Cohort Differences in Cognitive Impairment and Cognitive Decline among Mexican-Americans Aged 75 and Older.
Abstract Research suggests the prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment among older adults is decreasing. This analysis used data from nine waves (1993-2016) of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to assess the cognitive status and cognitive decline for two cohorts of Mexican-Americans aged ≥75 in 1993/94 versus 2004/05. Logistic regression, joint longitudinal-survival models, and illness-death models for interval-censored data were used to examine cohort differences in the odds of prevalent cognitive impairment, trajectories of cognitive decline, and the risk...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Downer B, Garcia MA, Raji M, Markides KS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Exposure During Pregnancy and Pubertal Development in Boys and Girls From a Nationwide Puberty Cohort.
This study explored the association between exposure to acetaminophen during pregnancy and pubertal development using data from 15,822 boys and girls in the longitudinal Puberty Cohort, nested within The Danish National Birth Cohort. Use of acetaminophen was reported three times during pregnancy and six months postpartum. In total, 54% of mothers indicated use at least once during pregnancy. Between 2012 and 2017, sons and daughters provided information on a wide range of pubertal milestones, including Tanner stages, axillary hair growth and age at menarche or voice break and first ejaculation, every six months from 11 yea...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ernst A, Brix N, Lauridsen LLB, Olsen J, Parner ET, Liew Z, Olsen LH, Ramlau-Hansen CH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The population-level impacts of excluding norovirus infected food workers: a mathematical modeling study.
Abstract Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and of foodborne disease in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration recommends foodworkers infected with norovirus be excluded from work while symptomatic and 48 hours after their symptoms subside. Compliance with this recommendation is not ideal and the population-level impacts of changes in foodworker compliance have yet to be quantified. We aimed to assess population impacts of varying degrees of compliance with the current recommendation through a compartmental model. We modeled the number and proportion of symptomatic norovirus cases...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yang W, Steele M, Lopman B, Leon JS, Hall AJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Reassessing the global mortality burden of the 1918 influenza pandemic.
Abstract Mortality estimates of the 1918 influenza pandemic vary considerably, and recent estimates have suggested that there were 50-100 million deaths worldwide. We investigated the global mortality burden using an indirect estimation approach and two publically available datasets: the Human Mortality Database (13 countries) and data extracted from the records of the Statistical Abstract for British India. The all-cause Human Mortality Database allowed us to estimate mortality annually in 1916-1921 for detailed age groups. Three different calculation methods were applied to the data (low, medium and high scenari...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Spreeuwenberg P, Kroneman M, Paget J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Trajectory of Postconcussive Symptoms 12-Months Post-Deployment in Soldiers with and without Mild Traumatic Brain Injury - Warrior STRONG Study.
Abstract Postconcussive symptoms are believed to resolve in days or months in most instances for civilian injuries, though recent evidence suggests that recovery may be slower for injuries sustained during military deployment. The present study is based on a cohort of recently deployed soldiers from two US Army military bases (Fort Carson and Fort Bragg, followed from 2009-2015). Soldiers with and without a recent history of a deployment mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were evaluated within days of return and at 3, 6, and 12-months. Those with mTBI were more likely than non-mTBI to endorse one or more postconcu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ferdosi H, Schwab KA, Metti A, Brenner LA, Terrio H, Pazdan RM, Cole WR, Scher AI Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Causal Effect of Education on Tooth Loss: Evidence from UK Schooling Reforms.
l S Abstract Associations between education and oral health have frequently been reported, but until now there is no causal evidence. Exploiting exogenous variation in years of schooling due to 1947 and 1972 reforms in mandatory schooling in the UK; we examined the causal relationship between education and tooth loss in older age. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (waves 3, 5 and 7). A Two-Stage Least Squares instrumental variables approach was employed. 5,667 respondents (average age = 67.8; 44.4% were men) were included in the analyses, of which 819 (1...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Matsuyama Y, Jürges H, Listl S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Loose Ends in the Epidemiology of the 1918 Pandemic: Explaining the Extreme Mortality Risk in Young Adults.
Abstract In the century since the 1918 influenza pandemic, insights have been sought to explain the pandemic's signature pattern of high death rates in young adults and low death rates in the elderly and infants. Our understanding of the origin and evolution of the pandemic has shifted considerably. We review evidence of the characteristic age-related pattern of death during the 1918 pandemic relative to the "original antigenic sin" hypothesis. We analyze age-stratified mortality data from Copenhagen around 1918 to identify break points associated with unusual death risk. Whereas infants had no meaningfu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: van Wijhe M, Ingholt MM, Andreasen V, Simonsen L Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Reply to letter to the editor "Like a Rolling Stone: Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder".
Reply to letter to the editor "Like a Rolling Stone: Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Sep 06;: Authors: Matok I, Masarwa R, Levine H, Perlman A PMID: 30192910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Matok I, Masarwa R, Levine H, Perlman A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response to Letter-to-the-Editor Re: "Invited commentary: Diesel exhaust and lung cancer - aftermath of becoming an IARC Group 1 carcinogen" by Ellen T. Chang, Edmund C. Lau, Cynthia Van Landingham, Kenny S. Crump, Roger O. McClellan, Suresh H. Moolgavkar.
Response to Letter-to-the-Editor Re: "Invited commentary: Diesel exhaust and lung cancer - aftermath of becoming an IARC Group 1 carcinogen" by Ellen T. Chang, Edmund C. Lau, Cynthia Van Landingham, Kenny S. Crump, Roger O. McClellan, Suresh H. Moolgavkar. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Sep 06;: Authors: Silverman DT PMID: 30192912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Silverman DT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response to "Invited commentary: diesel exhaust and lung cancer -- aftermath of becoming an IARC Group 1 carcinogen" by Debra T. Silverman. Am J Epidemiol 2018 Mar 7. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwy036.
Response to "Invited commentary: diesel exhaust and lung cancer -- aftermath of becoming an IARC Group 1 carcinogen" by Debra T. Silverman. Am J Epidemiol 2018 Mar 7. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwy036. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Sep 06;: Authors: Chang ET, Lau EC, Van Landingham C, Crump KS, McClellan RO, Moolgavkar SH PMID: 30192919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chang ET, Lau EC, Van Landingham C, Crump KS, McClellan RO, Moolgavkar SH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Like a Rolling Stone: Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
PMID: 30192922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Damkier P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Estimating the Short-term Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Child Health.
We examined outcomes that were likely to be affected immediately after refund receipt, including general health, nutrition, metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, and test scores. There were improvements in physician-reported overall health after refund receipt, but no changes in infection, serum metabolic or inflammatory markers, or test scores, and contradictory findings for food insufficiency. In summary, EITC refunds are not strongly associated with most short-term health outcomes among recipients' children, although numerous previous studies have demonstrated impacts on longer-term outcomes. This highlights the import...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hamad R, Collin DF, Rehkopf DH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Detecting individual and global horizontal pleiotropy in Mendelian randomization: a job for the humble heterogeneity statistic?
Abstract Mendelian randomization (MR) is gaining in recognition and popularity as a method for strengthening causal inference in epidemiology by utilizing genetic variants as instrumental variables. Concurrently with the explosion in empirical MR studies there has been the steady production of new approaches for MR-analysis. The recently proposed Global and Individual tests of Direct Effects (GLIDE) approach fits into a family of methods that aim to detect horizontal pleiotropy - at the individual SNP level and at the global level - and to adjust the analysis by removing outlying SNPs. The purpose of this commenta...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bowden J, Hemani G, Davey Smith G Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Population-based Matched Sibling Analysis Estimating the Association between First Interpregnancy Interval and Birth Outcomes.
Abstract The association between a single interpregnancy interval (IPI) on birth outcomes has not yet been explored using matched methods. We modelled the odds of preterm birth, small-for-gestational age and low birthweight in a second, liveborn infant in a cohort of 192,041 sibling pairs born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2010. The association between IPI and birth outcomes was estimated from the interaction between birth order and IPI (with 18-23 months as the reference category), using conditional logistic regression. Matched analysis showed the odds of preterm birth were higher for siblings born following an IPI
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Regan AK, Ball SJ, Warren JL, Malacova E, Padula A, Marston C, Nassar N, Stanley F, Leonard H, de Klerk N, Pereira G Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Diagnostics of Pleiotropy in Mendelian Randomization Studies: Global and Individual Tests for Direct Effects.
Abstract Diagnosing pleiotropy is critical for assessing the validity of Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. The popular MR-Egger method evaluates whether there is evidence of bias-generating pleiotropy among a set of candidate genetic instrumental variables. In this article, we propose GLIDE, GLobal and Individual tests for Direct Effects, a statistical method to systematically evaluate pleiotropy among the set of genetic variants, e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), used for MR. As a global test, simulation experiments suggest that GLIDE is nearly uniformly more powerful than the MR-Egger method. As...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dai JY, Peters U, Wang X, Kocarnik J, Chang-Claude J, Slattery ML, Chan A, Lemire M, Berndt SI, Casey G, Song M, Jenkins MA, Brenner H, Thrift AP, White E, Hsu L Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Promise and Pitfalls of the Sibling Comparison Design in Studies of Optimal Birth Spacing.
Abstract Numerous observational studies have shown that infants born after short interpregnancy intervals (the interval between birth and subsequent conception) are more likely to experience adverse perinatal outcomes than infants born following longer intervals. Yet, it remains controversial whether the link between short interpregnancy interval and adverse outcomes is causal, or confounded by factors such as low socio-economic position, inadequate access to healthcare, and unintended pregnancy. Sibling comparison studies, which use a woman as her own control by comparing exposure and outcome status of her differ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hutcheon JA, Harper S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Effects of Multiple Forms of Information Bias on Estimated Prevalence of Suicide Attempts by Sexual Orientation: An Application of a Bayesian Misclassification Correction Method to Data from a Systematic Review.
n P Abstract Multiple epidemiologic studies demonstrate a disparity in suicide risk between sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) and heterosexual populations; however, both 'exposure' (sexual minority status) and outcome (suicide attempts) may be affected by information bias related to errors in self-reporting. We therefore applied a Bayesian misclassification correction method to account for possible information biases. A systematic literature search identified studies of lifetime suicide attempts in sexual minority and heterosexual adults, and frequentist meta-analysis was used to generate unadjusted estimat...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Salway T, Plöderl M, Liu J, Gustafson P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The uncertain role of interpregnancy interval and why we need new approaches to an old problem.
PMID: 30188997 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Regan AK, Ball SJ, Warren JL, Malacova E, Marston C, Nassar N, Leonard H, de Klerk N, Pereira G Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Addressing Extreme Propensity Scores via the Overlap Weights.
Abstract The popular inverse probability weighting method in causal inference is often hampered by extreme propensity scores, resulting in biased estimates and excessive variance. A common remedy is to trim patients with extreme scores. However, such methods are often sensitive to the choice of cutoff points and discard a large proportion of the sample. The implications to bias and precision of the treatment effect estimate are unclear. These problems are mitigated by the newly developed overlap weighting method. Overlap weights emphasize the target population with the most overlap in observed characteristics betw...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Li F, Thomas LE, Li F Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Reassessing Serosurvey-Based Estimates of the Zika Symptomatic Proportion.
Abstract Since the 2007 Zika epidemic in Yap, it has been apparent that not all people infected with Zika virus (ZIKV) experience symptoms. However, the proportion of infections that result in symptoms remains unclear. Existing estimates varied in their interpretation of symptoms due to other causes and the case definition used, and assumed perfect test sensitivity and specificity. Using a Bayesian model and data from ZIKV serosurveys in Yap (2007), French Polynesia (2013-14), and Puerto Rico (2016), we found that assuming perfect sensitivity and specificity generally led to lower estimates of the symptomatic prop...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mitchell PK, Mier-Y-Teran-Romero L, Biggerstaff BJ, Delorey MJ, Aubry M, Cao-Lormeau VM, Lozier MJ, Cauchemez S, Johansson MA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Diet Quality Indices and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.
Abstract We aimed to test whether predefined dietary patterns inversely relating to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Western populations were similarly associated with lower T2D risk in an Asian population. We included 45,411 middle aged and older participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study free of diabetes, cancer or cardiovascular disease at baseline (1993-1998). Participants were followed up for T2D diagnosis through 2010. Dietary information was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary pattern scores were calculated for the alternate Mediterranean diet, alternative Healthy Eatin...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chen GC, Koh WP, Neelakantan N, Yuan JM, Qin LQ, van Dam RM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: ``Transportability of Trial Results Using Inverse Odds of Sampling Weights''.
PMID: 30165503 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Segal BD, Bennette CS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Multiple Sclerosis.
iacute;az S Abstract Few studies have assessed the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). We used two large United States administrative databases (2011-2015 Truven Health Marketscan® Database; 2007-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample) to identify delivery cohorts. MS and pregnancy outcomes (infections, Cesarean section, preterm delivery, poor fetal growth, preeclampsia, chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, stillbirth, infant malformations) were identified during pregnancy and at delivery. We calculated adjusted risk ratios by MS status and relapses in the year before deliv...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: MacDonald SC, McElrath TF, Hernández-Díaz S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Investigating the Legacy of 1918 Pandemic on Age-Related Sero-Epidemiology and Immune Responses to Subsequent Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses Through a Structural Equation Model.
Abstract Influenza A(H1N1) strains were responsible for two pandemics in the last century. As infections early in life may have long-lasting influence on future immune response against other influenza strains, we drew on previously collected sero-incidence data (n = 2554) to investigate if the 1918 pandemic virus and its early descendants produced an age-related signature in immune responses against the A/California/7/2009(H1N1)pdm09 virus of 2009. Hemagglutination inhibition assays revealed a J-shaped relationship; the oldest birth cohort (years 1911 - 1926) had the highest titers followed by the younge...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chuah CXP, Lim RL, Chen MIC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations of Long-Term Exposure to Ultrafine Particles and Nitrogen Dioxide with Increased Incidence of Congestive Heart Failure and Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Abstract Although long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, little is known about the association of ultrafine particles (UFPs) with incidence of major cardiovascular events. We conducted a population-based cohort study to assess the associations of chronic exposure to UFPs and NO2 with incident congestive heart failure (CHF) and acute myocardial infarction. Our study population comprised all long-term Canadian residents aged 30-100 years who lived in Toronto, Canada, 1996-2012. We estimated annual concentrations of UFPs and NO2...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bai L, Weichenthal S, Kwong JC, Burnett RT, Hatzopoulou M, Jerrett M, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Van Ryswyk K, Lu H, Kopp A, Chen H Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "examining the association between apparent temperature and mental health-related emergency room visits in california".
RE: "EXAMINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN APPARENT TEMPERATURE AND MENTAL HEALTH-RELATED EMERGENCY ROOM VISITS IN CALIFORNIA". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Aug 28;: Authors: PMID: 30169577 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Changes in Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation and Mortality in US Adults.
We examined the 10-year change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation in relation to mortality rate among 288,555 participants (age 51-70) who enrolled in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study in 1995-1996 (baseline) and did not move during the study. Changes in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation between 1990 and 2000 was measured by US Census data at the census tract level. All-cause, cardiovascular and cancer deaths were ascertained by annual linkage to the Social Security Administration Death Master File between 2000 and 2011. Overall, our results suggested that improvement in neighborhood socioeconomic status was a...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Xiao Q, Berrigan D, Powell-Wiley TM, Matthews CE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Perceived Stress and Fecundability: A Preconception Cohort Study of North American Couples.
Abstract While some epidemiologic studies support the hypothesis that stress can adversely affect fertility, few prospective studies have assessed the association in couples from the general population. We used data from Pregnancy Study Online, a web-based preconception cohort study of pregnancy planners from the United States and Canada (2013-2018), to examine the association between female and male preconception perceived stress levels and fecundability. Women (aged 21-45 years) and their male partners (aged ≥21 years) who were attempting conception without fertility treatment were eligible. We measured perce...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wesselink AK, Hatch EE, Rothman KJ, Weuve JL, Aschengrau A, Song RJ, Wise LA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Risk of Hospitalization for Cancer, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Injuries, and Poisonings Surrounding Widowhood.
n P Abstract Psychological distress has been indicated to affect the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and external causes. Mortality from these major causes of death is also known to be elevated after widowhood when distress is at a heightened level. Surprisingly little is known about changes in health other than mental and cardiac health shortly before widowhood. We used longitudinal data of widowing (n=19,185) and continuously married individuals (n=105,939) in Finland (1996-2002) to assess the risk of hospitalization for cancer and the external and musculoskeletal causes surrounding widowhood ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Einiö E, Martikainen P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Influenza in New Zealand Before 1918: A Preliminary Report.
Abstract This paper aims to test the hypothesis of possible fatal immunological reactions to the A/H1N1 virus of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza pandemic caused by previous exposure to the A/H3N8 virus of the 1890-2 "Russian" influenza pandemic. Reconstruction of mortality peaks from influenza and excess pneumonia deaths in New Zealand before 1918 from newspapers and official death records enables comparison with peaks of influenza mortality by age in 1918 from individual death records. Influenza outbreaks in 1885, 1890-2, 1894 and 1898 appear to match mortality peaks for males in the 1918 pandemi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rice GW Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Risk of Hospitalization for Cancer, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Injuries, and Poisonings Surrounding Widowhood.
n P Abstract Psychological distress has been indicated to affect the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and external causes. Mortality from these major causes of death is also known to be elevated after widowhood when distress is at a heightened level. Surprisingly little is known about changes in health other than mental and cardiac health shortly before widowhood. We used longitudinal data of widowing (n=19,185) and continuously married individuals (n=105,939) in Finland (1996-2002) to assess the risk of hospitalization for cancer and the external and musculoskeletal causes surrounding widowhood ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Einiö E, Martikainen P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: AJE-00608-2018 - On the ongoing discussion about the risk of lung cancer due to diesel engine exhaust.
PMID: 30124745 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chang ET, Lau EC, Van Landingham C, Crump KS, McClellan RO, Moolgavkar SH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Age-specific Excess Mortality Patterns During the 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic in Madrid, Spain.
as DR Abstract Although much progress has been made to uncover age-specific mortality patterns of the 1918 influenza pandemic in populations around the world, more studies in different populations are needed to make sense of the heterogeneous mortality impact of this deadly pandemic. Here we assess the absolute and relative magnitude of 3 pandemic waves in city of Madrid between 1918-1920 based on age-specific all-cause and respiratory excess death rates. We estimate excess death rates using a Serfling model with a parametric bootstrapping approach to calibrate baseline mortality levels with quantified uncertainty...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cilek L, Chowell G, Fariñas DR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Association Between Twenty-Year Trajectories of Non-Occupational Physical Activity From Midlife to Old Age and Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study of British Men.
This study examined associations between 20-year non-occupational PA trajectories and a range of CVD biomarkers at 60-79 years. 3,331 men (mean baseline age = 50.2 ± 5.8 years) recruited in 1978-80 were followed up after 12, 16 and 20 years, reporting habitual non-occupational PA at each wave. At the 20-year follow up, surviving men attended a physical examination and provided a fasting blood sample. Group-based trajectory modelling was used to identify trajectories. Adjusted regression analyses examined the association between trajectory group membership and several cardiometabolic, cardiac and ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Aggio D, Papachristou E, Papacosta O, Lennon LT, Ash S, Whincup PH, Wannamethee SG, Jefferis BJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Canonical Causal Diagrams to Guide the Treatment of Missing Data in Epidemiological Studies.
Abstract With incomplete data, the missing at random (MAR) assumption is widely understood to enable unbiased estimation with appropriate methods. The need to assess the plausibility of MAR and to perform sensitivity analyses considering missing not at random (MNAR) scenarios have been emphasized, but the practical difficulty of these tasks is rarely acknowledged. What MAR means with multivariable missingness is difficult to grasp, while in many MNAR scenarios unbiased estimation is possible using methods commonly associated with MAR. Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) have been proposed as an alternative framework fo...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Moreno-Betancur M, Lee KJ, Leacy FP, White IR, Simpson JA, Carlin JB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response to Letter-to-the-Editor: "On the ongoing discussion about the risk of lung cancer due to diesel engine exhaust" by Matthias Mohner.
Response to Letter-to-the-Editor: "On the ongoing discussion about the risk of lung cancer due to diesel engine exhaust" by Matthias Mohner. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Aug 14;: Authors: Silverman DT PMID: 30124751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Silverman DT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

On the ongoing discussion about the risk of lung cancer due to diesel engine exhaust.
r M PMID: 30124752 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Möhner M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Readiness for Responding to a Severe Pandemic 100 Years After 1918.
Abstract The 1918 H1N1 pandemic caused unprecedented mortality worldwide. The tools to deal with the global emergency were limited with insufficient surveillance systems and a dearth of diagnostic, treatment, and prevention options. With continuing focus on pandemic planning, technologic advances in surveillance, vaccine capabilities, and 21st century medical care and countermeasures, we are more prepared for a severe pandemic than 100 years ago; however, notable gaps remain. PMID: 30102376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jester B, Uyeki T, Jernigan D Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Linking HIV and Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Data: Evaluating a Standard, Deterministic Matching Algorithm - 6 US Health Jurisdictions.
Abstract Accurate interpretations and comparisons of linkage results across jurisdictions require valid and reliable matching methods. We compared existing matching methods used by 6 US state and local health departments (Houston, Texas; Louisiana; Michigan; New York City, New York; North Dakota; and Wisconsin) to link human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis surveillance data with a 14-key automated, hierarchical deterministic matching method. Applicable years varied by disease and jurisdiction, ranging from 1979 to 2016. We calculated percentage agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient to compare the matc...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bosh KA, Coyle JR, Muriithi NW, Ramaswamy C, Zhou W, Brantley AD, Stockman LJ, VanderBusch L, Westheimer EF, Tang T, Green TA, Hall HI Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Time-Series Analysis of Air Pollution and Health Accounting for Covariate-Dependent Overdispersion.
We examined how the assumption of constant overdispersion plays a role in air pollution effect estimation by comparing estimates derived from standard approach to those estimated from covariate-dependent Bayesian generalized Poisson and negative binomial models that accounted for potential time-varying overdispersion. Through simulation studies, we found that while there was negligible bias in effect estimates, the standard quasi-Poisson approach can result in larger standard error when the constant overdispersion assumption is violated. This was also observed in a time-series study of daily emergency department visits for...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Pan A, Sarnat SE, Chang HH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Education and Cognitive Aging: Accounting for Selection and Confounding in the Danish Registry-SHARE Data Linkage.
Abstract Earlier studies report inconsistent associations between education and cognitive aging. We assess the association accounting for selective dropout due to death or dementia, and, in a sub-sample, accounting for confounding by early life intelligence. Data from the Danish component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 3400) were linked to registry data (education records, dementia diagnoses and mortality), and The Danish Conscription Database (youth intelligence measures for 854 men). Word recall and verbal fluency were assessed up to 4 times over 10 years (2004-2013) and combined b...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Foverskov E, Glymour MM, Mortensen EL, Holm A, Lange T, Lund R Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic in Portugal: A Regional Analysis of Mortality Impact.
Abstract Although many archeo-epidemiological studies have assessed the mortality impact of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic, detailed estimates are not available for Portugal. We applied negative binomial models to monthly mortality data from respiratory and all-causes at the national and district-level from Portugal, 1916-1922. Influenza-related excess mortality was computed as the difference between observed and expected deaths. Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between geographic, socio-demographic factors and excess mortality. Two waves of pandemic influenza were identified between July 19...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nunes B, Silva S, Rodrigues A, Roquette R, Batista I, Rebelo-de-Andrade H Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Live Birth Bias and Observed Associations between Air Pollution and Autism.
Abstract A recent analysis found that exposure to air pollution in specific pregnancy weeks is negatively associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when mutually adjusted for postnatal air pollution exposure. In this commentary, we describe two possible selection bias processes that may lead to such results, both related to live birth bias, i.e. the inevitable restriction of the analyzed sample to live births. The first mechanism is described using a directed acyclic graph and relates to the chance of live birth being a common consequence of both exposure to air pollution and another risk factor of AS...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Raz R, Kioumourtzoglou MA, Weisskopf MG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Measurement of Vaccine Direct Effects under the Test-Negative Design.
Abstract Test-negative designs are commonplace in assessments of influenza vaccination effectiveness, estimating this value from the exposure odds ratio (OR) of vaccination among individuals treated for acute respiratory illness who test positive for influenza virus infection. This approach is widely believed to recover the vaccine direct effect by correcting for differential healthcare-seeking behavior among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons. However, the relation of the measured OR to true vaccine effectiveness is poorly understood. We derive the OR under circumstances of real-world test-negative studies. The ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lewnard JA, Tedijanto C, Cowling BJ, Lipsitch M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

An innovative study design to assess the community effect of interventions to mitigate HIV epidemics using transmission-chain phylodynamics.
Abstract Given globalization and other social phenomena, controlling the spread of infectious diseases has become an imperative public health priority. A plethora of interventions which in theory can mitigate the spread of pathogens have been proposed and applied. Evaluating the effectiveness of such interventions is costly and in many circumstances unrealistic. Most importantly, the community effect (i.e. the ability of the intervention to minimize the spread of the pathogen from people who received the intervention to other community members) can rarely be evaluated. Here we propose a study design that can build...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Magiorkinis G, Karamitros T, Vasylyeva TI, Williams LD, Mbisa JL, Hatzakis A, Paraskevis D, Friedman SR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Age at Exposure to Arsenic in Water and Mortality 30-40 Years After Exposure Cessation.
Abstract Arsenic in drinking water is known to cause cancer and non-cancer diseases, but little is known about the effect of age at exposure. Here, we investigated age at arsenic exposure and mortality in Antofagasta, Chile, 30-40 years after a distinct period of very high arsenic water concentrations in 1958-1970. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing Antofagasta with the rest of Chile for 2001-2010 by sex and age at potential first exposure. A remarkable relationship with age at first exposure was found for bronchiectasis with increased risk in adults 30-40 years after exposure being confi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Roh T, Steinmaus C, Marshall G, Ferreccio C, Liaw J, Smith AH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Universal Influenza Vaccines: Progress in Achieving Broad Cross-Protection In Vivo.
Discussion will cover the differing evidence for each candidate vaccine demonstrating protection in animals against influenza viruses of widely divergent HA subtypes and groups, durability of protection, routes of administration including mucosal providing local immunity, and reduction of transmission. Human trials of some candidate universal vaccines have been completed or are underway. Interestingly, the HA stem, like nucleoprotein and matrix, induces immunity permitting some virus replication and emergence of escape mutants fit enough to cause disease. Vaccination with multiple target antigens will thus have advantages ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Epstein SL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +17 new citations
17 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2018/07/30PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 30, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Physical Exertion Immediately Prior to Placental Abruption: A Case-Crossover Study.
PMID: 29992226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chahal HS, Gelaye B, Mostofsky E, Sanchez SE, Mittleman MA, Maclure M, Pacora P, Torres JA, Romero R, Ananth CV, Williams MA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and Patterning of Mental Disorder in Three Cohorts of Black and White Americans Through Adolescence.
Abstract The tendency for Blacks to report similar or lower rates of mental disorder than Whites is well-established. However, whether these disparities are stable across cohorts of Black and White Americans is not well understood. In the current study, we examined Black-White differences in the lifetime prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mood, anxiety, impulse control, substance use and any disorders across 3 cohorts of Blacks and Whites aged 4 to 18. Using merged data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (2001-2003) and the National Comorbidity Survey ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - July 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Louie P, Wheaton B Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research