Mass Gatherings and Diarrheal Disease Transmission among Rural Communities in Coastal Ecuador.
Abstract Mass gatherings exacerbate infectious disease risks by creating crowded, high-contact conditions, and straining the capacity of local infrastructure. While mass gatherings have been extensively studied in the context of epidemic disease transmission, the role of gatherings in incidence of high-burden, endemic infections has not been previously studied. Here, we examine diarrheal incidence among seventeen communities in Esmeraldas, Ecuador, in relation to recurrent gatherings characterized using ethnographic data collected during and after the epidemiological surveillance period (2004-2007). Using distribu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Collender PA, Morris C, Glenn-Finer R, Acevedo A, Chang HH, Trostle JA, Eisenberg JNS, Remais JV Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Interpretation of the Individual Effect Under Treatment Spillover.
Abstract Some interventions are intended to benefit both individuals and the groups to which they belong. When a treatment to one individual exerts a causal effect on others, the treatment is said to exhibit spillover, dissemination, or interference. However, defining meaningful causal effects under spillover can be challenging. In this commentary, we discuss the meaning of the "individual effect", a quantity proposed to summarize the effect of treatment on the individual who receives it, when spillover may be present. PMID: 31094425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Crawford FW, Morozova O, Buchanan AL, Spiegelman D Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Impact of the Revised WIC Food Package on Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Postpartum.
We examined nutritional outcomes among a cohort of 1,454 women recruited during pregnancy in 2006-2011 in Memphis and surrounding Shelby County, Tennessee. We found improvements in several measures of dietary quality and nutrient intake during pregnancy, although these did not persist into the postpartum period. Results were robust to numerous sensitivity analyses. At a time when federal WIC funding is threatened, this study provides some of the first evidence of the benefits of recent WIC revisions among low-income women. PMID: 31094428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hamad R, Batra A, Karasek D, LeWinn KZ, Bush NR, Davis RL, Tylavsky FA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Does Season of Reported Dietary Intake Influence Diet Quality? Analysis From the Women's Health Initiative.
Abstract We evaluated the role of seasonality in self-reported diet quality among postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). A total of 156,911 women completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at enrollment (1993-1998). FFQ responses reflected intake over the prior 3-month period, and seasons were defined as spring (March-May), summer (June-August), fall (September-November), and winter (December-February). FFQ data were used to calculate the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), a measure of diet quality that has a score range of 2.5-87.5, with higher scores representing bette...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Crane TE, Latif YA, Wertheim BC, Kohler LN, Garcia DO, Rhee JJ, Seguin R, Kazlauskaite R, Shikany JM, Thomson CA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +40 new citations
40 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/05/10PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Force-of-infection and True Infection Rate of Dengue in Singapore - its implication on dengue control and management.
Abstract National dengue notifications do not capture all dengue infections and do not reflect the true intensity of disease transmission. To assess the true infections and disease control efforts in Singapore, age-stratified serosurveys were conducted among residents after the largest dengue outbreak in 2013. The age-weighted dengue IgG prevalence among residents was 49.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 48.4, 51.1) in 2013 and 48.6% (95% CI: 47.0, 50.0) in 2017, with increased prevalence with age. Combining these data with those from previous serosurveys, the year-on-year estimates of dengue force of infection (F...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tan LK, Low SL, Sun H, Shi Y, Liu L, Lam S, Tan HH, Ang LW, Wong WY, Chua R, Teo D, Ng LC, Cook AR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Predictive Value of Ov16 Antibody Prevalence in Different Sub-Populations for Elimination of African Onchocerciasis.
Abstract The World Health Organization currently recommends to evaluate elimination of onchocerciasis by testing whether Ov16 antibody prevalence in 0-9-year-old children is below 0.1%. However, the certainty of evidence for this recommendation is considered to be low. We use the established ONCHOSIM model to investigate the predictive value of different Ov16 antibody prevalence thresholds in various age groups for elimination of onchocerciasis in a variety of endemic settings and for various mass drug administration scenarios. According to our simulations, the predictive value of Ov16 antibody prevalence for elim...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Coffeng LE, Stolk WA, Golden A, de Los Santos T, Domingo GJ, de Vlas SJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The impact of three years of targeted IRS with pirimiphos-methyl on malaria parasite prevalence in a high-transmission area of northern Zambia.
Abstract Malaria transmission in northern Zambia has increased in the past decade despite malaria control activities. Evidence-based intervention strategies are needed to effectively reduce malaria transmission. Zambia's National Malaria Control Centre conducted targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province from 2014-2016 using the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. An evaluation of the IRS campaign was conducted by the Southern Africa International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research using actively detected malaria cases in bimonthly household surveys from Apri...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hast MA, Chaponda M, Muleba M, Kabuya JB, Lupiya J, Kobayashi T, Shields T, Lessler J, Mulenga M, Stevenson JC, Norris DE, Moss WJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Using the Self-Controlled Tree-Temporal Scan Statistic to Assess the Safety of Live Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine.
Abstract The self-controlled tree-temporal scan statistic allows detection of potential vaccine- or drug-associated adverse events without pre-specifying the specific events or post-exposure risk intervals of concern. It thus opens a promising new avenue for safety studies. The method has been successfully used to evaluate the safety of two vaccines for adolescents and young adults, but its suitability to study vaccines for older adults had not been established. The current study applied the method to assess the safety of live attenuated herpes zoster vaccination during 2011-2017 in U.S. adults ≥ 60 years old, ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yih WK, Kulldorff M, Dashevsky I, Maro JC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Racial Discrimination, Disease Activity, and Organ Damage: The Black Women's Experiences Living with Lupus (BeWELL) Study.
This study examined if racial discrimination is associated with disease outcomes among 427 African American women with a validated diagnosis of SLE in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area, recruited to the Black Women's Experiences Living with Lupus (BeWELL) Study (2015-2017). Frequency of self-reported experiences of racial discrimination in domains such as employment, housing, and medical settings was assessed using the Experiences of Discrimination measure. SLE activity in the previous three months, including symptoms of fatigue, fever, skin rashes, and ulcers, was measured using the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionna...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chae DH, Martz CD, Fuller-Rowell TE, Spears EC, Smith TTG, Hunter EA, Drenkard C, Lim SS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Use of Antihypertensive Medications and Survival of Breast, Colorectal, Lung, or Stomach Cancer.
Abstract Influence of antihypertensive medications on cancer survival is inconclusive. Using time-dependent Cox regression models, we examined associations of common antihypertensive medications with overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounding factors. Participants were from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS; 1996-2000) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS; 2002-2006) in Shanghai, China. Included were 2,891 incident breast, colorectal, lung, and stomach cancer cases. Medication use was extracted from electronic medical records. Median 3.4...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cui Y, Wen W, Zheng T, Li H, Gao YT, Cai H, You M, Gao J, Yang G, Zheng W, Xiang YB, Shu XO Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

An Area-Level Indicator of Latent Soda Demand: Spatial Statistical Modeling of Grocery Store Transaction Data to Characterize the Nutritional Landscape in Montreal, Canada.
Abstract Measurement of neighborhood dietary patterns at high spatial resolution allows public health agencies to identify and monitor communities with an elevated risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Currently, data on diet are obtained primarily through nutrition surveys, which produce measurements at low spatial resolutions. The availability of store-level grocery transaction data provides an opportunity to refine the measurement of neighborhood dietary patterns. We used these data to develop an indicator of area-level latent demand of soda in the Census Metropolitan Area of Montreal in 2012 by applying ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mamiya H, Schmidt AM, Moodie EEM, Ma Y, Buckeridge DL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Effect estimates in randomized trials and observational studies: comparing apples with apples.
rrin I, Wittkop L, Meyer L, Perez-Hoyos S, Justice A, Neaton JD, Hernán MA, INSIGHT START Study Group and the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration Abstract Effect estimates from randomized trials and observational studies may not be directly comparable because of differences in study design, other than randomization, and in data analysis. We propose a three-step procedure to facilitate meaningful comparisons of effect estimates from randomized trials and observational studies: 1) harmonization of the study protocol (eligibility criteria, treatment strategies, outcome, start and end of follow-up, causal contrast) so tha...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lodi S, Phillips A, Lundgren J, Logan R, Sharma S, Cole SR, Babiker A, Law M, Chu H, Byrne D, Horban A, Sterne JAC, Porter K, Sabin C, Costagliola D, Abgrall S, Gill J, Touloumi G, Pacheco AG, van Sighem A, Reiss P, Bucher HC, Montoliu Giménez A, Jarrin Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

High-sensitivity Cardiac Troponin and Natriuretic Peptide in Persons Without Cardiovascular Disease and Subsequent Risk of Infection: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Abstract Whether persons without prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) but elevated levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) are at high risk of infection is unknown. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, we estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hospitalization with infection in relation to plasma hs-cTnT and NTproBNP among participants without prevalent CVD, and contrasted with those with prevalent CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke) from 1996 through 2013. In multivariable Cox model, prevalent CVD was sign...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ishigami J, Hoogeveen RC, Ballantyne CM, Folsom AR, Coresh J, Selvin E, Matsushita K Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +22 new citations
22 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/05/04PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +27 new citations
27 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/05/01PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Maternal Cell Phone Use During Pregnancy, Pregnancy Duration And Fetal Growth In Four Birth Cohorts.
We examined pregnancy duration (gestational age at birth, preterm/postterm birth), fetal growth (birth weight ratio, small/large for gestational age), and birth weight, low and high birth weight, and meta-analyzed cohort specific estimates. The intermediate exposure group had higher risk of giving birth at lower gestational age (Hazard Ratio=1.04, 95%CI 1.01, 1.07), and exposure-response relationships were found for shorter pregnancy duration (P
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 17, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tsarna E, Reedijk M, Birks LE, Guxens M, Ballester F, Ha M, Jiménez-Zabala A, Kheifets L, Lertxundi A, Lim HR, Olsen J, Safont LG, Sudan M, Cardis E, Vrijheid M, Vrijkotte T, Huss A, Vermeulen R Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Assessing Zika Virus Transmission within Households during an Outbreak in Martinique, 2015-2016.
This study characterizes the contribution of household transmission in ZIKV epidemics and demonstrates the benefits of integrating multiple datasets to gain more insights on epidemic dynamics. PMID: 30995296 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 17, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cousien A, Abel S, Monthieux A, Andronico A, Calmont I, Cervantes M, Césaire R, Gallian P, de Lamballerie X, Laouénan C, Najioullah F, Pierre-François S, Pircher M, Salje H, Ten Bosch QA, Cabié A, Cauchemez S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Performance of Matching Methods to Unmatched Ordinary Least Squares Regression Under Constant Effects.
Abstract Matching methods are assumed to reduce the likelihood of a biased inference compared to ordinary least squares regression. Using simulations, we compare inferences from propensity score matching, coarsened exact matching, and un-matched covariate-adjusted ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to identify which methods, in which scenarios, produced unbiased inferences at the expected type I error rate of 5%. We simulated multiple datasets and systematically varied common support, discontinuities in the exposure and / or outcome, exposure prevalence, and analytic model misspecification. Matching inference...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 17, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vable AM, Kiang MV, Glymour MM, Rigdon J, Drabo EF, Basu S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Gender and Editorial Authorship in High Impact Epidemiology Journals.
K Abstract Women comprise about half of senior epidemiologists, but little is known about whether they are also viewed as leaders (i.e., authorities) in the field. We believe editorial roles are markers of leadership in a field. Our objective was to describe the distribution of gender across authorship of editorials published in five high-impact epidemiology journals over the past eight years. We included editorials and commentaries published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, European Journal of Epidemiology, Epidemiology, International Journal of Epidemiology, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology between ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 17, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Authorship in High Impact Epidemiology Journals. Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

CP*Trends: An Online Tool to Compare Cohort and Period Trends Across Cancer Sites.
Abstract Cohort or period components of trend can provide a rationale for new research or point to clues of effectiveness for control strategies. Graphical display of trends guides models that quantify the experience of a population. A method for smoothing rates by single years of age and year are developed and displayed to show the contribution of period and cohort on trend. The magnitude of the contribution of period and/or cohort in a model for trends may be assessed by percent deviance explained and relative contribution of cohort and period individually, C-P Score. The method is illustrated using lung and bro...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Holford TR, Chen HS, Annett D, Krapcho M, Dorogaeva A, Feuer EJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Determinants of transmission risk during the late stage of the West African Ebola epidemic.
go RM Abstract Understanding risk factors for Ebola transmission is key for effective prediction and design of interventions. We used data on 860 cases in 129 chains of transmission from the latter half of the 2013-16 Ebola outbreak in Guinea. Using negative binomial regression, we determined characteristics associated with the number of secondary cases resulting from each infected individual. We found that attending an Ebola Treatment Unit was associated with a 38% decrease in secondary cases (Incident rate ratio (IRR) 0.62, 95%CI: 0.38, 0.99) in individuals that did not survive. Unsafe burial was associated with...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robert A, Edmunds WJ, Watson CH, Henao-Restrepo AM, Gsell PS, Williamson E, Longini IM, Sakoba K, Kucharski AJ, Touré A, Nadlaou SD, Diallo B, Barry MS, Fofana TO, Camara L, Kaba IL, Sylla L, Diaby ML, Soumah O, Diallo A, Niare A, Diallo A, Eggo RM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "age at exposure to arsenic in water and mortality 30-40 years after exposure cessation".
RE: "AGE AT EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC IN WATER AND MORTALITY 30-40 YEARS AFTER EXPOSURE CESSATION". Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Apr 01;188(4):811 Authors: PMID: 30923823 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

2018 Articles of the Year, Reviewers of the Year, and Figure of the Year.
Authors: PMID: 30923824 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Use of Negative Control Exposure Analysis to Evaluate Confounding: An Example of Acetaminophen Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Nurses' Health Study II.
pf MG Abstract Frequent maternal use of acetaminophen in pregnancy has been linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but concerns regarding uncontrolled confounding remain. In this article, we illustrate use of the negative control exposure (NCE) approach to evaluate uncontrolled confounding bias in observational studies on pregnancy drug safety and explain the causal assumptions behind the method. We conducted an NCE analysis and evaluated the associations between maternal acetaminophen use during different exposure periods and ADHD among 8,856 children born in 1993-2005 to women enr...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Liew Z, Kioumourtzoglou MA, Roberts AL, O'Reilly ÉJ, Ascherio A, Weisskopf MG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
PMID: 30924856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Spector LG, DeWan AT, Pankratz ND, Turcotte LM, Yang JJ, Scheurer ME Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Note From the Editors.
Authors: PMID: 30912571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Look at Propensity Score Calibration's Unique Identifiability.
PMID: 30896016 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Van Domelen DR, Lyles RH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +16 new citations
16 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2019/03/18PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Long-term Associations Between Disaster Experiences and Cardiometabolic Risk: A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.
This study investigated the association between disaster experience and cardiometabolic risks of survivors 2.5 years after the disaster onset, adjusting for health information pre-dating disaster using natural experiment data stemming from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. We used data from a cohort of adults aged 65 years or older in Iwanuma city of Japan located 80 km west of the earthquake epicenter. The baseline survey was completed seven months before the disaster, and the follow-up survey among survivors was performed approximately 2.5 years after. The survey data was linked to medical records with in...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 15, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Shiba K, Hikichi H, Aida J, Kondo K, Kawachi I Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Relationships Between Cadmium, Lead and Mercury Levels and Albuminuria: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database 2009-2012.
In conclusion, only blood and urinary Cd levels, but not Hg and Pb, were associated with albuminuria in adults in this population. PMID: 30874715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 15, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zhu XJ, Wang JJ, Mao JH, Shu Q, Du LZ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Gun Laws and Suicides.
Abstract The aim of this work was to examine the impact of a state gun law environment on suicides overall and within demographic subgroups. We linked 211,766 firearm suicides and 204,625 non-firearm suicides in the 50 states of the United States for 2005-2015 to the population in each state, year, race/ethnicity, sex, and age, as well as to an index of state-level gun control. Difference-in-differences zero-inflated negative-binomial models were used to evaluate the impact of strengthening gun control on firearm and non-firearm suicides. We subsequently stratified by sex and interacted the index by race/ethnicity...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 15, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ghiani M, Hawkins SS, Baum CF Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Maternal Gestational Weight Gain, Obesity, and the Timing of Pubertal Onset in Daughters.
We examined the associations between maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and the timing of the onset of breast development (thelarche) and pubic hair development (pubarche) in a cohort of 2,070 girls born in a Kaiser Permanente Northern California facility between 2005-06. Using Weibull regression models accommodating interval censoring, and adjusting for important confounders, we found that excessive GWG was associated with increased risk of early thelarche (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-1.78) and early pubarche (HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.10-1.66). Inadequate GWG was associated with early thelar...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 15, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Aghaee S, Laurent CA, Deardorff J, Ferrara A, Greenspan LC, Quesenberry CP, Kushi LH, Kubo A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Applying the E-value to Assess the Robustness of Epidemiologic Fields of Inquiry to Unmeasured Confounding.
Abstract We explored the use of the E-value to gauge the robustness of fields of epidemiological inquiry to unmeasured confounding. We surveyed nutrition and air pollution studies that found statistically significant associations between exposures and incident outcomes. For 100 studies in each field, we extracted adjusted relative effect estimates and associated confidence intervals (95% CI). We inverted estimates where necessary so that all effects were greater than 1. We calculated E-values for both the effect estimate and the lower limit of 95%CI. Nutrition studies were smaller than air pollution studies (media...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 15, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Trinquart L, Erlinger AL, Petersen JM, Fox M, Galea S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Author Replies.
PMID: 30869119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Weiss NS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Estimating the Effect of Preventive Services with Databases of Administrative Claims: Reasons to Be Concerned.
Hernán MA PMID: 30869122 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: García-Albéniz X, Hsu J, Bretthauer M, Hernán MA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Future of Teaching Epidemiology.
Abstract The rapid pace of technologicaal advancements and the corresponding societal innovations and adaptations make it difficult to predict how teaching epidemiology will look in the coming decades. We discuss changes in the teaching of epidemiology that are currently unfolding. First, typical epidemiology curricula often lack formal instruction in important components of causal thinking, such as the formulation of well-defined research questions. We address gaps related to causal thinking, communication about our science, and interpretation of study results, and we make suggestions of specific content to close...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Werler MM, Stuver SO, Healey MA, LaMorte WW Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Reproductive Factors and Mammographic Density: Associations Among 24,840 Women and Comparison of Studies Using Digitized Film-Screen Mammography and Full-Field Digital Mammography.
Abstract Breast density is a modifiable factor that is strongly associated with breast cancer risk. We sought to understand the influence of newer technologies of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) on breast density research and to determine whether results are comparable across studies using FFDM and previous studies using traditional film-screen mammography. We studied 24,840 screening-age (40-74 years) non-Hispanic white women who were participants in the Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health of Kaiser Permanente Northern California and underwent screening mammography with either Hologic (Hologic...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Alexeeff SE, Odo NU, McBride R, McGuire V, Achacoso N, Rothstein JH, Lipson JA, Liang RY, Acton L, Yaffe MJ, Whittemore AS, Rubin DL, Sieh W, Habel LA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Future of Observational Epidemiology: Improving Data and Design to Align With Population Health.
Abstract Improvements in data resources and computational power provide important opportunities to ensure the continued relevance and growth of observational epidemiology. To achieve that promise, rigorous statistical analyses are important but not sufficient. We must prioritize articulating relevant research questions and developing strong study designs. Relevance depends on designing observational research so it delivers actionable clinical or population health evidence. Expanding data sources, including administrative records and data from emerging technologies such as sensors, can potentially be leveraged to i...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Glymour MM, Bibbins-Domingo K Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Within-Person Associations Between Financial Hardship and Cognitive Performance in the PATH Through Life.
This study provides new evidence that the onset (shock) of financial hardship is a potent stressor associated with occasion specific deficits in fluid cognitive abilities. PMID: 30865222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kiely KM, Anstey KJ, Butterworth P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Teaching on the Continuum: Epidemiology Education from High School through Graduate School.
Abstract Epidemiology education is increasingly recognized as a core science necessary for career preparation throughout the health sector, and graduate epidemiology instruction is continually being reevaluated to ensure students receive appropriate training. Recent work has also focused on the potential for epidemiology to be formally incorporated as a stand-alone discipline in undergraduate education and even integrated into wide-scale high school science learning. As epidemiology educators, however, we face a tremendous challenge in that we should appreciate differences in students' instructional needs and goal...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: D'Agostino EM, Hlaing WM, Stark JH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Optimism and Healthy Aging in Women and Men.
Abstract Mounting evidence indicates specific associations between higher levels of optimism and healthier behaviors, reduced risk of chronic diseases, and lower mortality. Yet, for public health purposes, it is critical to consider how optimism may be related to a full scope of health conditions in aging-from cognitive to physical health. Using prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study (N=5,698), we examined if higher baseline optimism was associated with subsequent increased likelihood of maintaining healthy aging over 6-8 years of follow-up. Optimism was assessed at study baseline (2006 or 2008), an...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kim ES, James P, Zevon ES, Trudel-Fitzgerald C, Kubzansky LD, Grodstein F Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Using Bounds to Compare the Strength of Exchangeability Assumptions for Internal and External Validity.
We describe bounds for the risk difference of a binary exposure on a binary outcome under four common study settings: observational and randomized studies, each with and without simple random selection from the target population. Through these scenarios, we introduce randomizations for selection and treatment, and the width of the bounds are narrowed from 2 (the width of the range of the risk difference) down to 0 (point identification). We then assess the strength of the assumptions of exchangeability for internal and external validity by comparing their contributions to the width of the bounds in the setting of an observ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Breskin A, Westreich D, Cole SR, Edwards JK Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Supportive housing and its impact on diabetes among New York City homeless population.
Abstract Supportive housing addresses a fundamental need for living among homeless individuals, which can lead to reduced diabetes risk and improved diabetes care. The authors tested the association between supportive housing and diabetes outcomes among homeless adults who were eligible for the New York City supportive housing program in 2007-2012. They used multiple administrative data sources, identifying 7,525 Medicaid-eligible adults. The outcomes included receiving evaluation and management services, hemoglobin A1C and lipid testing (those with baseline diabetes, N=1,489), and incidence of new diabetes diagno...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lim S, Miller-Archie SA, Singh TP, Wu WY, Walters SC, Gould LH Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Enigmatic gender difference in cancer incidence: evidences from childhood cancers.
Abstract We aimed to investigate the differences in cancer incidence between boys and girls. The incidence data for pediatric cancer were retrieved from the International Incidence of Childhood Cancer. Poisson regression was applied to detect the gender differences in cancer incidence at global and regional levels. Boys were more susceptible to childhood cancers than girls, with a global boy-to-girl incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.27 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.26-1.28) for leukaemia, 1.48 (95% CI 1.46-1.51) for lymphomas, 1.10 (95% CI 1.08-1.11) for central nervous system neoplasms, 1.11 (95% CI 1.08-1.13) f...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Liu Z, Yang Q, Cai N, Jin L, Zhang T, Chen X Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Controlled Direct Effect of Early Life Socioeconomic Position on Periodontitis in a Birth Cohort.
Conclusion: Early life SEP has an effect on the development of periodontitis in adulthood that is not mediated by adulthood SEP and behaviors. PMID: 30834447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schuch HS, Nascimento GG, Peres KG, Mittinty MN, Demarco FF, Correa MB, Gigante DP, Horta BL, Peres MA, Do LG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Opioid Use, Misuse, and Suicidal Behaviors in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. Adults.
Abstract Prior research has shown associations between opioid misuse and suicidal behaviors, but the relationship between medical opioid use and suicidal behaviors is not known. We assessed associations between opioid use and misuse to suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts among adults 18-64 years old (n=86,186) using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2015-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate associations between opioid use/misuse and suicidal behaviors and propensity score weighted logistic regression to examine the counterfact...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Samples H, Stuart EA, Olfson M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Age at Immigration, Generational Status, and Mortality among Children of Immigrant Mothers: a Longitudinal Analysis of Siblings.
m A Abstract Previous studies document that age at immigration and generational status are important predictors of socioeconomic outcomes among children of immigrants. Whether these characteristics are related to long-term mortality is unknown. Leveraging variation within sib-ships, we evaluated the association of age at immigration and generational status (first or second generation) with mortality among children of immigrant mothers to Sweden. Data included 272,429 individuals (126,701 sib-ships) aged 15+ from the total Swedish population who were followed between 1990 and 2009. Population-average and sibling fi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mehta NK, Martikainen P, Cederström A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

To What Extent Does Age at Death Account for Sex Differences in Alzheimer's Disease Mortality Rates?
Abstract Our objective was to compare sex-specific rates of death with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or dementia as the underlying or associated cause using death records. De-identified individual records of causes of death of all people aged of 60 or more who died in Australia during 2006-2014 (n = 1,104,684) were analyzed. There were 184,562 records dementia codes (AD, vascular dementia, or unspecified dementia). Death rate ratios for women compared to men were estimated using Poisson regression. Women had a greater crude death rate of all-types of dementia compared with men (5.9 per 1,000 person-years comp...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Buckley RF, Waller M, Masters CL, Dobson A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Examining sex/gender differences in risk of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias: Challenges and future directions.
Abstract The majority of people living with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are women. Longer life expectancy is one factor thought to contribute to this observation, but possible sex-specific biological mechanisms have received considerable attention from the research community. In the current issue of the Journal, Buckley et al. (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX-XXXX) use death certificate information on all deaths among adults ages 60 years and older in Australia between 2006 and 2014 to evaluate sex/gender differences in rates of death with dementia (all-types), Alzheimer's disease dementia, and vas...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - March 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mayeda ER Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research