan E Mishler Edward H Kennedy Source Type: research

Maternal cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health after placental abruption: a systematic review and meta-analysis (chap-sr)
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 14:kwab206. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab206. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlacental abruption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have common etiologic underpinnings and there is accumulating evidence that abruption may be associated with future CVD. We estimate associations between abruption and coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. The meta-analysis was based on the random-effects risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) as the effect measure. We conducted a bias analysis to account for abruption misclassification, selection bias and unmeasured confounding. We included 11 cohort studies compris...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cande V Ananth Haylea S Patrick Srinidhi Ananth Yingting Zhang William J Kostis Meike Schuster Source Type: research

Maternal cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health after placental abruption: a systematic review and meta-analysis (chap-sr)
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 14:kwab206. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab206. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlacental abruption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have common etiologic underpinnings and there is accumulating evidence that abruption may be associated with future CVD. We estimate associations between abruption and coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. The meta-analysis was based on the random-effects risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) as the effect measure. We conducted a bias analysis to account for abruption misclassification, selection bias and unmeasured confounding. We included 11 cohort studies compris...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cande V Ananth Haylea S Patrick Srinidhi Ananth Yingting Zhang William J Kostis Meike Schuster Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Estimation and Bounds Under Data Fusion
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 7:kwab194. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab194. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOgburn et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2021;000(0):000-000) raise a cautionary tale for epidemiological data fusion: bias may occur if a variable completely missing in the primary dataset is imputed according to a regression model estimated from an auxiliary dataset. However, in some specific settings, solution may exist. Focusing on a linear outcome regression model with a missing covariate, we show that the bias can be eliminated if the underlying imputation model for the missing covariate is nonlinear in the common variables measured in ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wang Miao Wei Li Wenjie Hu Ruoyu Wang Zhi Geng Source Type: research

Response to "Estimation and Bounds Under Data Fusion"
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 7:kwab195. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab195. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34240128 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab195 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elizabeth L Ogburn Kara E Rudolph Rachel Morello-Frosch Amber Khan Joan A Casey Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Estimation and Bounds Under Data Fusion
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 7:kwab194. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab194. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOgburn et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2021;000(0):000-000) raise a cautionary tale for epidemiological data fusion: bias may occur if a variable completely missing in the primary dataset is imputed according to a regression model estimated from an auxiliary dataset. However, in some specific settings, solution may exist. Focusing on a linear outcome regression model with a missing covariate, we show that the bias can be eliminated if the underlying imputation model for the missing covariate is nonlinear in the common variables measured in ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wang Miao Wei Li Wenjie Hu Ruoyu Wang Zhi Geng Source Type: research

Response to "Estimation and Bounds Under Data Fusion"
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 7:kwab195. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab195. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34240128 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab195 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elizabeth L Ogburn Kara E Rudolph Rachel Morello-Frosch Amber Khan Joan A Casey Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Estimation and Bounds Under Data Fusion
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 7:kwab194. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab194. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOgburn et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2021;000(0):000-000) raise a cautionary tale for epidemiological data fusion: bias may occur if a variable completely missing in the primary dataset is imputed according to a regression model estimated from an auxiliary dataset. However, in some specific settings, solution may exist. Focusing on a linear outcome regression model with a missing covariate, we show that the bias can be eliminated if the underlying imputation model for the missing covariate is nonlinear in the common variables measured in ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wang Miao Wei Li Wenjie Hu Ruoyu Wang Zhi Geng Source Type: research

Response to "Estimation and Bounds Under Data Fusion"
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 7:kwab195. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab195. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34240128 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab195 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elizabeth L Ogburn Kara E Rudolph Rachel Morello-Frosch Amber Khan Joan A Casey Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Estimation and Bounds Under Data Fusion
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 7:kwab194. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab194. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOgburn et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2021;000(0):000-000) raise a cautionary tale for epidemiological data fusion: bias may occur if a variable completely missing in the primary dataset is imputed according to a regression model estimated from an auxiliary dataset. However, in some specific settings, solution may exist. Focusing on a linear outcome regression model with a missing covariate, we show that the bias can be eliminated if the underlying imputation model for the missing covariate is nonlinear in the common variables measured in ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wang Miao Wei Li Wenjie Hu Ruoyu Wang Zhi Geng Source Type: research

Response to "Estimation and Bounds Under Data Fusion"
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 7:kwab195. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab195. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34240128 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab195 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elizabeth L Ogburn Kara E Rudolph Rachel Morello-Frosch Amber Khan Joan A Casey Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Estimation and Bounds Under Data Fusion
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 7:kwab194. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab194. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOgburn et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2021;000(0):000-000) raise a cautionary tale for epidemiological data fusion: bias may occur if a variable completely missing in the primary dataset is imputed according to a regression model estimated from an auxiliary dataset. However, in some specific settings, solution may exist. Focusing on a linear outcome regression model with a missing covariate, we show that the bias can be eliminated if the underlying imputation model for the missing covariate is nonlinear in the common variables measured in ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wang Miao Wei Li Wenjie Hu Ruoyu Wang Zhi Geng Source Type: research

Response to "Estimation and Bounds Under Data Fusion"
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 7:kwab195. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab195. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34240128 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab195 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elizabeth L Ogburn Kara E Rudolph Rachel Morello-Frosch Amber Khan Joan A Casey Source Type: research

Population Health in Peril: Needed U.S. Science and Public Policy Action
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jun 3:kwab162. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab162. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWith unprecedented increases, mortality trends in the US have received significant attention in recent years. To date, research on this topic has emphasized specific causes of death and proximal behavioral or physiological determinants. In this commentary, I consider novel contributions of Zheng & Echave (Am J Epidemiol. XX:XX-XX) in examining trends in mental health, health behaviors, and physiologic dysregulation. I then discuss broader developments in related research and make a case for: (1) not allowing recent health trends...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Thomas E Fuller-Rowell Source Type: research

U.S. Population Heath at A Crossroads
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jun 3:kwab161. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab161. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34236418 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab161 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hui Zheng Paola Echave Source Type: research

Disparities among Racially/Ethnically Marginalized Groups in the COVID-19 Pandemic Persist Regardless of Statewide Shelter-in-Place Policies: An Analysis from Northern California
We examined hospitalizations and ICU transfers by race/ethnicity and pandemic period using logistic regression. Among 16,520 people with COVID-19 (mean [SD] age, 46.6 [18.4] years; 54.2% women); during the Post-SIP period, patients were on average younger and a larger proportion were Hispanic. In adjusted models, odds of hospitalization were 20% lower post-SIP compared to SIP, yet all non-White groups had higher odds (ORs 1.6-2.1) compared to Non-Hispanic White, regardless of period. Among hospitalized patients, odds of ICU transfer were 33% lower post-SIP versus SIP. Hispanic and Asian patients had higher odds compared to...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kristen M J Azar Stephen H Lockhart Zijun Shen Robert Romanelli Stephanie Brown Kelly Smits Alice R Pressman Source Type: research

Combining Longitudinal Data From Different Cohorts to Examine the Life-Course Trajectory
We describe in detail the steps needed to develop life-course trajectories from cohorts that cover different and overlapping periods of life. Such independent studies are likely from heterogenous populations which raises several challenges including: data harmonisation (deriving new harmonised variables from differently measured variables by identifying common elements across all studies); systematically missing data (variables not measured are missing for all participants of a cohort); and model selection with differing age ranges and measurement schedules. We illustrate how to overcome these challenges using an example w...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rachael A Hughes Kate Tilling Deborah A Lawlor Source Type: research

Experiences with Everyday and Major Forms of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Type 2 Diabetes Risk among White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina Women: Findings from the Sister Study
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 2:kwab189. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab189. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRacial/ethnic discrimination may contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk, but few studies have prospectively examined this relationship among racially/ethnically diverse populations. We analyzed prospective data from 33,833 eligible Sister Study participants enrolled from 2003 to 2009. In a follow-up questionnaire (2008-2012), participants reported lifetime experiences of everyday and major forms of racial/ethnic discrimination. Self-reported physician diagnoses of T2DM were ascertained until September 2017. Hazard ratios...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Symielle A Gaston Jo ëlle Atere-Roberts Julia Ward Natalie B Slopen Allana T Forde Dale P Sandler David R Williams Chandra L Jackson Source Type: research

Risk of Transmission and Viral Shedding from the Time of Infection for Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Households
This study aims to examine an association between the viral load trajectory and transmission risk to develop a better control strategy for the disease spread. We conducted a household-based prospective cohort study in Biliran Province, the Philippines, and enrolled 451 participants for observing the development of acute respiratory infection. Including the cases found at the health care facility, we analyzed the data of viral loads with symptom records obtained from 172 followed-up participants whose household member was RSV positive with a rapid test during an RSV outbreak in 2018-2019. We developed a model estimating a t...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hirono Otomaru Johanna Beulah T Sornillo Taro Kamigaki Samantha Louise P Bado Michiko Okamoto Mariko Saito-Obata Marianette T Inobaya Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado Portia P Alday Mayuko Saito Veronica L Tallo Beatriz P Quiambao Hitoshi Oshitani Alex R Cook Source Type: research

The Role of Tuberculosis Screening Among Migrants to Low-Incidence Settings in (Not) Achieving Elimination
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 3:kwab193. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab193. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe cost-effectiveness of migrant tuberculosis prevention programs is highly relevant to many low tuberculosis incidence countries as they attempt to eliminate the disease. Dale and colleagues (Am J Epidemiol 2021;XX(XX):XX) evaluated strategies for tuberculosis infection screening and treatment among new migrants to Australia. Screening for infection before migration, then administering preventive treatment after arrival, was more cost-effective than performing both screening and treatment after arrival. From the Australian health ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jonathon R Campbell Kevin Schwartzman Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Association between Pain Management Clinic Laws and Opioid Prescribing and Overdose Deaths
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 3:kwab192. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab192. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPain management clinic (PMC) laws were enacted by 12 states to promote appropriate opioid prescribing, but their impact is inadequately understood. We analyzed county-level opioid overdose deaths (National Vital Statistics System) and patients filling long-duration (≥30 day) or high-dose (≥90 morphine milligram equivalents) opioid prescriptions (IQVIA, Inc) in the United States from 2010-2018. We fit Besag-York-Mollié spatiotemporal models to estimate annual relative rates (RR) of overdose and prevalence ratios (PR) of ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Magdalena Cerd á Katherine Wheeler-Martin Emilie Bruzelius William Ponicki Paul Gruenewald Christine Mauro Stephen Crystal Corey S Davis Katherine Keyes Deborah Hasin Kara E Rudolph Silvia S Martins Source Type: research

Is Alcohol Consumption Associated with Early Menopause Risk?
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 3:kwab182. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab182. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEarlier age at menopause is associated with increased long-term health risks. Moderate alcohol intake has been suggested to delay menopause onset, but it is unknown whether alcohol subtypes are associated with early menopause onset at age 45. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate risk of early natural menopause among n=107,817 Nurses' Health Study II members followed from 1989-2011. Alcohol consumption overall, and by subtypes including beer, red wine, white wine, and liquor was assessed throughout follow-up. We estimated hazard ratios (H...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Joshua R Freeman Brian W Whitcomb Alexandra C Purdue-Smithe Jo Ann E Manson Christine R Langton Susan E Hankinson Bernard A Rosner Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson Source Type: research

Disparities among Racially/Ethnically Marginalized Groups in the COVID-19 Pandemic Persist Regardless of Statewide Shelter-in-Place Policies: An Analysis from Northern California
We examined hospitalizations and ICU transfers by race/ethnicity and pandemic period using logistic regression. Among 16,520 people with COVID-19 (mean [SD] age, 46.6 [18.4] years; 54.2% women); during the Post-SIP period, patients were on average younger and a larger proportion were Hispanic. In adjusted models, odds of hospitalization were 20% lower post-SIP compared to SIP, yet all non-White groups had higher odds (ORs 1.6-2.1) compared to Non-Hispanic White, regardless of period. Among hospitalized patients, odds of ICU transfer were 33% lower post-SIP versus SIP. Hispanic and Asian patients had higher odds compared to...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kristen M J Azar Stephen H Lockhart Zijun Shen Robert Romanelli Stephanie Brown Kelly Smits Alice R Pressman Source Type: research

Combining Longitudinal Data From Different Cohorts to Examine the Life-Course Trajectory
We describe in detail the steps needed to develop life-course trajectories from cohorts that cover different and overlapping periods of life. Such independent studies are likely from heterogenous populations which raises several challenges including: data harmonisation (deriving new harmonised variables from differently measured variables by identifying common elements across all studies); systematically missing data (variables not measured are missing for all participants of a cohort); and model selection with differing age ranges and measurement schedules. We illustrate how to overcome these challenges using an example w...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rachael A Hughes Kate Tilling Deborah A Lawlor Source Type: research

Experiences with Everyday and Major Forms of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Type 2 Diabetes Risk among White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina Women: Findings from the Sister Study
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 2:kwab189. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab189. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRacial/ethnic discrimination may contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk, but few studies have prospectively examined this relationship among racially/ethnically diverse populations. We analyzed prospective data from 33,833 eligible Sister Study participants enrolled from 2003 to 2009. In a follow-up questionnaire (2008-2012), participants reported lifetime experiences of everyday and major forms of racial/ethnic discrimination. Self-reported physician diagnoses of T2DM were ascertained until September 2017. Hazard ratios...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Symielle A Gaston Jo ëlle Atere-Roberts Julia Ward Natalie B Slopen Allana T Forde Dale P Sandler David R Williams Chandra L Jackson Source Type: research

Risk of Transmission and Viral Shedding from the Time of Infection for Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Households
This study aims to examine an association between the viral load trajectory and transmission risk to develop a better control strategy for the disease spread. We conducted a household-based prospective cohort study in Biliran Province, the Philippines, and enrolled 451 participants for observing the development of acute respiratory infection. Including the cases found at the health care facility, we analyzed the data of viral loads with symptom records obtained from 172 followed-up participants whose household member was RSV positive with a rapid test during an RSV outbreak in 2018-2019. We developed a model estimating a t...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hirono Otomaru Johanna Beulah T Sornillo Taro Kamigaki Samantha Louise P Bado Michiko Okamoto Mariko Saito-Obata Marianette T Inobaya Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado Portia P Alday Mayuko Saito Veronica L Tallo Beatriz P Quiambao Hitoshi Oshitani Alex R Cook Source Type: research

The Role of Tuberculosis Screening Among Migrants to Low-Incidence Settings in (Not) Achieving Elimination
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 3:kwab193. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab193. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe cost-effectiveness of migrant tuberculosis prevention programs is highly relevant to many low tuberculosis incidence countries as they attempt to eliminate the disease. Dale and colleagues (Am J Epidemiol 2021;XX(XX):XX) evaluated strategies for tuberculosis infection screening and treatment among new migrants to Australia. Screening for infection before migration, then administering preventive treatment after arrival, was more cost-effective than performing both screening and treatment after arrival. From the Australian health ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jonathon R Campbell Kevin Schwartzman Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Association between Pain Management Clinic Laws and Opioid Prescribing and Overdose Deaths
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 3:kwab192. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab192. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPain management clinic (PMC) laws were enacted by 12 states to promote appropriate opioid prescribing, but their impact is inadequately understood. We analyzed county-level opioid overdose deaths (National Vital Statistics System) and patients filling long-duration (≥30 day) or high-dose (≥90 morphine milligram equivalents) opioid prescriptions (IQVIA, Inc) in the United States from 2010-2018. We fit Besag-York-Mollié spatiotemporal models to estimate annual relative rates (RR) of overdose and prevalence ratios (PR) of ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Magdalena Cerd á Katherine Wheeler-Martin Emilie Bruzelius William Ponicki Paul Gruenewald Christine Mauro Stephen Crystal Corey S Davis Katherine Keyes Deborah Hasin Kara E Rudolph Silvia S Martins Source Type: research

Is Alcohol Consumption Associated with Early Menopause Risk?
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 3:kwab182. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab182. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEarlier age at menopause is associated with increased long-term health risks. Moderate alcohol intake has been suggested to delay menopause onset, but it is unknown whether alcohol subtypes are associated with early menopause onset at age 45. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate risk of early natural menopause among n=107,817 Nurses' Health Study II members followed from 1989-2011. Alcohol consumption overall, and by subtypes including beer, red wine, white wine, and liquor was assessed throughout follow-up. We estimated hazard ratios (H...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Joshua R Freeman Brian W Whitcomb Alexandra C Purdue-Smithe Jo Ann E Manson Christine R Langton Susan E Hankinson Bernard A Rosner Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson Source Type: research

Disparities among Racially/Ethnically Marginalized Groups in the COVID-19 Pandemic Persist Regardless of Statewide Shelter-in-Place Policies: An Analysis from Northern California
We examined hospitalizations and ICU transfers by race/ethnicity and pandemic period using logistic regression. Among 16,520 people with COVID-19 (mean [SD] age, 46.6 [18.4] years; 54.2% women); during the Post-SIP period, patients were on average younger and a larger proportion were Hispanic. In adjusted models, odds of hospitalization were 20% lower post-SIP compared to SIP, yet all non-White groups had higher odds (ORs 1.6-2.1) compared to Non-Hispanic White, regardless of period. Among hospitalized patients, odds of ICU transfer were 33% lower post-SIP versus SIP. Hispanic and Asian patients had higher odds compared to...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kristen M J Azar Stephen H Lockhart Zijun Shen Robert Romanelli Stephanie Brown Kelly Smits Alice R Pressman Source Type: research

Combining Longitudinal Data From Different Cohorts to Examine the Life-Course Trajectory
We describe in detail the steps needed to develop life-course trajectories from cohorts that cover different and overlapping periods of life. Such independent studies are likely from heterogenous populations which raises several challenges including: data harmonisation (deriving new harmonised variables from differently measured variables by identifying common elements across all studies); systematically missing data (variables not measured are missing for all participants of a cohort); and model selection with differing age ranges and measurement schedules. We illustrate how to overcome these challenges using an example w...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rachael A Hughes Kate Tilling Deborah A Lawlor Source Type: research

Experiences with Everyday and Major Forms of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Type 2 Diabetes Risk among White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina Women: Findings from the Sister Study
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 2:kwab189. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab189. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRacial/ethnic discrimination may contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk, but few studies have prospectively examined this relationship among racially/ethnically diverse populations. We analyzed prospective data from 33,833 eligible Sister Study participants enrolled from 2003 to 2009. In a follow-up questionnaire (2008-2012), participants reported lifetime experiences of everyday and major forms of racial/ethnic discrimination. Self-reported physician diagnoses of T2DM were ascertained until September 2017. Hazard ratios...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Symielle A Gaston Jo ëlle Atere-Roberts Julia Ward Natalie B Slopen Allana T Forde Dale P Sandler David R Williams Chandra L Jackson Source Type: research

Risk of Transmission and Viral Shedding from the Time of Infection for Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Households
This study aims to examine an association between the viral load trajectory and transmission risk to develop a better control strategy for the disease spread. We conducted a household-based prospective cohort study in Biliran Province, the Philippines, and enrolled 451 participants for observing the development of acute respiratory infection. Including the cases found at the health care facility, we analyzed the data of viral loads with symptom records obtained from 172 followed-up participants whose household member was RSV positive with a rapid test during an RSV outbreak in 2018-2019. We developed a model estimating a t...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hirono Otomaru Johanna Beulah T Sornillo Taro Kamigaki Samantha Louise P Bado Michiko Okamoto Mariko Saito-Obata Marianette T Inobaya Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado Portia P Alday Mayuko Saito Veronica L Tallo Beatriz P Quiambao Hitoshi Oshitani Alex R Cook Source Type: research