10-year changes in accelerometer-based physical activity and sedentary time during midlife: CARDIA Study.
Abstract To describe 10-year changes in accelerometer-determined physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in a midlife cohort, within and by race/sex groups. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults participants (n = 962) who wore the accelerometer with valid wear (≥4 of 7 days, ≥10 hours per day) at baseline (2005-06; ages 38-50; ActiGraph 7164) and 10-year follow-up (2015-16; ages 48-60; ActiGraph wGT3X-BT). Data were calibrated to account for accelerometer model differences. Participants (aged 45.0 ± 3.5 years at baseline) experienced reductions in accelerometer ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gabriel KP, Sidney S, Jacobs DR, Whitaker KM, Carnethon MR, Lewis CE, Schreiner PJ, Malkani RI, Shikany JM, Reis JP, Sternfeld B Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Deployment and preterm birth among US Army Soldiers.
PMID: 29893774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Coughlin SS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

New-Onset Asthma and Combat Deployment: Findings From the Millennium Cohort Study.
This study aimed to longitudinally determine the risk factors for developing asthma, including combat deployment (categorized as deployed with combat experience, deployed without combat experience, and nondeployed), among Millennium Cohort Study participants from 2001 to 2013. A total of 75,770 participants completed a baseline and at least one triennial follow-up survey on deployment experiences, lifestyle characteristics, and health outcomes. Complementary log-log models stratified by sex were used to estimate the relative risk of developing asthma among participants who reported no history of asthma at baseline. In adju...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rivera AC, Powell TM, Boyko EJ, Lee RU, Faix DJ, Luxton DD, Rull RP, Millennium Cohort Study Team Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations of Tipped and Untipped Service Work with Poor Mental Health in a Nationally Representative Cohort of Adolescents Followed into Adulthood.
Abstract Precarious work is concentrated in the service industry in the United States and is a risk factor for poor mental health. Service occupations in which workers receive tips are potentially more precarious due to unstable schedule, income, and lack of benefits. We tested hypotheses that individuals working in tipped service occupations have greater odds of experiencing poor mental health (self-reported depression, sleep problems, and/or greater perceived stress) relative to individuals in untipped service and non-service occupations using cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal study of Adolesce...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Andrea SB, Messer LC, Marino M, Boone-Heinonen J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Temporal Trends in the Level and Decline of Cognition and Disability in an Elderly Population: the PAQUID Study.
This study was conducted on two "generations" of elderly individuals aged 78-88 years, who were included 10 years apart in the Personnes Agées QUID (PAQUID) cohort (France) (n = 612 in 1991-92 and n = 628 in 2001-02) and followed-up for 12 years, with assessments of cognition and disability. Differences between the generations in baseline levels and decline over time were estimated using a joint model to account for differential attrition. Compared with the first generation, the second generation had higher performances at baseline on four cognitive tests (from p 
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Grasset L, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Proust-Lima C, Pérès K, Amieva H, Dartigues JF, Helmer C Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Prenatal Exposure to Antibiotics and Risk of Childhood Obesity in a Multi-Center Cohort Study.
Abstract Mounting evidence has linked postnatal antibiotic use with body mass index (BMI) in children, but the influence of prenatal antibiotic use on offspring obesity risk remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between fetal exposure to antibiotics and obesity at ages 4 and 7 years among 43,332 children using a multi-center prospective cohort of the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1976). Antibiotic use was ascertained for mothers during pregnancy. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs) of obesity (BMI > 95th percentile) and linear mixed mod...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wang B, Liu J, Zhang Y, Yan C, Wang H, Jiang F, Li F, Zhang J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Estimating an Individual's Probability of Revision Surgery After Knee Replacement: A Comparison of Modeling Approaches Using a National Dataset.
Abstract Tools that provide personalized risk prediction of the outcomes after surgical procedures help patients to make preference-based decisions amongst the available treatment options. However, it is unclear which modeling approach provides the most accurate risk estimation. We constructed and compared several parametric and non-parametric models for predicting prosthesis survivorship after knee replacement surgery for osteoarthritis. We used 430,455 patient-procedure episodes between April 2003 and September 2015 from the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. The fl...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Aram P, Trela-Larsen L, Sayers A, Hills AF, Blom AW, McCloskey EV, Kadirkamanathan V, Wilkinson JM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Understanding TB Transmission in the UK: Findings from Six Years of MIRU-VNTR Strain Typing, 2010 to 2015.
Abstract Genotyping provides the opportunity to better understand tuberculosis (TB) transmission. We utilise strain typing data to assess trends in the proportion of clustering, and identify the characteristics of individuals and clusters associated with recent UK transmission. In this retrospective cohort analysis we included all culture-confirmed strain typed TB notifications from the UK between 2010 and 2015 to estimate the proportion of patients that clustered over time. We explored the characteristics of patients in a cluster using multivariable logistic regression. Overall, 58.5% of TB patients were in 2,701...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Davidson JA, Thomas HL, Maguire H, Brown T, Burkitt A, Macdonald N, Campbell CNJ, Lalor MK Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Revealing Measles Outbreak Risk With a Nested IgG Serosurvey in Madagascar.
ud JM Abstract Madagascar reports few measles cases annually and high vaccination campaign coverage. However, the underlying age profile of immunity and risk of a measles outbreak is unknown. We conducted a nested serological survey, testing 1,005 serum collected between November 2013 and December 2015 via Madagascar's febrile rash surveillance system, for measles immunoglobulin G antibody titers. We directly estimated the age profile of immunity and compared these estimates to indirect estimates based on a birth cohort model of vaccination coverage and natural infection. Combining these estimates of the age profi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Winter AK, Wesolowski AP, Mensah KJ, Ramamonjiharisoa MB, Randriamanantena AH, Razafindratsimandresy R, Cauchemez S, Lessler J, Ferrari MJ, Metcalf CJE, Héraud JM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Biomarker-Calibrated Total Sugars Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.
Abstract The inconsistent findings from epidemiologic studies relating total sugars (TS) consumption to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk may be partly due to measurement error (ME) in self-reported intake. Using regression calibration equations developed based on the predictive biomarker for TS and recovery biomarker for energy, we examined the association of TS with T2D and CVD risk, before and after dietary calibration, in 82,254 postmenopausal women of the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study. After up to 16 years of follow-up (1993-2010), 6,621 T2D and 5,802 CVD incident case...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tasevska N, Pettinger M, Kipnis V, Midthune D, Tinker LF, Potischman N, Neuhouser ML, Beasley JM, Van Horn L, Howard BV, Liu S, Manson JE, Shikany JM, Thomson CA, Prentice RL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Twelve-Year Trajectories of Sitting Time are Associated With Frailty in Middle-Aged Women.
Abstract Prolonged sitting time is associated with several health outcomes; with limited evidence reporting associations with frailty. The aims of this study were to identify patterns of sitting time over 12 years in middle-aged women and examine associations of these patterns with frailty in older age. Our study examined 5,462 women born in 1946-1951 from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health who self-reported socio-demographic attributes, daily sitting time and frailty in 2001, and then every three years until 2013. Frailty was assessed using the FRAIL scale (score 0 = healthy; 1-2 =...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Susanto M, Hubbard RE, Gardiner PA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations of Bar and Restaurant Smoking Bans With Smoking Behavior in the CARDIA Study: A 25-Year Study.
Abstract Indoor smoking bans have often been associated with reductions in smoking prevalence. However, few studies have evaluated their association with within-person changes in smoking behaviors. We linked longitudinal data from 5,105 adults aged 18-30 years at baseline from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (1985-2011) to state, county, and local policies mandating 100% smoke-free bars and restaurants by census tract. We used fixed-effects models to examine the association of smoking bans with within-person change in current smoking risk, smoking intensity (smoking ≥10 cigar...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mayne SL, Auchincloss AH, Tabb LP, Stehr M, Shikany JM, Schreiner PJ, Widome R, Gordon-Larsen P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Yih et al. Respond to "Moving From Evidence to Impact for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination".
Yih et al. Respond to "Moving From Evidence to Impact for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Jun 01;187(6):1281 Authors: Yih WK, Maro JC, Kulldorff M PMID: 29860469 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yih WK, Maro JC, Kulldorff M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Assessment of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Safety Using the Self-Controlled Tree-Temporal Scan Statistic Signal-Detection Method in the Sentinel System.
Abstract The self-controlled tree-temporal scan statistic-a new signal-detection method-can evaluate whether any of a wide variety of health outcomes are temporally associated with receipt of a specific vaccine, while adjusting for multiple testing. Neither health outcomes nor postvaccination potential periods of increased risk need be prespecified. Using US medical claims data in the Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel system, we employed the method to evaluate adverse events occurring after receipt of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHPV). Incident outcomes recorded in emergency department or inp...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yih WK, Maro JC, Nguyen M, Baker MA, Balsbaugh C, Cole DV, Dashevsky I, Mba-Jonas A, Kulldorff M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Moving From Evidence to Impact for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination-The Critical Role of Translation and Communication in Epidemiology.
Abstract In response to the accompanying article by Yih et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187(6):1269-1276), we highlight the importance of moving beyond epidemiologic research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine safety to focus on translation of this strong evidence base into successful vaccine safety communication strategies to bolster vaccine uptake. The potential of the HPV vaccine to reduce cancer incidence is substantial, yet actual HPV vaccination rates in the United States are disappointingly low in comparison with other routine childhood vaccines with similar safety profiles. This is no doubt due, in part, t...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rositch AF, Krakow M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Telomere Length and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Vascular Brain Injury and Central Brain Atrophy: The Strong Heart Study.
We examined associations between LTL and magnetic resonance imaging in 363 American Indians aged 64-93 years from the Strong Heart Study (1989-1991) and its ancillary study, Cerebrovascular Disease and Its Consequences in American Indians (2010-2013). Our results showed significant associations of LTL with ventricular enlargement and the presence of white matter hyperintensities. Secondary models indicated that renal function may mediate these associations, although small case numbers limited inference. Hypertension and diabetes showed little evidence of effect modification. Results were most extreme among participants who...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - June 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Suchy-Dicey AM, Muller CJ, Madhyastha TM, Shibata D, Cole SA, Zhao J, Longstreth WT, Buchwald D Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mortality in women treated with assisted reproductive technology treatment - addressing the healthy patient effect.
sen M Abstract Previous studies have reported reduced mortality among women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, possibly related to selection of healthy women into ART treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of relevant selection factors on the association between ART treatment and mortality and explore effect modification by parity. Women treated with ART in fertility clinics in Denmark during 1994-2009 (n = 42,897) were age-matched with untreated women from the background population (n = 204,514) and followed until ultimo 2010. With adjustment for r...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 29, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vassard D, Schmidt L, Pinborg A, Lindved Petersen G, Forman JL, Hageman I, Glazer CH, Kamper-Jørgensen M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Role of 27 Human Gut Microbiota Genera in Ischemic Heart Disease, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Their Risk Factors: A Mendelian Randomization Study.
Abstract Manipulation of the gut microbiota presents a new opportunity to combat chronic diseases. Randomized controlled trials of probiotics suggest some associations with adiposity, lipids and insulin resistance, but no trials with hard outcomes have been conducted. We used separate-sample Mendelian randomization to obtain estimates of the associations of 27 gut microbiota genera with ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adiposity, lipids and insulin resistance, based on summary data from CARDIoGRAAMplusC4D and other consortiums. Among 27 genera, a 1 allele increase in single nucleotide polymorphism...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 25, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yang Q, Lin SL, Kwok MK, Leung GM, Schooling CM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "Growth Trajectories, Breast Size, and Breast-Tissue Composition in a British Pre-Birth Cohort of Young Women".
Re: "Growth Trajectories, Breast Size, and Breast-Tissue Composition in a British Pre-Birth Cohort of Young Women". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 May 23;: Authors: Goldberg M, Terry MB PMID: 29796640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Goldberg M, Terry MB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response to the Letter to the Editor by Goldberg and Terry.
PMID: 29796653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: De Stavola BL, Denholm R, Dos-Santos-Silva I Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Long-Term Ambient Temperature and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents.
Abstract The climate-violence relationship has been debated for decades, and yet most of the supportive evidence came from ecological or cross-sectional analyses with very limited long-term exposure data. We conducted an individual-level, longitudinal study to investigate the association between ambient temperature and externalizing behaviors of urban-dwelling adolescents. Participants (n = 1,287) of the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study were examined in 2000-2012 (aged 9-18 years) with repeated assessments of their externalizing behaviors (aggression; delinquency). Ambient temperature data were...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Younan D, Li L, Tuvblad C, Wu J, Lurmann F, Franklin M, Berhane K, McConnell R, Wu AH, Baker LA, Chen JC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Using Registry Data to Construct a Comparison Group for Programmatic Effectiveness Evaluation - the New York City HIV Care Coordination Program.
We describe a method to construct a surveillance registry-based comparison group, which allows for estimating the effectiveness of the intervention while controlling for secular trends in the outcome of interest. Using data from the New York City population-based human immunodeficiency virus Surveillance Registry, we created a contemporaneous comparison group for persons enrolled in the New York City human immunodeficiency virus Care Coordination Program (CCP) from December 2009 to March 2013. Inclusion in the non-CCP registry-based comparison group required meeting CCP eligibility criteria, ascertained through surveillanc...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robertson MM, Waldron L, Robbins RS, Chamberlin S, Penrose K, Levin B, Kulkarni S, Braunstein SL, Irvine MK, Nash D Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations of Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Concentrations With Incident, Sporadic Colorectal Adenoma Risk According to Common Vitamin D Binding Protein Isoforms.
Abstract 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3), the main circulating form of vitamin D, is inversely associated with incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma. We investigated whether this association differs by two functional variants in the vitamin D binding protein gene (group-specific component, GC) that encode for common protein isoforms (Gc1s, Gc1f, Gc2) linked to differences in vitamin D metabolism. We pooled data (418 adenoma cases, 524 polyp-free controls) from three colonoscopy-based case-control studies (Minnesota, 1991-1994; North Carolina, 1994-1997; South Carolina, 2002). We estimated 25(OH)D3-adenoma associat...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gibbs DC, Fedirko V, Um C, Gross MD, Thyagarajan B, Bostick RM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Identification of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Axes That Predict All-Cause Mortality: The COPDGene Study.
vestigators Abstract Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a syndrome caused by damage to the lungs resulting in decreased pulmonary function and reduced structural integrity. Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is currently used to diagnose and stratify COPD into severity groups and chest computed tomography (CT) imaging is often used to assess structural changes in the lungs. We hypothesized that the combination of PFT and CT phenotypes would provide a more powerful tool for assessing underlying morphologic differences associated with pulmonary function in COPD than PFT alone. We used factor analysis of 2...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kinney GL, Santorico SA, Young KA, Cho MH, Castaldi PJ, San José Estépar R, Ross JC, Dy JG, Make BJ, Regan EA, Lynch DA, Everett DC, Lutz SM, Silverman EK, Washko GR, Crapo JD, Hokanson JE, COPDGene Investigators Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Identification of etiology-specific diarrhea associated with linear growth faltering in Bangladeshi infants.
Abstract Childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings has been variably linked to linear growth shortfalls. However, the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and growth has not been comprehensively evaluated. We tested diarrheal stools collected from the Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries study from 2011-2013 in Dhaka, Bangladesh by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a broad range of enteropathogens to characterize diarrhea etiology and examine the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and linear growth and systemic inflammation. Pathogen-specific bur...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schnee AE, Haque R, Taniuchi M, Uddin J, Alam M, Liu J, Rogawski ET, Kirkpatrick B, Houpt ER, Petri WA, Platts-Mills JA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Drug Side Effects and Retention on HIV Treatment: a Regression Discontinuity Study of Tenofovir Implementation in South Africa and Zambia.
MP Abstract Tenofovir is less toxic than other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors used in antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may improve retention of HIV-infected patients on ART. We assessed the impact of national guideline changes in South Africa (2010) and Zambia (2007) recommending tenofovir in first-line ART. We applied regression discontinuity in a prospective cohort of 52,294 HIV-infected adults initiating first-line ART within ±12-months of each guideline change. We compared outcomes in patients presenting just before/after the guideline changes using local linear regression and estimated in...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Brennan AT, Bor J, Davies MA, Wandeler G, Prozesky H, Fatti G, Wood R, Stinson K, Tanser F, Bärnighausen T, Boulle A, Sikazwe I, Zanolini A, Fox MP Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure in China: Rationale for Developing a Patient Registry and Baseline Characteristics.
Abstract Definitions and descriptions of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) vary between Western and Eastern types, and alcoholism and hepatitis B virus(HBV) are the main etiologies, respectively. To determine whether there are unified diagnostic criteria and common treatment programs for different etiologies of ACLF, a multicenter prospective cohort with the same inclusion criteria and disease indicators as those used in the European CANONIC (Chronic liver failure-ACLF in Cirrhosis) study is urgently needed in Asia, where the prevalence of HBV is high. Fourteen nationwide liver centers from tertiary university...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gu WY, Xu BY, Zheng X, Chen J, Wang XB, Huang Y, Gao YH, Meng ZJ, Qian ZP, Liu F, Lu XB, Shang J, Li H, Wang SY, Sun X, Li H Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Using a Mixture of Bivariate Regression Model to Explore Heterogeneity of Effects of Use of Inhaled Corticosteroids on Gestational Age and Birthweight among Pregnant Women with Asthma.
In conclusion, the studied mixture of bivariate regressions was useful to detect heterogeneity of ICS effect on GA and BW in our population of women with asthma; these analyses pave the way for analogous uses of this model for general assessment of exposure effect heterogeneity for these perinatal outcomes. PMID: 29762633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Samoilenko M, Blais L, Boucoiran I, Lefebvre G Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

An Epigenome-Wide Association Study (EWAS) of Obesity-Related Traits.
Abstract We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on obesity-related traits. We used data from two prospective, population-based cohort studies: the Rotterdam Study (RS) (2006-2013) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (1990-1992). We used RS (n = 1,454) as the discovery panel and ARIC (n = 2,097) as replication panel. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the cross-sectional association between genome-wide DNA methylation in leukocytes with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusting for sex, age, smoking, leukocyte proportions, array numbe...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dhana K, Braun KVE, Nano J, Voortman T, Demerath EW, Guan W, Fornage M, van Meurs JBJ, Uitterlinden AG, Hofman A, Franco OH, Dehghan A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Association of Maternal Exposure to Childhood Abuse With Elevated Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Offspring.
We examined the association of maternal experience of childhood abuse with ADHD in offspring, assessed by maternal report of diagnosis and validated with the ADHD Rating Scale-IV in a subsample, in the Nurses' Health Study II (n = 49,497 mothers, N offspring cases = 7,607, N offspring controls = 102,151). We examined whether ten adverse perinatal circumstances (e.g., prematurity, smoking) or socioeconomic factors accounted for a possible association. Exposure to abuse was associated with greater prevalence of ADHD in offspring (8.7% of offspring of women exposed to severe abuse vs. 5.5% of off...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Roberts AL, Liew Z, Lyall K, Ascherio A, Weisskopf MG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Educational Mobility Across Generations and Depressive Symptoms Over 10 Years Among US Latinos.
Abstract Few studies have collected intergenerational data to assess the association between educational mobility across multiple generations and offspring depression. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008), we assessed the influence of intergenerational education on depressive symptoms over 10 years among 1,786 Latino individuals (mean age = 70.6 years). Educational mobility was classified: stable-low (low parent/low offspring education), upwardly mobile (low parent/high offspring education), stable-high (high parent/high offspring education), or downwardly mobile (high pa...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ward JB, Robinson WR, Pence BW, Maselko J, Albrecht SS, Haan MN, Aiello AE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Residential Racial Isolation and Spatial Patterning of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Durham, North Carolina.
Abstract Neighborhood characteristics such as racial segregation may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but studies have not examined these relationships using spatial models appropriate for geographically patterned health outcomes. We construct a local, spatial index of racial isolation (RI) for blacks, which measures the extent to which blacks are exposed to only one another, to estimate associations of diabetes with RI and examine how RI relates to spatial patterning in diabetes. We obtained 2007-2011 electronic health records from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse. Patient data were linked ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bravo MA, Anthopolos R, Kimbro RT, Miranda ML Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Longitudinal Physical Activity Patterns Among Older Adults: A Latent Transition Analysis.
le AG Abstract Most epidemiologic studies of physical activity measure either total energy expenditure or engagement in a single activity type, such as walking. These approaches may gloss over important nuances in activity patterns. We performed a latent transition analysis to identify patterns of activity types as well as neighborhood and individual determinants of changes in those activity patterns over two years in a cohort of 2,023 older adult residents of New York City, NY, surveyed between 2011 and 2013. We identified seven latent classes: 1) Mostly Inactive, 2) Walking, 3) Exercise, 4) Household Activities ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mooney SJ, Joshi S, Cerdá M, Kennedy GJ, Beard JR, Rundle AG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Prospects for Tuberculosis Elimination in the United States: Results of a Transmission Dynamic Model.
Abstract We estimated long-term tuberculosis (TB) trends in the US population and assessed prospects for TB elimination. We used a detailed simulation model allowing for changes in TB transmission, immigration, and other TB risk determinants. We evaluated 5 hypothetical scenarios from 2017 to 2100: 1) maintain current TB prevention and treatment activities (base-case), 2) provision of latent TB infection testing and treatment for new legal immigrants, 3) increased uptake of latent TB infection screening and treatment among high-risk populations, including a 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine regimen, 4) improved TB cas...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Menzies NA, Cohen T, Hill AN, Yaesoubi R, Galer K, Wolf E, Marks SM, Salomon JA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Complete Streets and Adult Bicyclist Fatalities: Applying G-Computation to Evaluate an Intervention That Affects the Size of a Population at Risk.
Abstract "Complete Streets" policies require transportation engineers to make provisions for pedestrians, cyclists and transit users. These policies may make bicycling safer for individual cyclists while increasing overall bicycle fatalities if more individuals cycle due to improved infrastructure. We merged county-level records of Complete Streets policies with Fatality Analysis Reporting System counts of cyclist fatalities occurring between January 2000 and December 2015. Because comprehensive county cycling estimates were not available, we used bicycle commute estimates from the American Community Sur...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mooney SJ, Magee C, Dang K, Leonard JC, Yang J, Rivara FP, Ebel BE, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Quistberg DA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Shorter Time to Pregnancy With Increasing Preconception Carotene Concentrations Among Women With 1 to 2 Previous Pregnancy Losses.
Abstract Although maternal nutrition may impact fecundity, associations between preconception micronutrients and time to pregnancy (TTP) has not been examined. We assessed the relationship between preconception fat-soluble micronutrient concentrations and TTP among women with 1-2 prior pregnancy losses. This is a prospective cohort study of 1,228 women set in the EAGeR Trial (US, 2007-2011), which assessed the effect of preconception-initiated daily low dose aspirin on reproductive outcomes. We measured preconception zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α- and β-carotene, and α- and γ-tocoph...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kim K, Schisterman EF, Silver RM, Wilcox BD, Lynch AM, Perkins NJ, Browne RW, Lesher LL, Stanford JB, Ye A, Wactawski-Wende J, Mumford SL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Does Socioeconomic Status Modify the Association Between Preterm Birth and Children's Early Cognitive Ability and Kindergarten Academic Achievement in the United States?
Abstract Being born preterm and being raised in poverty are each linked with adverse cognitive outcomes. Using data from 5,250 singletons born in the US in 2001 and enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we examined whether household socioeconomic status (SES) modified the association between preterm birth (PTB) and children's scores on cognitive assessments at 2 years and reading and mathematics assessments at kindergarten age. Gestational age was measured from birth certificates and categorized as early preterm, moderate preterm, late preterm, early term, and term. SES was measured at 9...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Beauregard JL, Drews-Botsch C, Sales JM, Flanders WD, Kramer MR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Impact of a Rotavirus Vaccine Program on Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations: Estimating the Overall Effect Attributable to the Program as a Whole, and as a Per-Unit Change in Rotavirus Vaccine Coverage.
Abstract Estimation of the overall effect of a vaccine program is essential, but the effect is typically estimated for a whole program. We estimate the overall effect of the Quebec rotavirus vaccine program launched in November 2011, and the effect for each 10% increase in rotavirus vaccine coverage on pediatric, all-cause acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations. We implemented negative binomial regressions adjusted for seasonality, long-term trends, and infection dynamics, to estimate the effect of the vaccine program as: 1) a dichotomous variable, representing program presence/absence, and linear term to account ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Doll MK, Quach C, Buckeridge DL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Implications of the Propensity Score Matching Paradox in Pharmacoepidemiology.
Abstract Recent work demonstrated that propensity score matching may lead to increased covariate imbalance, even with the corresponding decrease in propensity score distance between matched units. The extent to which this paradoxical phenomenon might harm causal inference in real epidemiologic studies has not been explored. We evaluated the effect of this phenomenon using insurance claims data from the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly (1999-2002) and Medicaid Analytic eXtract (2000-2007) databases. For each dataset, we created several 1:1 propensity score-matched datasets by manipulating the size...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ripollone JE, Huybrechts KF, Rothman KJ, Ferguson RE, Franklin JM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Cluster Randomized Test-Negative Design (CR-TND) Trials: A Novel and Efficient Method to Assess the Efficacy of Community Level Dengue Interventions.
We describe a novel cluster randomized trial methodology with a test-negative design, which offers advantages over traditional approaches. It utilizes outcome-based sampling of patients presenting with a syndrome consistent with the disease of interest, who are subsequently classified as test-positive cases or test-negative controls on the basis of diagnostic testing. We use simulations of a cluster trial to demonstrate validity of efficacy estimates under the test-negative approach. This demonstrates that, provided study arms are balanced for both test-negative and test-positive illness at baseline and that other test-neg...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Anders KL, Cutcher Z, Kleinschmidt I, Donnelly CA, Ferguson NM, Indriani C, O'Neill SL, Jewell NP, Simmons CP Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Ramadan, Pregnancy, Nutrition, and Epidemiology.
Abstract Ramadan is observed by 1.6 billion Muslims. In a paper published this month that uses data from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System site in Burkina Faso, it is found that experiencing Ramadan in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of child mortality. Ramadan exposes observant individuals to a specific pattern of nutrition and other behaviors, including changes in sleep patterns. How these behaviors might result in child mortality is not yet understood, and the findings reported in the paper should be replicated in other settings. PMID: 29741561 [PubMed - as supplied ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Stein AD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Matter of Survival: The Detrimental Consequences of Adverse Early Life Conditions.
Abstract Studies across different species have shown that moderate dietary restriction is associated with longer lifespan. Surprisingly however, when diet is restricted in prenatal life, the effect is completely the opposite. Animal work and human epidemiologic data have shown that undernutrition in utero negatively affects health in later life and reduces lifespan considerably. In this issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology, Schoeps et al. provide new evidence that variations in nutritional conditions during pregnancy relate to the future health of the unborn child (1). In a detailed analysis of data from ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: de Rooij SR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Authors' Response to Commentaries.
9741572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Authors' Response to Commentaries. Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Ramadan Exposure In utero and Child Mortality in Burkina Faso: Analysis of a Population-Based Cohort Including 41,025 Children.
te; A, Gabrysch S Abstract Ramadan exposure in utero can be regarded as a natural experiment to study how nutritional conditions in utero influence susceptibility to disease later in life. We analyzed data from rural Burkina Faso on 41,025 children born between 1993 and 2012, of which 25,093 to Muslim mothers. Ramadan exposure was assigned based on overlap between Ramadan dates and gestation, creating seven exclusive categories. We used proportional hazards regression with difference-in-differences to estimate the association between Ramadan exposure at different gestational ages and under-five mortality. Under-fi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schoeps A, van Ewijk R, Kynast-Wolf G, Nebié E, Zabré P, Sié A, Gabrysch S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "a decade of war: prospective trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among deployed us military personnel and the influence of combat exposure".
RE: "A DECADE OF WAR: PROSPECTIVE TRAJECTORIES OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER SYMPTOMS AMONG DEPLOYED US MILITARY PERSONNEL AND THE INFLUENCE OF COMBAT EXPOSURE". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 May 04;: Authors: Nevin RL PMID: 29733340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nevin RL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Four authors reply.
FOUR AUTHORS REPLY. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 May 04;: Authors: Donoho CJ, Bonanno GA, Porter B, Powell TM PMID: 29733346 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Donoho CJ, Bonanno GA, Porter B, Powell TM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "modeling risk-factor trajectories when measurement tools change sequentially during follow-up in cohort studies: application to dietary habits in prodromal dementia".
RE: "MODELING RISK-FACTOR TRAJECTORIES WHEN MEASUREMENT TOOLS CHANGE SEQUENTIALLY DURING FOLLOW-UP IN COHORT STUDIES: APPLICATION TO DIETARY HABITS IN PRODROMAL DEMENTIA". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 May 01;187(5):1135 Authors: PMID: 29718212 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Editorial: Synthesizing the Evidence on Prisoner Health-Taking Stock and Moving Forward.
PMID: 29718088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fazel S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Medical History, Medication Use, and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
Abstract Because persistent inflammation may render the nasopharyngeal mucosa susceptible to carcinogenesis, chronic ear/nose/throat (ENT) disease and its treatment might influence the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Existing evidence is, however, inconclusive and often based on methodologically suboptimal epidemiologic studies. In a population-based case-control study in southern China, we enrolled 2532 NPC cases and 2597 controls aged 20-74 years from 2010 to 2014. Odds ratios were estimated for associations between NPC risk and history of ENT and related medications. Any history of chronic ENT disease w...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Xiao X, Zhang Z, Chang ET, Liu Z, Liu Q, Cai Y, Chen G, Huang QH, Xie SH, Cao SM, Shao JY, Jia WH, Zheng Y, Liao J, Chen Y, Lin L, Ernberg I, Huang G, Zeng Y, Zeng YX, Adami HO, Ye W, Guangxi Medical University Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Measurement of Current Substance Use in a Cohort of HIV-infected Persons in Continuity HIV Care, 2007-2015.
Abstract Accurate, routine measurement of recent illicit substance use is challenging. The Johns Hopkins Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinical Cohort (Baltimore, MD) collects two imperfect but routine measurements of recent substance use: medical record review and self-interview. We used Bayesian latent class modeling to estimate sensitivity and specificity of each measurement, and prevalence of substance use among 2,064 patients engaged in care from 2007 to 2015. Sensitivity of medical record review was higher than sensitivity of self-interview for cocaine and heroin use; posterior estimates ranged from 44% to 76...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - April 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lesko CR, Keil AP, Moore RD, Chander G, Fojo AT, Lau B Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research