Life Course Socioeconomic Status and Risk of Hospitalization for Heart Failure or Atrial Fibrillation in The Moli-Sani Study Cohort
In conclusion, a life-course disadvantaged SES is an important predictor of first hospitalization for HF and AF; known risk factors partially explained the SES-disease gradient. Upwardly mobile groups are likely to mitigate the effect of poor childhood circumstances especially through educational advancement.PMID:33623982 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab046 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marialaura Bonaccio Augusto Di Castelnuovo Simona Costanzo Amalia De Curtis Mariarosaria Persichillo Chiara Cerletti Maria Benedetta Donati Giovanni de Gaetano Licia Iacoviello On Behalf Of The Moli-Sani Study Investigators Source Type: research

Life Course Socioeconomic Status and Risk of Hospitalization for Heart Failure or Atrial Fibrillation in The Moli-Sani Study Cohort
In conclusion, a life-course disadvantaged SES is an important predictor of first hospitalization for HF and AF; known risk factors partially explained the SES-disease gradient. Upwardly mobile groups are likely to mitigate the effect of poor childhood circumstances especially through educational advancement.PMID:33623982 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab046 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marialaura Bonaccio Augusto Di Castelnuovo Simona Costanzo Amalia De Curtis Mariarosaria Persichillo Chiara Cerletti Maria Benedetta Donati Giovanni de Gaetano Licia Iacoviello On Behalf Of The Moli-Sani Study Investigators Source Type: research

Life Course Socioeconomic Status and Risk of Hospitalization for Heart Failure or Atrial Fibrillation in The Moli-Sani Study Cohort
In conclusion, a life-course disadvantaged SES is an important predictor of first hospitalization for HF and AF; known risk factors partially explained the SES-disease gradient. Upwardly mobile groups are likely to mitigate the effect of poor childhood circumstances especially through educational advancement.PMID:33623982 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab046 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marialaura Bonaccio Augusto Di Castelnuovo Simona Costanzo Amalia De Curtis Mariarosaria Persichillo Chiara Cerletti Maria Benedetta Donati Giovanni de Gaetano Licia Iacoviello On Behalf Of The Moli-Sani Study Investigators Source Type: research

Life Course Socioeconomic Status and Risk of Hospitalization for Heart Failure or Atrial Fibrillation in The Moli-Sani Study Cohort
In conclusion, a life-course disadvantaged SES is an important predictor of first hospitalization for HF and AF; known risk factors partially explained the SES-disease gradient. Upwardly mobile groups are likely to mitigate the effect of poor childhood circumstances especially through educational advancement.PMID:33623982 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab046 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marialaura Bonaccio Augusto Di Castelnuovo Simona Costanzo Amalia De Curtis Mariarosaria Persichillo Chiara Cerletti Maria Benedetta Donati Giovanni de Gaetano Licia Iacoviello On Behalf Of The Moli-Sani Study Investigators Source Type: research

Life Course Socioeconomic Status and Risk of Hospitalization for Heart Failure or Atrial Fibrillation in The Moli-Sani Study Cohort
In conclusion, a life-course disadvantaged SES is an important predictor of first hospitalization for HF and AF; known risk factors partially explained the SES-disease gradient. Upwardly mobile groups are likely to mitigate the effect of poor childhood circumstances especially through educational advancement.PMID:33623982 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab046 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marialaura Bonaccio Augusto Di Castelnuovo Simona Costanzo Amalia De Curtis Mariarosaria Persichillo Chiara Cerletti Maria Benedetta Donati Giovanni de Gaetano Licia Iacoviello On Behalf Of The Moli-Sani Study Investigators Source Type: research

Transporting subgroup analyses of randomized trials for planning implementation of new interventions
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Feb 22:kwab045. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab045. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSubgroup analyses of randomized controlled trials guide resource allocation and implementation of new interventions by identifying groups of individuals who are likely to benefit most from the intervention. Unfortunately, trial populations are rarely representative of the target populations of public health or clinical interest; unless the relevant differences between trial and target populations are accounted for, subgroup results from trials might not reflect which groups in the target population will benefit most from the interv...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 22, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Megha L Mehrotra Daniel Westreich M Maria Glymour Elvin Geng David V Glidden Source Type: research

A General Propensity Score for Signal Identification using Tree-Based Scan Statistics
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Feb 22:kwab034. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab034. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTree-based scan statistics (TreeScan) are a data-mining method that adjusts for multiple testing of correlated hypotheses when screening thousands of potential adverse events for signal identification. Simulation has demonstrated the promise of TreeScan with a propensity score (PS) matched cohort design. However, it is unclear which variables to include in a PS for applied signal identification studies to simultaneously adjust for confounding across potential outcomes. We selected 4 drug pairs with well understood safety profiles. ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 22, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Shirley V Wang Judith C Maro Joshua J Gagne Elisabetta Patorno Sushama Kattinakere Danijela Stojanovic Efe Eworuke Elande Baro Rita Ouellet-Hellstrom Michael Nguyen Yong Ma Inna Dashevsky David Cole Sandra DeLuccia Aaron Hansbury Ella Pestine Martin Kulld Source Type: research

Propensity Score Weighting And Trimming Strategies To Reduce Variance And Bias Of Treatment Effect Estimates: A Simulation Study
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Feb 22:kwab041. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab041. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTo extend previous simulations on the performance of propensity score (PS) weighting and trimming methods to settings without and with unmeasured confounding, Poisson outcomes, and various strengths of treatment prediction (PS c-statistic), we simulated studies with a binary intended treatment T as a function of 4 measured covariates. We mimicked treatment withheld and last-resort treatment by adding two "unmeasured" dichotomous factors that directed treatment to change for some patients in both tails of the PS distributi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 22, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Til St ürmer Michael Webster-Clark Jennifer L Lund Richard Wyss Alan R Ellis Mark Lunt Kenneth J Rothman Robert J Glynn Source Type: research

Additional insights on the modelling of the COVID-19 clinical progression using multi-state methodology
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Feb 22:kwab044. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab044. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33615352 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab044 (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 22, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Maja von Cube Martin Wolkewitz Martin Schumacher Derek Hazard Source Type: research

Opioids and the Risk of Fracture: a Self-Controlled Case Series Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink
Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Feb 19:kwab042. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab042. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSelf-controlled study designs can be used to assess the association between exposures and acute outcomes while controlling for important confounders. Using routinely collected health data, a self-controlled case series design was used to investigate the association between opioid use and bone fractures in 2008-2017 among adults registered in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The relative incidence of fracture was estimated, comparing periods when exposed and unexposed to opioids, adjusted for time-varying conf...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 19, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Emily J Peach Fiona A Pearce Jack Gibson Andrew J Cooper Li-Chia Chen Roger D Knaggs Source Type: research

Neighborhood sidewalk environment and incidence of dementia in older Japanese adults: the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study cohort
We examined the association between neighborhood sidewalk environment and dementia in Japan. We conducted a 3-year follow-up (2010-2013) among participants in a Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, a population-based cohort study of community-dwelling older adults. We ascertained the incidence of dementia for 76,053 participants from the public long-term care insurance system. We calculated sidewalk coverage (sidewalk area as a percentage of road area) within 436 residential neighborhood units using the geographic information system. Multilevel survival models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the incidence of...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 19, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yukako Tani Masamichi Hanazato Takeo Fujiwara Norimichi Suzuki Katsunori Kondo Source Type: research

Opioids and the Risk of Fracture: a Self-Controlled Case Series Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink.
Abstract Self-controlled study designs can be used to assess the association between exposures and acute outcomes while controlling for important confounders. Using routinely collected health data, a self-controlled case series design was used to investigate the association between opioid use and bone fractures in 2008-2017 among adults registered in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The relative incidence of fracture was estimated, comparing periods when exposed and unexposed to opioids, adjusted for time-varying confounders. Of 539,369 people prescribed opioids, 67,622 sustained fractures a...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 19, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Peach EJ, Pearce FA, Gibson J, Cooper AJ, Chen LC, Knaggs RD Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Neighborhood sidewalk environment and incidence of dementia in older Japanese adults: the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study cohort.
We examined the association between neighborhood sidewalk environment and dementia in Japan. We conducted a 3-year follow-up (2010-2013) among participants in a Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, a population-based cohort study of community-dwelling older adults. We ascertained the incidence of dementia for 76,053 participants from the public long-term care insurance system. We calculated sidewalk coverage (sidewalk area as a percentage of road area) within 436 residential neighborhood units using the geographic information system. Multilevel survival models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the incidence of...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 19, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tani Y, Hanazato M, Fujiwara T, Suzuki N, Kondo K Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Emulating Target Trials to Improve Causal Inference from Agent-Based Models.
Abstract Agent-based models are a key tool for investigating the emergent properties of population health settings, such as infectious disease transmission, where the exposure often violates the key 'no interference' assumption of traditional causal inference under the potential outcomes framework. Agent-based models and other simulation-based modeling approaches have generally been viewed as a separate knowledge-generating paradigm from the potential outcomes framework, but this can lead to confusion about how to interpret the results of these models in real-world settings. By explicitly incorporating the target ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 17, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Murray EJ, Marshall BDL, Buchanan AL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Simulation in Practice: The Balancing Intercept.
PMID: 33595061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 17, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rudolph JE, Edwards JK, Naimi AI, Westreich DJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Early-life Socioeconomic Position and the Accumulation of Health-related Deficits by Midlife in the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.
Abstract Reducing population levels of frailty is an important goal and preventing its development in mid-adulthood could be pivotal. There is limited evidence on associations between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and frailty. Using 1958 British birth cohort data (followed from 1958 to 2016; N=8711), we aimed to: (i) establish the utility of measuring frailty in mid-life, by examining associations between a 34-item frailty index at 50y (FI50y) and mortality (50-58y) and, (ii) examine associations between early-life SEP and FI50y, and investigate whether these associations were explained by adult SEP. Haza...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 17, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rogers NT, Blodgett JM, Searle SD, Cooper R, Davis DHJ, Pinto Pereira SM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Treatment drop-in: making the case for causal prediction.
Abstract Clinical prediction models (CPMs) are often used to guide treatment initiation, with individuals at high risk offered treatment. This implicitly assumes that the probability quoted from a CPM represents the risk to an individual of an adverse outcome in absence of treatment. However, for a CPM to correctly target this estimand requires careful causal thinking. One problem that needs to be overcome is treatment drop-in: where individuals in the development data commence treatment after the time of prediction but before the outcome occurs. The linked article by Xu et al (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX-XX...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 17, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sperrin M, Diaz-Ordaz K, Pajouheshnia R Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Accounting for Future Initiation of Statin Treatment.
In conclusion, incorporating statin effects from trial results into risk prediction models enables statin-naïve CVD risk estimation, provides moderate gains in predictive ability, but had a limited impact on treatment decision-making under current guidelines in this population. PMID: 33595074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 17, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Xu Z, Arnold M, Stevens D, Kaptoge S, Pennells L, Sweeting MJ, Barrett J, Angelantonio ED, Wood AM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Impact of the Apolipoprotein E4 allele on the Relationship Between Healthy Lifestyle and Cognitive Decline: A Population-based Study.
Abstract Adherence to a healthy lifestyle -characterized by abstaining from smoking, being physically and cognitively active, having a high-quality diet, and limiting alcohol use- is associated with slower cognitive decline in older adults, but whether this relationship extends to individuals with a genetic predisposition (e.g., ApoE4 carriers) remains uncertain. From the population-based study, the Chicago Health and Aging Project, we followed 3,886 individuals with regular clinical and cognitive assessments from 1993 to 2012. Of 3,886 older adults, 1,269 (32.7%) were ApoE4 carriers. Compared to non-carries, ApoE...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dhana K, Aggarwal NT, Rajan KB, Barnes LL, Evans DA, Morris MC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Healthcare Utilization Due to Suicide Attempts among Homeless Youth in New York State.
Abstract Suicide remains the leading cause of death among homeless youth. We assessed differences in healthcare utilization between homeless and non-homeless youth presenting to the emergency department or hospital after a suicide attempt. New York Statewide Inpatient and Emergency Department Databases (2009-2014) were used to identify homeless and non-homeless youth ages 10 to 17 who utilized healthcare services following a suicide attempt. To evaluate associations with homelessness, we used logistic regression models for mortality, use of violent means, intensive care unit utilization, log-transformed linear reg...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sakai-Bizmark R, Kumamaru H, Estevez D, Marr EH, Haghnazarian E, Bedel LEM, Mena LA, Kaplan MS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Long-Term Impact of Adolescent Adversity on Health in Middle and Older Adulthood: A Natural Experiment from the Chinese Send-Down Movement.
Abstract The 1950s-1970s Chinese send-down movement can be treated as a natural experiment to study the impact of adolescent exposure on subsequent health. This paper used China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) 2010 data to evaluate the long-term impact of the Chinese send-down movement on individuals health later in life. Drawing from the life course perspective, the results from the difference-in-difference model suggested that the send-down experience had a significant impact on worse self-rated health; the pathways from structural equation models showed that subsequent achievements-age of marriage and educational a...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ye X, Zhu D, He P Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Impact of Same-Day Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation under the WHO Treat-All Policy.
Abstract Rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for people living with HIV, with the option to start treatment on the day of diagnosis (same-day-ART). However, the effect of same-day-ART remains unknown in realistic public sector settings. We established a cohort of ≥16-year-old patients who initiated first-line ART under Treat-All in Nhlangano (Eswatini) between 2014-2016, either on the day of HIV care enrolment (same-day-ART) or 1-14 days thereafter (early-ART). Directed acyclic graphs, flexible parametric survival analysis and targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) were used t...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kerschberger B, Boulle A, Kuwengwa R, Ciglenecki I, Schomaker M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Usefulness Of SARS-CoV-2 Test-Positive Proportion As A Surveillance Tool.
Abstract Comparison of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) case numbers over time and between locations is complicated by limits to virologic testing to confirm severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The proportion of tested individuals who have tested positive (test-positive proportion, TPP) can potentially be used to inform trends in incidence. We propose a model for testing in a population experiencing an epidemic of COVID-19, and derive an expression for TPP in terms of well-defined parameters related to testing and presence of other pathogens causing COVID-19 like symptoms. In the absence of dr...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hitchings MDT, Dean NE, Garcia-Carreras B, Hladish TJ, Huang AT, Yang B, Cummings DAT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Estimating the Marginal Causal Effect and Potential Impact of Waterpipe Smoking on Multiple Sclerosis Using Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method: a Large Population-Based Incident Case-Control Study.
Abstract There are few if any reports regarding the role of lifetime waterpipe smoking in multiple sclerosis (MS) etiology. The authors investigated the association between waterpipe and MS, adjusted for confounders. This was a population-based incident case-control study conducted in Tehran, Iran. Cases (n=547) were 15-50-year-old patients identified from the Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Society between 2013 and 2015. Population-based controls (n=1057) were 15-50-year old recruited by random digit telephone dialing. A double robust estimator method known as targeted maximum likelihood estimator (TMLE) was used to e...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Abdollahpour I, Nedjat S, Almasi-Hashiani A, Nazemipour M, Mansournia MA, Luque-Fernandez MA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Lifestyle and Anthropometric Factors and Risk of Herpes Zoster: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
We examined whether smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), or physical activity were associated with zoster risk. We followed a population-based cohort of 101,894 respondents to the 2010 Danish National Health Survey (baseline May 1, 2010) until zoster diagnosis, death, emigration, or July 1, 2014, whichever occurred first. We computed hazard ratios for zoster associated with each exposure, using Cox regression with age as the time-scale and adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with never smokers, hazards for zoster were increased in former smokers [1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1....
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schmidt SAJ, Sørensen HT, Langan SM, Vestergaard M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Comparing Parametric, Nonparametric, and Semiparametric Estimators: The Weibull Trials.
Abstract A simple example is used to show how the bias and standard error of an estimator depend in part on the type of estimator chosen from among parametric, nonparametric, and semiparametric candidates. We estimate the cumulative distribution function in the presence of missing data with and without an auxiliary variable. Simulation results mirror theoretical expectations about the bias and precision of candidate estimators. Specifically, parametric maximum likelihood estimators performed best, but must be "omnisciently" correctly specified. An augmented inverse probability weighted (IPW) semiparametr...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cole SR, Edwards JK, Breskin A, Hudgens MG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Biases in evaluating the safety and effectiveness of drugs for covid-19: designing real-world evidence studies.
Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an unprecedented effort to generate real-world evidence on the safety and effectiveness of various treatments. A growing number of observational studies evaluating the effects of certain drugs have been conducted, including several assessing whether hydroxychloroquine improves outcomes in infected individuals and whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors have detrimental effects. We review and illustrate how immortal time bias and selection bias were present ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Renoux C, Azoulay L, Suissa S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Impact of Epidemiology on Prenatal and Fertility Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
We present a review of epidemiologic studies published between March and December 2020 that directly informed prenatal and fertility care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite a significant increase in our knowledge base over the past year, many questions remain about the impact of COVID-19 on conception, pregnancy, fetal development, and lactation. In the future, a commitment toward inclusion of pregnant persons and those attempting pregnancy in the design of observational and interventional trials is necessary to gain earlier insights about outcomes and assist providers and patients in making data driven decisions. ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dionne-Odom J, Klipstein S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Holocaust Experience and Mortality Patterns: 4-Decade Follow-up in a Population-based Cohort.
Abstract Study of mortality associated with exposure to the Holocaust is relevant for better understanding the effects of man-made massive killings on survivors. Previous studies did not investigate long-term cause-specific mortality of Holocaust survivors. We compared mortality rates of Israelis born in European countries controlled by the Nazis to Israelis of European descent without this exposure. Records of 22,671 people (5,042 survivors, 45% women) from the population-based Jerusalem Perinatal Study (1964-1976) were linked to the Population Registry updated through 2016. Cox models were used with two-sided te...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Youssim I, Gorfine M, Calderon-Margalit R, Manor O, Paltiel O, Siscovick DS, Friedlander Y, Hochner H Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Telomere length measurement for longitudinal analysis: implications of assay precision.
We present a small dataset (n = 20) where leukocyte TL was measured 6.6 years apart by both qPCR and SB. The cross-sectional correlations between qPCR and SB were high both at baseline (r = 0.90) and follow-up (r = 0.85), yet their correlation for TL change was poor (r = 0.48). Moreover, the qPCR but not SB data showed strong signatures of measurement error. Through simulation, we show that the statistical power gain from performing a longitudinal analysis is much greater for SB than qPCR. We discuss implications for optimal study design and analysis. PMID: 33564874 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nettle D, Gadalla SM, Lai TP, Susser E, Bateson M, Aviv A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Separating Algorithms from Questions and Causal Inference with Unmeasured Exposures: An Application to Birth Cohort Studies of Early BMI Rebound.
Abstract Observational studies reporting adjusted associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) rebound and subsequent cardio-metabolic outcomes have often not given explicit attention to causal inference, including definition of a target causal effect and assumptions for unbiased estimation of that effect. Using data from 649 children in a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited in 1999-2002, we considered effects of stochastic interventions on a chosen subset of modifiable, yet unmeasured, exposures expected to be associated with early (
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Aris IM, Sarvet AL, Stensrud MJ, Neugebauer R, Li LJ, Hivert MF, Oken E, Young JG Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Broad Safety Assessment of the 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.
Abstract Surveys of parents indicate safety is their top concern about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. A data-mining method not requiring pre-specification of health outcome(s) of interest or post-exposure period(s) of potentially increased risk can check for associations between an exposure and any of thousands of medically attended health outcomes. The method was applied to the 9-valent HPV vaccine (HPV9) to detect potential safety problems. Data on 9-26-year-olds who had received HPV9 vaccine between November 4, 2016 and August 5, 2018, inclusive, were extracted from Marketscan and analyzed for statisti...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yih WK, Kulldorff M, Dashevsky I, Maro JC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Interpregnancy Interval and Subsequent Severe Maternal Morbidity: A Population-based Study from California over 16 years.
We examined the association between IPI and SMM, using data linked across sequential pregnancies to women in California 1997-2012. Adjusting for confounders measured at the index pregnancy (i.e. the first in a pair of consecutive pregnancies), we estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) of SMM related to the subsequent pregnancy. We further conducted within-mother comparisons and analyses stratified by parity and maternal age at the index pregnancy. Compared to 18-23 months, IPI
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 5, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Liu C, Snowden JM, Lyell DJ, Wall-Wieler E, Abrams B, Kan P, Stephansson O, Lyndon A, Carmichael SL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Trends in Frailty and its Association with Mortality: Results From the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (1995-2016).
Abstract The aim of the current study was to investigate trends in frailty and its relationship with mortality among older adults aged 64-84 years across a period of 21 years. Data from 1995 to 2016 were used from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. A total of 7,742 observations of 2,874 respondents in the same age range (64-84 years) across six measurement waves were included. Frailty was measured with a 32-item frailty index, with a cut-point of ≥0.25 to indicate frailty. The outcome measure was 4-year mortality. Generalized Estimating Equation analyses showed that among older adults aged 64-84 years the ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hoogendijk EO, Stolz E, Oude Voshaar RC, Deeg DJH, Huisman M, Jeuring HW Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Simon and Masters Respond to "Do Small Cause-of-Death Correlations Throw into Question the Notion of a Collective "Deaths of Despair" Phenomenon?"
Simon and Masters Respond to "Do Small Cause-of-Death Correlations Throw into Question the Notion of a Collective "Deaths of Despair" Phenomenon?" Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Feb 04;: Authors: Simon DH, Masters RK PMID: 33534889 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Simon DH, Masters RK Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Do Small Cause-of-Death Correlations Throw into Question the Notion of a Collective "Deaths of Despair" Phenomenon?
Do Small Cause-of-Death Correlations Throw into Question the Notion of a Collective "Deaths of Despair" Phenomenon? Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Feb 04;: Authors: Siddiqi A, Sod-Erdene O Abstract Since the turn of the 21st century, during which White mortality has been rising, there has been a sharp increase in only three causes of death, drug use, alcohol use, and suicide. Because all three of these causes conjure notions of anguish and hopelessness, they have been conceptualized as a collective "deaths of despair" phenomenon. Simons and Masters challenge this conceptualization, by asking...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Siddiqi A, Sod-Erdene O Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Rate of Memory Decline From Mid to Later-Life: Evidence From the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.
We examined self-reports of nine ACEs prior to age 16, which related to abuse, household dysfunction, and separation from family. Memory was assessed at each time point as immediate and delayed recall of 10 words. Using linear mixed-effects models with person-specific random intercepts and slopes and adjusted for baseline age, age2, sex, ethnicity, and childhood socioeconomic factors, we observed that most individual and cumulative ACE exposures had null-to-weakly negative associations with memory function and rate of decline over the 10-year follow-up. Having lived in residential or foster care was associated with lower b...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: O'Shea BQ, Demakakos P, Cadar D, Kobayashi LC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A New Method for Estimating the Incidence of Infectious Diseases.
Abstract Ambitious World Health Organization targets for disease elimination require monitoring of epidemics using routine health data in settings of decreasing and low incidence. We evaluated two methods commonly applied to routine testing results to estimate incidence rates that assume uniform probability of infection between consecutive negative and positive tests based on: 1. the midpoint of this interval; and 2. a randomly selected point on this interval. We compared these with an approximation to the Poisson-binomial distribution which assigns partial incidence to time-periods based on the uniform probabilit...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: McManus H, Callander D, Asselin J, McMahon J, Hoy JF, Templeton DJ, Fairley CK, Donovan B, Pedrana AE, Keen P, Wilson DP, Elliott J, Kaldor J, Liaw ST, Petoumenos K, Holt M, Hellard ME, Grulich AE, Carr A, Stoove MA, Guy RJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Do Deaths of Despair Move Together? County-level Mortality Changes by Sex and Urbanization, 1990-2017.
PMID: 33534907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Simon DH, Masters RK Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +28 new citations
28 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2021/02/03PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - February 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

On the Use of Regression Calibration in a Complex Sampling Design With Application to the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
Abstract Regression calibration is the most widely used method to adjust regression parameter estimates for covariate measurement error. Yet, its application in the context of a complex sampling design, for which the common bootstrap variance estimator can be less straightforward, has been less studied. We propose two variance estimators for a multi-stage probability-based sampling design, a parametric and a resampling-based multiple imputation approach, where a latent mean exposure needed for regression calibration is the target of imputation. This work was motivated by the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study o...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 28, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Baldoni PL, Sotres-Alvarez D, Lumley T, Shaw PA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Sexual Identity Differences in Health Care Access and Satisfaction: Findings from Nationally Representative Data.
Abstract Identification of barriers to adequate health care for sexual minority populations remains elusive as they are complex and variable across sexual orientation subgroups (e.g., gay, lesbian, bisexual). To address these complexities, we use a U.S. nationally representative sample of health care consumers to assess sexual identity differences in health care access and satisfaction. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 12 waves (2012-2018) of the biannual Consumer Survey of Health Care Access (n=30,548) to assess sexual identity differences in 6 health care access and 3 health care satisfaction indicators...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fish JN, Turpin RE, Williams ND, Boekeloo BO Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Quantifying Uncertainty in Infectious Disease Mechanistic Models.
We describe the statistical uncertainty as belonging to three categories: data uncertainty, stochastic uncertainty, and structural uncertainty. We demonstrate how to account for each of these via statistical uncertainty measures and sensitivity analyses broadly, as well as in a specific case study on estimating the basic reproductive number, ${R}_0$, for SARS-CoV-2. PMID: 33475686 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: D'Agostino McGowan L, Grantz KH, Murray E Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Modelling breast cancer screening after a decade of most controversial reports: missing the forest for the trees?
PMID: 33454740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Braillon A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The authors reply to: Modelling breast cancer screening after a decade of most controversial reports: missing the forest for the trees?
PMID: 33454763 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Seigneurin A, Exbrayat C, Molinie F, Croisier L, Poncet F, Berquet K, Delafosse P, Colonna M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Health Selection into Eviction: Adverse Birth Outcomes and Children's Risk of Eviction through Age 5.
Abstract Adverse birth outcomes put children at increased risk of poor future health. They also put families under sudden socioeconomic and psychological strain, which has poorly understood consequences. In this paper, we test whether infants experiencing an adverse birth outcome-low birthweight or prematurity, as well as lengthy hospital stays-are more likely to be evicted in early childhood, through age 5. We analyze 5,655 observations contributed by 2,115 participants in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study-a national, randomly sampled cohort of infants born in large US cities between 1998 and 2000-li...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schwartz GL, Leifheit KM, Berkman LF, Chen JT, Arcaya MC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Human Mobility Associated with Risk of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Sichuan, China.
Abstract Urbanization increases human mobility in ways that can alter the transmission of classically rural vector-borne diseases like schistosomiasis. The impact of human mobility on individual-level Schistosoma risk is poorly characterized. Travel outside endemic areas may protect against infection by reducing exposure opportunities, while travel to other endemic regions may increase risk. Utilizing detailed monthly travel and water contact surveys from 27 rural communities in Sichuan, China in 2008, we aimed to describe human mobility and to identify mobility-related predictors of S. japonicum infection. Candid...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 13, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Buchwald AG, Grover E, Van Dyke J, Kechris K, Lu D, Liu Y, Zhong B, Carlton EJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Active Surveillance of the Safety of Medications Used in Pregnancy.
H, Wang SV Abstract We rely on post-marketing approaches to define the risk of medications in pregnancy because information at the time of drug approval is limited. Most studies in pregnancy focus on a single or selected outcomes. However, women must balance the benefit of treatment against all possible adverse effects. Our objective was to apply and evaluate a tree-based scan statistic data mining method (TreeScan) as a safety surveillance approach that allows for simultaneous evaluation of a comprehensive range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, while preserving the overall false positive rate. We evaluated TreeSca...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Huybrechts KF, Kulldorff M, Hernández-Díaz S, Bateman BT, Zhu Y, Mogun H, Wang SV Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Medicaid policy and pregnancy outcomes: Toward a reproductive autonomy framework.
Abstract State Medicaid programs collectively cover more than 70 million people, and are the largest single payer for pregnancy and delivery in the United States. In this issue, Margerison et al. (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX-XXXX) investigate the extent to which Medicaid expansions to non-pregnant low-income adults under the Affordable Care Act may have improved pre-pregnancy or birth outcomes. The study found Medicaid expansions were not associated with changes in pre-pregnancy health, including smoking and obesity. Similarly, there were no changes in preterm birth or small or large for gestational age attr...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jarlenski M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Impacts of Medicaid Expansion Prior to Conception on Pre-pregnancy Health, Pregnancy Health, and Outcomes.
We examined associations between preconception exposure to Medicaid expansion and measures of pre-pregnancy health, pregnancy health, and pregnancy outcomes using a difference-in-differences empirical approach. Increased Medicaid eligibility was not associated with improvements in pre-pregnancy or pregnancy health measures and did not reduce prevalence of adverse birth outcomes (e.g., preterm birth increased by 0.1 percentage points [95% CI: -0.2, 0.3]). Increasing Medicaid eligibility alone may be insufficient to improve pre-pregnancy or pregnancy health and birth outcomes. Preconception programming in combination with at...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Margerison CE, Kaestner R, Chen J, MacCallum-Bridges C Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research