Sense of Mission and Subsequent Health and Well-being among Young Adults:An Outcome-Wide Analysis.
This study prospectively examined an aspect of purpose in life, specifically having a sense of mission, and a wide range of psychosocial well-being, mental health, health behaviors and physical health outcomes in young adults. Longitudinal data from the Growing Up Today Study (2007 to either 2010 or 2013 questionnaire wave; mean baseline age was 22.97 years) were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Sample sizes ranged from 6,323 to 7,463, depending on outcome. Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing. All models controlled for sociodemographic characteristics, religious service attendance...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 12, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chen Y, Kim ES, Koh HK, Frazier AL, VanderWeele TJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Electric Shock and Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure and the Risk of ALS: Euro-MOTOR.
rtium Abstract We explored the association between occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and electric shocks and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a pooled case-control study (Euro-MOTOR) from three European countries. ALS patients and population-based controls were recruited in Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands between 2010 and 2015. Lifetime occupational and lifestyle histories were obtained using structured questionnaires. We applied previously developed job-exposure matrices assigning exposure to ELF-MF and potential for electric shocks. Odds ratios (OR) an...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Peters S, Visser AE, D'Ovidio F, Beghi E, Chiò A, Logroscino G, Hardiman O, Kromhout H, Huss A, Veldink J, Vermeulen R, van den Berg LH, Euro-MOTOR consortium Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Levels and Changes in Childhood Body Mass Index in Relation to Risk of Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter in Adulthood.
In conclusion, risks of AFF in adulthood increased with higher childhood BMIs. Remission from overweight by age 13 years reduced AFF risks, especially in women. PMID: 30649157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Adelborg K, Ängquist L, Ording A, Gjærde LK, Bjerregaard LG, Sørensen HT, Sørensen TIA, Baker JL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Unified Model for the Analysis of Gene-Environment Interaction.
We describe a software program, GxEScan, which can be used to fit standard and unified models for genomewide G × E studies. PMID: 30649161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gauderman WJ, Kim A, Conti DV, Morrison J, Thomas DC, Vora H, Lewinger JP Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Evaluating Flexible Modeling of Continuous Covariates in Inverse Weighted Estimators.
Abstract Correct specification of the exposure model is essential for unbiased estimation in marginal structural models with inverse-probability-of-treatment weights. However, although flexible modeling is commonplace when estimating effects of continuous covariates in outcome models, its use is less frequent in estimation of inverse probability weights. Using simulations, we assess the accuracy of the treatment effect estimates and covariate balance, obtained with different exposure model specifications when the true relationship between a continuous possibly time-varying covariate Lt and the logit of the probabi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kyle RP, Moodie EEM, Klein MB, Abrahamowicz M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

HMP16SData: Efficient Access to the Human Microbiome Project through Bioconductor.
Abstract Phase 1 of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) investigated 18 body subsites of 239 healthy American adults, to produce the first comprehensive reference for the composition and variation of the "healthy" human microbiome. Publicly-available data sets from amplicon sequencing of two 16S ribosomal RNA variable regions, with extensive controlled-access participant data, provide a reference for ongoing microbiome studies. However, utilization of these data sets can be hindered by the complex bioinformatic steps required to access, import, decrypt, and merge the various components in formats suitable...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schiffer L, Azhar R, Shepherd L, Ramos M, Geistlinger L, Huttenhower C, Dowd JB, Segata N, Waldron L Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Invited Commentary: Improving accessibility of the Human Microbiome Project data through integration with R/Bioconductor.
Abstract Alterations in the composition of the microbiota have been implicated in many diseases. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) provides a comprehensive reference dataset of the "normal" human microbiome of 242 healthy adults at five major body sites. The HMP used both 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and whole-genome metagenomic sequencing to profile the subjects' microbial communities. However, accessing and analyzing the HMP dataset still presents technical and bioinformatic challenges, as researchers must import the microbiome data, integrate phylogenetic trees, and access and merge public and r...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Griffith JC, Morgan XC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Limiting Alcohol Outlet Density to Prevent Alcohol Use and Violence? Estimating Policy Interventions Through Agent-Based Modeling.
te; M Abstract Increasing alcohol outlet density is well-documented to be associated with increased alcohol use and problems, leading to the policy recommendation that limiting outlet density will decrease alcohol problems. Yet few studies of decreasing problematic outlets and outlet density have been conducted. We estimated the association between closing alcohol outlets and alcohol use and alcohol-related violence, using an agent-based model of the adult population in New York City. The model was calibrated according to the empirical distribution of the parameters across the city's population, including the dens...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Castillo-Carniglia A, Pear VA, Tracy M, Keyes KM, Cerdá M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The influence of a breast cancer diagnosis on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
Abstract Prospective and retrospective studies of vitamin D and breast cancer have produced discrepant results. This may be due to variations in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations over time, including systematic changes after breast cancer diagnosis. We measured total serum 25(OH)D in Sister Study participants who provided samples at baseline (2003-2009) and 4-10 years later (2013-2015). This included 827 women with an intervening breast cancer and 771 without. Although modestly correlated over time (R=0.42), 25(OH)D concentrations increased in both groups, with larger increases among cases (averag...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, House M, Taylor JA, Weinberg CR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Observational Studies That Seek to Emulate a Randomized Trial of Screening to Reduce the Incidence of Cancer: Do They Address the Question to Which We'd Like to Have an Answer?
Abstract Some forms of cancer screening have the potential to reduce cancer incidence, if the screening modality can identify not only a malignancy but a treatable pre-malignant condition (such as a colon polyp) as well. Cohort studies of the efficacy of these forms of screening in reducing the incidence of cancer face many challenges, notably the difficulty in distinguishing whether a test performed in a given individual was screening or diagnostic in nature. Downward bias in the estimated efficacy of screening resulting from misclassification of test indication is a particular problem in cohort studies that seek...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Weiss NS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Rethinking Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance: A Role for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling.
Abstract Global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a key component of the Global Action Plan on AMR. Laboratory-based surveillance is inherently biased and lacks local relevance due to aggregation of data. We assessed the feasibility, sensitivity, and affordability of a population-based AMR survey using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), which classifies a population as having a high or low prevalence of AMR based on a-priori defined criteria. Three studies were carried out in Medan and Bandung, Indonesia between April 2014 and June 2017. LQAS classifications for 15 antibiotics were compared wit...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ginting F, Sugianli AK, Bijl G, Saragih RH, Kusumawati RL, Parwati I, de Jong MD, Schultsz C, van Leth F Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Impact of Screening and Partner Notification on Chlamydia in the United States, 2000-2015: Evaluation of Epidemiologic Trends Using a Pair-Formation Transmission Model.
In this study, we calibrated a novel sex- and age-stratified pair-formation transmission model of chlamydial infection to epidemiological data in the United States for 2000-2015. We used sex- and age-specific prevalence estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, case report data from national chlamydia surveillance, and survey data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey on the proportion of sexually active 15-18 year-old population. We were able to reconcile national prevalence estimates and case report data by allowing for changes over time in screening coverage and reporting completeness. In retro...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rönn MM, Tuite AR, Menzies NA, Wolf EE, Gift TL, Chesson HW, Torrone E, Berruti A, Mazzola E, Galer K, Hsu K, Salomon JA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Toenail-Based Metal Concentrations and Young-Onset Breast Cancer.
Abstract Several metals have carcinogenic properties, but their associations with breast cancer are not established. We studied cadmium, a "metalloestrogen", and nine other metals in relation to young-onset breast cancer (diagnosis age
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: O'Brien KM, White AJ, Jackson BP, Karagas MR, Sandler DP, Weinberg CR Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Intensive Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal Cancer in China: A Community-Based Study.
This study showed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is an effective population-level screening test for EC in high-risk regions. PMID: 30608546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Liu M, He Z, Guo C, Xu R, Li F, Ning T, Pan Y, Li Y, Ding H, Zheng L, Zhou Y, Tian X, Yang W, Wang X, Lu F, Zhang Y, Zhao Y, Guo F, Chen K, Gao L, Sun M, Liu Y, Liu F, Hang D, Shen N, Li J, Xu Z, Wang Q, Zhang C, Abliz A, Deng Q, Li X, Liu Z, Zhang C, Yua Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Natural Direct and Indirect Effects' Risk Ratio Expressions in Causal Mediation Analysis of Binary Mediator and Binary Outcome: A Fresh Look at the Formulas.
PMID: 30590386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Samoilenko M, Lefebvre G Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mediation Formulas with Binary Mediators and Outcomes and the "Rare Outcome Assumption".
Mediation Formulas with Binary Mediators and Outcomes and the "Rare Outcome Assumption". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Dec 24;: Authors: VanderWeele TJ, Valeri L, Ananth CV Abstract Samoilenko and Lefebvre correctly note two typos in the formulas in the 2011 paper of Ananth and VanderWeele on placental abruption. Fortunately, to the best of our knowledge, researchers are using our methods papers, and our book on mediation analysis, rather than our paper on placental abruption, to carry out their direct and indirect effect analyses; and in our methods papers, and the book, the formulas are correct. Th...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: VanderWeele TJ, Valeri L, Ananth CV Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Structure and Control of Healthy Worker Effects in Studies of Pregnancy Outcomes.
Abstract Much of the healthy worker effect literature focuses on studies of chronic disease and mortality; however, when studying pregnancy outcomes, these effects might differ because of the short, defined risk periods of most pregnancy outcomes. Three pregnancy-specific healthy worker effects have also been described, but the structure of these effects have not yet been investigated when occupational exposure, and not employment status, is the exposure of interest. We used directed acyclic graphs to examine healthy worker effects in studies of occupational exposures and pregnancy outcomes: healthy hire effect, h...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Johnson CY, Rocheleau CM, Grajewski B, Howards PP Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Classification of Spatiotemporal Data for Epidemic Alert Systems: Monitoring Influenza-Like Illness in France.
n R Abstract Surveillance data serving for epidemic alert systems are typically fully aggregated in space at the national level. However, epidemics may be spatially heterogeneous, undergoing distinct dynamics in distinct regions of the surveillance area. We unveil this in retrospective analyses by classifying incidence time series. We use Pearson correlation to quantify the similarity between local time series and then classify them using modularity maximization. The surveillance area is thus divided into regions with different incidence patterns. We analyzed 31 years (1985-2016) of data on influenza-like-illness ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Polyakov P, Souty C, Böelle PY, Breban R Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The implications of using lagged and baseline exposure terms in the longitudinal-causal and regression models.
Abstract There are now many published applications of causal (structural) models for estimating effects of time-varying exposures in the presence of confounding by earlier exposures and confounders affected by earlier exposures. Results from these models can be highly sensitive to inclusion of lagged and baseline exposure terms for different visits. This sensitivity is often overlooked in practice; moreover, results from these models are not directly comparable to results from conventional time-dependent regression models, as the latter do not estimate the same causal parameter even when no bias is present. We thu...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 20, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mansournia MA, I Naimi A, Greenland S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Stress Disorders and Dementia in the Danish Population.
This study included Danes 40 years or older with a stress disorder diagnosis (n = 47,047) and a matched comparison cohort (n = 232,141) without a stress disorder diagnosis from 1995 through 2011. Diagnoses were culled from national registries. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to estimate associations between stress disorders and dementia. Risk of dementia was higher for persons with stress disorders than for persons without such diagnosis; adjusted hazard ratios ranged from 1.6 to 2.8. There was evidence of an interaction between sex and stress disorders in predicting dementia, with a greater...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 20, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gradus JL, Horváth-Puhó E, Lash TL, Ehrenstein V, Tamang S, Adler NE, Milstein A, Glymour MM, Henderson VW, Sørensen HT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Causal Mediation Analysis With Observational Data: Considerations and Illustration Examining Mechanisms Linking Neighborhood Poverty to Adolescent Substance Use.
Abstract Understanding the mediation mechanisms by which an exposure or intervention affects an outcome can provide a look into what has been called a "black box" of many epidemiologic associations, thereby providing further evidence of a relationship and possible points of intervention. Rapid methodologic developments in mediation analyses mean that there are a growing number of approaches for researchers to consider, each with its own set of assumptions, advantages, and disadvantages. This has understandably resulted in some confusion among applied researchers. Here, we provide a brief overview of the ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 18, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rudolph KE, Goin DE, Paksarian D, Crowder R, Merikangas KR, Stuart EA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Potential Effects of Replacing Sedentary Time With Short Sedentary Bouts or Physical Activity on Mortality: A National Cohort Study.
Abstract Little is known concerning the type of activity that should be substituted for sedentary time and its potentially most hazardous form (prolonged sedentary bouts) to impart health benefit. We used isotemporal substitution techniques to examine whether 1) replacing total sedentary time with light- or moderate-intensity physical activity (LIPA, MVPA) and 2) replacing prolonged sedentary bouts with shorter sedentary bouts is associated with reductions in all-cause mortality risk. Participants (n = 7,999) from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a national coh...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Diaz KM, Duran AT, Colabianchi N, Judd SE, Howard VJ, Hooker SP Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Performance of Algorithms Using Serial Hepatitis C RNA Tests to Predict Treatment Initiation and Sustained Virologic Response Among Patients Infected With Hepatitis C.
Abstract Electronic medical record data structure prevents easy population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake and cure. Using an HCV registry from a public hospital system in Atlanta, Georgia, we developed multiple algorithms using serial HCV RNA test results as proxy measures for direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment initiation and sustained virologic response (SVR). We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive values by comparing the algorithms to the DAA initiation and SVR results from the registry. From December 2013 - August 2016, 1,807 persons actively infected with HCV were ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Osinubi A, Harris AM, Vellozzi C, Lom J, Miller L, Millman AJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Privacy-Protecting Analytical Methods Using Only Aggregate-Level Information to Conduct Multivariable-Adjusted Analysis in Distributed Data Networks.
Toh S Abstract Distributed data networks enable large-scale epidemiologic studies but protecting privacy while adequately adjusting for a large number of covariates continues to pose methodological challenges. Using two empirical examples within a three-site distributed data network, we tested combinations of three aggregate-level data-sharing approaches (risk-set, summary-table, effect-estimate), four confounding adjustment methods (matching, stratification, inverse probability weighting, match weighting), and two summary scores (propensity score, disease risk score) for binary and time-to-event outcomes. We asse...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Li X, Fireman BH, Curtis JR, Arterburn DE, Fisher DP, Moyneur É, Gallagher M, Raebel MA, Nowell WB, Lagreid L, Toh S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Carriers of Balanced Robertsonian Translocations: a National Cohort Study.
Abstract A balanced Robertsonian translocation results from fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes. Carriers are phenotypically normal, and are often diagnosed because of recurrent miscarriages, infertility or aneuploid offspring. Mortality and site-specific cancer risks in carriers have not been prospectively investigated. We followed 1987 carriers diagnosed in Great Britain for deaths and cancer risk, over an average of 24.1 years. Standardised mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios were calculated comparing the number of observed events against population rates. Overall mortality was raised for carriers diagnosed aged
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Minouk J S, Michael E J, Craig D H, Alan F W, United Kingdom Clinical Cytogenetics Group, Anthony J S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Gestational Age at Arrest of Development: An Alternative Approach for Assigning Time at Risk in Studies of Time-Varying Exposures and Miscarriage.
Abstract Time between arrest of pregnancy development and miscarriage represents a window in which pregnancy is nonviable and not developing. In effect, the loss has happened and exposures cannot influence its fate. However, epidemiologic studies of miscarriage traditionally use gestational age at miscarriage to assign time in survival analyses, which overestimates duration of exposure and time at risk. In the Right from the Start pregnancy cohort (2000-2012), we characterized the gap between estimated gestational age at arrest of development (GAAD) and miscarriage using transvaginal ultrasound in 500 women recrui...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sundermann AC, Mukherjee S, Wu P, Velez Edwards DR, Hartmann KE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Multinomial Extension of Propensity Score Trimming Methods: A Simulation Study.
In conclusion, our proposed definitions of multinomial PS trimming methods were beneficial within our simulation settings that focused on the influence of unmeasured confounders. PMID: 30517602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yoshida K, Solomon DH, Haneuse S, Kim SC, Patorno E, Tedeschi SK, Lyu H, Franklin JM, Stürmer T, Hernandez-Diaz S, Glynn RJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Guideline-Based Physical Activity and Survival Among US Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer.
;n MA Abstract The survival impact of adhering to current physical activity guidelines after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We therefore emulated a target trial of guideline-based physical activity interventions and 10-year survival among US men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. We used observational data on 2,299 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer from 1998-2010 and free of conditions that might preclude participation at baseline (first post-diagnostic questionnaire). We estimated their survival under several guideline-based physical activity inte...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 29, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dickerman BA, Giovannucci E, Pernar CH, Mucci LA, Hernán MA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use and risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a cohort of women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
und E, Masala G, Mattiello A, Melin B, Menéndez V, Murphy N, Nieters A, Overvad K, Riboli E, Sacerdote C, Sánchez MJ, Schmidt JA, Sieri S, Tjønneland A, Trichopoulou A, Tumino R, Vermeulen R, Weiderpass E, de Sanjosé S, Agudo A, Casabonne D Abstract The role of hormonal factors in lymphoid neoplasms etiology remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, been underpowered to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive dat...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Costas L, Lujan-Barroso L, Benavente Y, Allen NE, Amiano P, Ardanaz E, Besson C, Boeing H, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Cervenka I, Fortner RET, Fournier A, Gunter M, Harlid S, Huerta JM, Jerkeman M, Jirström K, Kaaks R, Karakatsani A, Khaw KT, Kotanidou A, Lund Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Wheeze and Food Allergies in Children Born via Cesarean Section - The Upstate KIDS Study.
We examined whether cesarean delivery (CD) increased the risk of wheeze or food allergy in early childhood compared to vaginal delivery and whether these associations were mediated by breastfeeding. The study population was the Upstate KIDS cohort (2008-2010) of mothers and infants from New York State (excluding New York City). Infant's wheeze was reported by questionnaire every 4-6 months until 3 years as was food allergies beginning at 8 months. Modified Poisson regression was used to compare risks of the outcomes by mode of delivery (MOD). Potential confounders were identified a priori using directed acyclic graphs.Emer...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Adeyeye TE, Yeung EH, McLain AC, Lin S, Lawrence DA, Bell EM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Risk Set Matching to Assess the Impact of Hospital-Acquired Bloodstream Infections.
We present dramatically different estimates using these two approaches on a pediatric cohort from the Premier Healthcare Database, 2009-2016. The results suggest that estimates that do not incorporate time of infection exaggerate the impact of hospital-acquired infections in regards to attributed length of stay and costs. PMID: 30475949 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Watson D, Spaulding AB, Dreyfus J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Shift Work and Respiratory Infections in Healthcare Workers.
In conclusion, shift workers in healthcare had more and more severe ILI/ARI episodes than non-shift workers, but with a similar duration. Insight into underlying mechanisms connecting shift work and infection susceptibility will contribute to the design of preventive initiatives. PMID: 30475977 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Loef B, van Baarle D, van der Beek AJ, Sanders EAM, Bruijning-Verhagen P, Proper KI Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +25 new citations
25 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2018/11/21PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +23 new citations
23 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2018/11/20PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 20, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Trajectories of Nonagenarian Health: Gender, Age, and Period Effects.
Abstract The US population aged 90 years and older is growing rapidly and there are limited data on their health. The Cardiovascular Health Study is a prospective study of black and white adults ≥65 years recruited in two waves (1989-90 and 1992-93) from Medicare eligibility lists in Forsyth County, North Carolina; Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We created a synthetic cohort of the 1,889 participants who had reached age 90 at baseline or during follow-up through July 16th, 2015. Participants entered the cohort at 90 years and we evaluated their changes ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Odden MC, Koh WJH, Arnold AM, Rawlings AM, Psaty BM, Newman AB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Healthy Lifestyle Index in Relation to Risk of Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer Among Women in the Women's Health Initiative Study.
Abstract Lifestyle-related factors influence risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers, but few studies have examined their joint associations with risk of these cancers. Using multivariable Cox regression models, we assessed the association of a healthy lifestyle index ((HLI) - a composite score (range 0-20) involving diet, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index and smoking; higher scores represent healthier behavior) - with risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers among 108,136 postmenopausal women who were recruited in the Women's Health Initiative study between 1993 and 1998. After a median follo...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Arthur R, Brasky TM, Crane TE, Felix AS, Kaunitz A, Shadyab AH, Qi L, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Rohan TE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Role of Comorbidity on Mortality after Hip Fracture: A Nationwide Norwegian Study of 38,126 Women with Hip Fracture Matched to a General Population Comparison Cohort.
en HT Abstract Hip fracture patients often have comorbidities. We investigated whether the combination of comorbidity and hip fracture could explain the previously observed excess mortality among hip fracture patients compared to the general population. Using a population-based matched design with 38,126 Norwegian women suffering a hip fracture in the period 2009-2015 and the same number women in a matched comparison cohort, we matched on pre-fracture comorbidity, age, and education. We estimated relative survival, and additive and multiplicative comorbidity-hip fracture interaction. An additive comorbidity-hip fr...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lunde A, Tell GS, Pedersen AB, Scheike T, Apalset EM, Ehrenstein V, Sørensen HT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Do Birthweight and Weight Gain During Infancy and Early Childhood Explain Variation in Mammographic Density in Women in Midlife? Results From Cohort and Sibling Analyses.
Abstract High birthweight is associated with increased breast cancer risk, and less consistently with higher mammographic density (MD). In contrast, adolescent body size has been consistently, inversely associated with both MD and breast cancer risk. It is unclear when the direction of these associations change and whether weight gain in infancy is associated with MD. We evaluated the associations of birthweight and postnatal weight (measured at 4 months, 1 year and 4 years) by absolute and velocity measures (relative within-cohort percentile changes) with adult MD, assessed using Cumulus, using linear regression ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Terry MB, Cohn BA, Goldberg M, Flom JD, Wei Y, Houghton LC, Tehranifar P, McDonald JA, Protacio A, Cirillo P, Michels KB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Statistical Inference on Health Disparity Indices for Complex Surveys.
Abstract The National Cancer Institute developed the Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) to facilitate research on health disparities. HD*Calc calculates multiple measures of health disparities using data collected from population-based disease surveillance systems, such as cancer registries. In this paper, we extend the use of HD*Calc to complex survey data by developing plug-in point estimators and Taylor linearization variance estimators that consider complex designs: stratification, multistage clustering, and differential weighting. Our simulation indicates that the plug-in estimators are approximately unb...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Li Y, Yu M, Zhang J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Retraction: "analysis of the strength of legal firearms restrictions for perpetrators of domestic violence and their associations with intimate partner homicide".
RETRACTION: "ANALYSIS OF THE STRENGTH OF LEGAL FIREARMS RESTRICTIONS FOR PERPETRATORS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDE". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Nov 01;187(11):2491 Authors: PMID: 30383262 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Analysis of the Strength of Legal Firearms Restrictions for Perpetrators of Domestic Violence and Their Associations With Intimate Partner Homicide.
Abstract In this research, we estimate the association of firearm restrictions for domestic violence offenders with intimate partner homicides (IPHs) on the basis of the strength of the policies. We posit that the association of firearm laws with IPHs depends on the following characteristics of the laws: 1) breadth of coverage of high-risk individuals and situations restricted; 2) power to compel firearm surrender or removal from persons prohibited from having firearms; and 3) systems of accountability that prevent those prohibited from doing so from obtaining guns. We conducted a quantitative policy evaluation us...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - November 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zeoli AM, McCourt A, Buggs S, Frattaroli S, Lilley D, Webster DW Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The authors reply.
THE AUTHORS REPLY. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Oct 31;: Authors: PMID: 30380002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 31, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "socioeconomic position and dna methylation age acceleration across the lifecourse".
RE: "SOCIOECONOMIC POSITION AND DNA METHYLATION AGE ACCELERATION ACROSS THE LIFECOURSE". Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Oct 31;: Authors: PMID: 30380005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 31, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mortality and Chronic Disease Risk Associated With Poor Life Satisfaction: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
The objective was to estimate the risk of developing chronic disease and death according to life satisfaction among a population-based cohort in Ontario, Canada (N = 73,904). The cohort included three pooled cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003-2008), linked to 6 years of follow-up (to 2015) using population-based health databases and validated disease-specific registries. The databases capture incident and prevalent diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease and mortality. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazards of incident chronic disease and ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rosella LC, Fu L, Buajitti E, Goel V Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Propensity Score-Based Estimators with Multiple Error-Prone Covariates.
Abstract Propensity score methods are an important tool to help reduce confounding in non-experimental studies. Most propensity score methods assume that covariates are measured without error. However, covariates are often measured with error, which leads to biased causal effect estimates if the true underlying covariates are the actual confounders. Although some studies have investigated the impact of a single mismeasured covariate on estimating a causal effect and proposed methods for handling the measurement error, even fewer papers have investigated the case where multiple covariates are mismeasured, and none ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hong H, Aaby DA, Siddique J, Stuart EA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Is the Black-White Mental Health Paradox Consistent across Gender and Psychiatric Disorders?
This study assessed whether the Black-White mental health epidemiological paradox (i.e. Blacks' lower or similar rates of mental disorder relative to Whites) extends across 12 lifetime and past-year psychiatric disorders and varies by gender. We used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) and National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003 (N=4,584 African Americans; 6,668 non-Hispanic Whites). Results showed overwhelming evidence of the paradox across lifetime and past-year disorders for women and men. In addition, Blacks' mental health advantage over Whites widened after adjusting for socioecono...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Erving CL, Thomas CS, Frazier C Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Prospective Cohort Study Examining the Association Between Maternal Arsenic Exposure, Fetal Loss, and Neonatal Mortality.
Abstract Arsenic crosses the placenta, possibly increasing the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. We aimed to examine the association between maternal arsenic exposure and fetal/neonatal survival using a prospective cohort of 1,616 maternal-infant pairs recruited at ≤ 16 weeks gestational age in Bangladesh (2008-2011). Arsenic concentration was measured in maternal drinking water at enrollment. Extended Cox regression (both time-dependent coefficients and step functions) was used to estimate the time-varying association between maternal arsenic exposure and fetal/neonatal death (all mortality between enroll...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ahmed SM, Noble BN, Joya SA, Hasan OS, Lin PI, Rahman ML, Mostofa G, Quamruzzaman Q, Rahman M, Christiani DC, Kile ML Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Restrictive Immigration Law and Birth Outcomes of Immigrant Women.
Abstract Unauthorized immigration is one of the most contentious policy issues in the United States. In an attempt to curb unauthorized migration, many states have considered restrictive laws intended to make life so difficult for unauthorized immigrants that they would choose to leave the country. Arizona's Senate Bill 1070, enacted in 2010, pioneered these efforts. Using population-level natality data and causal inference methods, we examine the effect of SB1070 on infants exposed before birth in Arizona. Prenatal exposure to the bill resulted in lower birthweight among Latina immigrant women, but not among US-b...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Torche F, Sirois C Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Estimating the Severity Profile of Enterovirus A71 Infections in Children: A Bayesian Synthesis Framework.
Abstract Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is responsible for the majority of severe hand- foot-and-mouth disease, but little evidence is available on the severity profile of EV-A71 infections. We formulated a hierarchical Bayesian model which synthesized data on EV-A71 associated diseases/events and EV-A71 antibody responses to infection among unvaccinated children from large clinical trials of EV-A71 vaccination which were conducted in Jiangsu and Beijing during 2012 and 2013, to reconstruct the severity profile in a unified framework. On average 15.1% of the children aged 6 to 35 months were infected by EV-A71 during on...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yang B, Lau EHY, Cowling BJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Integrating Clinical and Epidemiological Data on Allergic Diseases Across Birth Cohorts: a MeDALL Harmonization Study.
as I, Narduzzi S, Petherick ES, Porta D, Rancière F, Standl M, Torrent M, Wijga AH, Wright J, Kogevinas M, Guerra S, Sunyer J, Keil T, Bousquet J, Maier D, Anto JM, Garcia-Aymerich J Abstract International collaborations among birth cohorts to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original individual participant data. We harmonized data from 14 birth cohorts, with three to 20 follow-ups, from nine European countries, as part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Asthma and Allergies (MeDALL) proje...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Benet M, Albang R, Pinart M, Hohmann C, Tischer CG, Annesi-Maesano I, Baïz N, Bindslev-Jensen C, Lødrup Carlsen KC, Carlsen KH, Cirugeda L, Eller E, Fantini MP, Gehring U, Gerhard B, Gori D, Hallner E, Kull I, Lenzi J, McEachan R, Minina E, Momas I, Nar Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research