Parallel Assessment Challenges in Nutritional and Sleep Epidemiology.
Abstract Sleep has been consistently linked to health outcomes in clinical studies, but only in recent years has sleep become a focus in epidemiologic studies and public health. In particular, the sizable prevalence of insufficient sleep in the population warrants well-designed epidemiologic studies to examine its impact on public health. As a developing field, sleep epidemiology encounters methodological challenges similar to those faced by nutritional epidemiology research. In this article, we describe a few central challenges related to assessment of sleep duration in population-based studies in comparison to m...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 22, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dunietz GL, Jansen EC, Hershner SD, O'Brien LM, Peterson KE, Baylin A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Oldest Old: a Nationwide Study in Finland.
This study reports the burden of cancer in the oldest old (≥85 years) in Finland in 1953-2017 and estimates age-specific cancer rates in the old population (65-99 years) in 1988-2017. The Finnish Cancer Registry provided data on all cancer diagnoses, cancer deaths and other deaths in cancer patients in Finland in 1953-2017. Between 1953-1957 and 2013-2017, the proportion of incident cancers in those aged ≥85 years increased from 1.5% to 9.6% (597 to 15,360 new cases), and in 2013-2017, more new cancers were diagnosed at age ≥85 years than age
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 22, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tanskanen T, Seppä KJM, Virtanen A, Malila NK, Pitkäniemi JM Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The association of genetic factors, educational attainment, and their interaction, with kidney function outcomes.
This study presents the first evidence of gene-environment interaction between EA and a WGS on eGFR decline, and provides population-level insights into the mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in chronic kidney disease. PMID: 33089864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 22, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Thio CHL, van Zon SKR, van der Most PJ, Snieder H, Bültmann U, Gansevoort RT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Simulation as a Tool for Teaching and Learning Epidemiologic Methods.
Abstract In aspiring to be discerning epidemiologists, we must learn to think critically about the fundamental concepts in our field and be able to understand and apply many of the novel methods being developed today. We must also find effective ways to teach both basic and advanced topics in epidemiology to graduate students, in a manner that goes beyond simple provision of knowledge. Here, we argue that simulation is one critical tool that can be used to help meet these goals, by providing examples of how simulation can be used to address two common misconceptions in epidemiology. First, we show how simulation c...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 21, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rudolph JE, Fox MP, Naimi AI Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Assessing Heterogeneity of Treatment E ↵ects in Observational Studies.
We describe methods for assessing heterogeneity of treatment e↵ects over pre-specified subgroups in observational studies, using outcome model-based (g-formula), inverse probability weighting, doubly robust, and matching estimators of subgroup-specific potential outcome means, conditional average treatment e↵ects, and measures of het- erogeneity of treatment e↵ects. We compare the finite-sample performance of di↵erent estimators in simulation studies where we vary the total sample size, the relative fre- quency of each subgroup, the magnitude of treatment e↵ect in each subgroup, and the distri...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 21, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robertson SE, Leith A, Schmid CH, Dahabreh IJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Design and Implementation of PROSPECT: Puerto Rico Observational Study of Psychosocial, Environmental, and Chronic Disease Trends.
z-Orengo JF Abstract The Puerto Rico Observational Study of Psychosocial, Environmental, and Chronic Disease Trends (PROSPECT) is a prospective cohort study in Puerto Rico (PR) aiming to identify trends and longitudinal associations in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In 2019, PROSPECT started recruiting a sample of 2,000 adults, ages 30-75 years, in PR using a multi-stage probabilistic sampling of households and community approaches. Culturally-sensitive trained research assistants assess participants, at baseline and at 2-year follow-up, in private rooms in a network of partner clinics. The study c...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 21, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mattei J, Tucker KL, Falcon LM, Ríos-Bedoya CF, Kaplan RM, O'Neill HJ, Tamez M, Mendoza S, Diaz-Alvarez CB, Orozco JE, Acosta E, Rodríguez-Orengo JF Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Finding 'Bright Spots': Using Multiple Measures to Examine Local-Area Racial Equity in Cancer Death Outcomes.
This study presents several ways to examine equity, using rate ratios and standard error measures, in cancer mortality outcomes. It highlights areas with positive progress towards equity and areas potential need for equity-focused cancer control planning. Examining local areas of positive deviance can inform cancer control programming and planning around health equity. PMID: 33073838 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 19, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Scott LC, Bartley S, Dowling NF, Richardson LC Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Pre-Pubertal Internalizing Symptoms and Timing of Puberty Onset in Girls.
Abstract Stressful environments have been associated with earlier menarche. We hypothesized that anxiety, and possibly other internalizing symptoms, are also associated with earlier puberty in girls. The LEGACY Girls Study (2011-2016) includes 1040 girls aged 6 to 13 years at recruitment with growth and development assessed every 6 months. Pre-pubertal maternal reports of daughter's internalizing symptoms were available for breast onset (N=447), pubic hair onset (N=456), and menarche (N=681). Using Cox Proportional Hazard Regression, we estimated prospective hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) f...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 15, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Knight JA, Kehm RD, Schwartz L, Frost CJ, Chung WK, Colonna S, Keegan THM, Goldberg M, Houghton LC, Hanna D, Glendon G, Daly MB, Buys SS, Andrulis IL, John EM, Bradbury AR, Terry MB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Common Methods for Missing Data in Marginal Structural Models: What Works and Why.
Abstract Marginal structural models (MSMs) are commonly used to estimate causal intervention effects in longitudinal non-randomised studies. A common challenge when using MSMs to analyse observational studies is incomplete confounder data, where a poorly informed analysis method will lead to biased intervention effect estimates. Despite a number of approaches described in the literature to handle missing data in MSMs, there is little guidance on what works in practice and why. We reviewed existing missing data methods for MSMs and discussed the plausibility of their underlying assumptions. We also performed realis...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 15, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Leyrat C, Carpenter JR, Bailly S, Williamson EJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Joint Modelling Of Individual Trajectories, Within-Individual Variability And A Later Outcome: Systolic Blood Pressure Through Childhood And Left Ventricular Mass In Early Adulthood.
Abstract Within-individual variability of repeatedly-measured exposures may predict later outcomes: e.g. blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor above and beyond mean BP. Since two-stage methods, known to introduce bias, are typically used to investigate such associations, we introduce a joint modelling approach, examining associations of mean BP and BPV across childhood to left ventricular mass (indexed to height; LVMI) in early adulthood with data (collected 1990-2011) from the UK's Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort. Using multilevel models, we allo...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 15, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Parker RMA, Leckie G, Goldstein H, Howe LD, Heron J, Hughes AD, Phillippo DM, Tilling K Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Leveraging Technology to Blend Large-Scale Epidemiologic Surveillance with Social and Behavioral Science Methods: Successes, Challenges, and Lessons Learned Implementing the UNITE Longitudinal Cohort Study of HIV risk factors among Sexual Minority Men in the U.S.
This study adds to prior work to provide further proof-of-concept for this limited interaction, technology-mediated methodology, highlighting some of its strengths and challenges, including rapid access to more diverse populations but also potential for bias due to differential enrollment. This method has strong promise and future implementation research is needed to better understand the roles of burden, privacy, access, and compensation, to enhance representativeness and generalizability of the data generated. PMID: 33057684 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 15, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rendina HJ, Talan AJ, Tavella NF, Matos JL, Jimenez RH, Jones SS, Salfas B, Westmoreland D Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Does the Union Make Us Strong? Labor-Union Membership, Self-Rated Health, and Mental Illness: A Parametric G-Formula Approach.
Abstract Union members enjoy better wages, benefits, and power than non-members, which can improve health. However, the longitudinal union-health relationship remains uncertain, partially because of healthy-worker bias, which cannot be addressed without high-quality data and methods that account for exposure-confounder feedback and structural non-positivity. Applying one such method, the parametric g-formula, to United-States-based Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data, we analyzed the longitudinal relationships between union membership, poor/fair self-rated health (SRH), and moderate mental illness (Kessler-...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 13, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Eisenberg-Guyot J, Mooney SJ, Barrington WE, Hajat A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Improvements in Neighborhood Socioeconomic Conditions May Improve Resident Diet.
Abstract Neighborhood socioeconomic conditions (NSEC) are associated with resident diet, but most research has been cross-sectional. We capitalize on a natural experiment where one neighborhood experienced substantial investments, compared to a sociodemographically similar neighborhood that did not, in order to examine pathways from neighborhood investments to changed NSEC and changed dietary behavior. We examine differences between renters and homeowners. Data are from a random sample of households (n=831) in each of these low-income Pittsburgh neighborhoods who were surveyed in 2011 and 2014. Structural equation...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 13, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Richardson AS, Collins RL, Ghosh-Dastidar M, Ye F, Hunter GP, Baird MD, Schwartz H, Sloan JC, Nugroho A, Beckman R, Troxel WM, Gary-Webb TL, Dubowitz T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Reduction of breast cancer mortality associated with mammography screening: a modelling study using population-based data from 2 French d épartements.
Reduction of breast cancer mortality associated with mammography screening: a modelling study using population-based data from 2 French départements. Am J Epidemiol. 2020 Oct 12;: Authors: Seigneurin A, Exbrayat C, Molinié F, Croisier L, Poncet F, Berquet K, Delafosse P, Colonna M Abstract Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials that started from 1963 to 1991 reported a decrease of breast cancer mortality associated with mammography screening. However, the effectiveness of population based screening programmes conducted nowadays may have changed, due to the better effectiveness of ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 12, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Seigneurin A, Exbrayat C, Molinié F, Croisier L, Poncet F, Berquet K, Delafosse P, Colonna M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Race/Ethnicity, Cumulative Midlife Loss and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Women.
We examined the association between an understudied race/ethnicity-related stressor, midlife loss (e.g. deaths of friends/family members) and a marker of cardiovascular risk, carotid intima media thickness (IMT) in 1,410 African-American, White, Chinese and Hispanic women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Participants were queried about losses annually over 12 years (1996-2013), with IMT assessed Year 12-13 via ultrasound. Linear regression models examined associations between cumulative upsetting losses and IMT, adjusting for covariates. In minimally-adjusted models in the full cohort, ≥3 upsetting lo...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 9, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lewis TT, Van Dyke ME, Matthews KA, Barinas-Mitchell E Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Associations of Depressive Symptoms with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality by Race in A Low-Socioeconomic Population: A Report from the Southern Community Cohort Study.
Abstract Depression is a leading cause of disability in the United States, but its impact on mortality among racially diverse, low-socioeconomic populations is largely unknown. Using data from the Southern Community Cohort Study, 2002-2015, we prospectively evaluated the associations of depressive symptoms with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 67,781 black (72.3%) and white (27.7%) adults, predominantly with a low-socioeconomic status. Baseline depressive symptoms were assessed using the ten-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The median follow-up time was 10.0 years. Multivariate Co...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 9, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cui Y, Zheng W, Steinwandel M, Cai H, Sanderson M, Blot W, Shu XO Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Trends in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Incidence in the US from 2000-2016: an Increased Risk in Latinos Across All Age Groups.
Abstract Incidence trends in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) demonstrate disparities by race and ethnicity. We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Registry to evaluate patterns in ALL incidence from 2000-2016, including the association between the percent of people born in a foreign country at the county level and ALL incidence. Among 23,829 individuals of all ages diagnosed with ALL, 8,297 (34.8%) were Latinos, 11,714 (49.2%) were non-Latino (NL) Whites, and 1,639 (6.9%) were NL Blacks. Latinos had the largest increase in the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) in this period compared ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 9, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Feng Q, de Smith AJ, Vergara-Lluri M, Muskens IS, McKean-Cowdin R, Kogan S, Brynes R, Wiemels JL Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Occupational Exposure to Electric Shocks and Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and Motor Neurone Disease.
Abstract In a New Zealand population-based case-control study we assessed associations with occupational exposure to electric shocks, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and motor neurone disease using job-exposure matrices to assess exposure. Participants were recruited between 2013 and 2016. Associations with ever/never, duration, and cumulative exposure were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, sports, head or spine injury and solvents, and mutually adjusted for the other exposure. All analyses were repea...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 9, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chen GX, Mannetje A, Douwes J, Berg LH, Pearce N, Kromhout H, Glass B, Brewer N, McLean DJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Statistical Estimation of the Reproductive Number From Case Notification Data.
Abstract The reproductive number, or reproduction number, is a valuable metric in understanding infectious disease dynamics. There is a large body of literature related to its use and estimation. In the last 15 years, there has been tremendous progress in statistically estimating this number using case notification data. These approaches are appealing because they are relevant in an ongoing outbreak (e.g., for assessing the effectiveness of interventions) and do not require substantial modelling expertise to be implemented. In this review, we describe these methods and the extensions that have been developed. We p...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 9, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: White LF, Moser CB, Thompson RN, Pagano M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Randomized Trial Evaluation of Benefits and Risks of Menopausal Hormone Therapy Among Women Aged 50-59.
Abstract The health benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy among women aged 50-59 years are examined in the Women's Health Initiative randomized, placebo-controlled trials using long-term follow-up data and a parsimonious statistical model that leverages data from older participants to increase precision. These trials enrolled 27,347 healthy post-menopausal women aged 50-79 at 40 U.S. clinical centers during 1993-1998, including 10,739 post-hysterectomy participants in a trial of conjugated equine estrogens, and 16,608 participants with uterus in the trial of these estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acet...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Prentice RL, Aragaki AK, Chlebowski RT, Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Stefanick ML, Wactawski-Wende J, Kuller LH, Wallace R, Johnson KC, Shadyab AH, Gass M, Manson JAE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Update.
UPDATE. Am J Epidemiol. 2020 Oct 02;: Authors: PMID: 33006366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 1, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Am J Epidemiol; +17 new citations
17 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Epidemiol These pubmed results were generated on 2020/10/01PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 1, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis and Sparse Data Bias.
Abstract Meta-analyses are undertaken to combine information from a set of studies, often in settings where some of the individual study-specific estimates are based on relatively small study samples. Finite sample bias may occur when maximum likelihood estimates of associations are obtained by fitting logistic regression models to sparse data sets. We show that combining information from small studies by undertaking a meta-analytic summary of logistic regression estimates can propagate such sparse data bias. In simulations, we illustrate two challenges encountered by meta-analyses of logistic regression results i...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 24, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Richardson DB, Cole SR, Ross RK, Poole C, Chu H, Keil AP Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Power of Microbiome Beta-Diversity Analyses Based on Standard Reference Samples.
Abstract A simple method to analyze microbiome beta-diversity computes mean beta-diversity distances from a test sample to standard reference samples. We used reference stool and nasal samples from the Human Microbiome Project and regressed an outcome on mean distances (2df-test) or additionally on squares and cross-product of mean distances (5df-test). We compared the power of 2df- and 5df-tests to the microbiome regression-based kernel association test (MiRKAT). In simulations, MiRKAT had moderately greater power than the 2df-test for discriminating skin versus saliva and skin versus nasal samples, but differenc...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 24, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gail MH, Wan Y, Shi J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Anticancer drugs and cardiovascular-related hospitalization in metastatic colorectal cancer: Insights from the AVOCETTE population-based study.
Abstract We aimed to investigate the association between anticancer drugs and cardiovascular-related hospitalization (CVRH) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. A cohort study was conducted using the French county Calvados registry of digestive tumors. Incident mCRC cases between 2008 and 2014 were included. The follow-up end date was December 2016. Data from the county hospital center pharmacy and medical information departments were matched with the registry data. A competing risk approach was used. Statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 1,116 mCRC patients were included; they were administered...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 22, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dolladille C, Launoy G, Bouvier V, Salem JE, Legallois D, Milliez P, Sassier M, Lobbedez T, Guittet L, Alexandre J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Pre-analytical Sample Handling Conditions and Their Effects on the Human Serum Metabolome in Epidemiological Studies.
Abstract Many epidemiological studies use metabolomics for discovery-based research. The degree to which sample handling may influence findings, however, is poorly understood. Serum from 13 volunteers from the USDA Beltsville center were subjected to different clotting (30/120 minutes) and refrigeration (0/24 hours) conditions, as well as number (0/1/4) and temperature (ice/refrigerator/room temperature) of thaws (2016). Median absolute percentage difference (APD) between metabolite levels and correlations across conditions were estimated for 628 metabolites. The potential for handling artifacts to induce false po...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 21, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: McClain KM, Moore SC, Sampson JN, Henderson TR, Gebauer SK, Newman JW, Ross S, Pedersen TL, Baer DJ, Zanetti KA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Overall survival among chemotherapy-na ïve castration-resistant prostate cancer patients under abiraterone versus enzalutamide: a direct comparison based on a 2014-2018 French population study (the SPEAR cohort).
Overall survival among chemotherapy-naïve castration-resistant prostate cancer patients under abiraterone versus enzalutamide: a direct comparison based on a 2014-2018 French population study (the SPEAR cohort). Am J Epidemiol. 2020 Sep 18;: Authors: Scailteux LM, Campillo-Gimenez B, Kerbrat S, Despas F, Mathieu R, Vincendeau S, Balusson F, Happe A, Nowak E, Oger E Abstract Abiraterone acetate (ABI) and enzalutamide (ENZ) are considered as clinically relevant comparators among chemotherapy-naïve castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. No clinical trials comparing overall survival (OS)...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 17, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Scailteux LM, Campillo-Gimenez B, Kerbrat S, Despas F, Mathieu R, Vincendeau S, Balusson F, Happe A, Nowak E, Oger E Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Chile Biliary Longitudinal Study (Chile BiLS): A Gallstone Cohort.
Abstract Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly fatal cancer that can be cured through cholecystectomy if identified early. The presence of gallstones is the primary risk factor for GBC, but few individuals with gallstones develop GBC. A key question is what drives the development of GBC among individuals with gallstones. We initiated the Chile Biliary Longitudinal Study (Chile BiLS) to address this question. From 2016-2019, Chile BiLS enrolled 4,726 women aged 50-74 with ultrasound-detected gallstones from Southern-central Chile, accounting for an estimated 36% of eligible women with gallstones in the study area. T...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 15, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Koshiol J, Van De Wyngard V, McGee EE, Cook P, Pfeiffer RM, Mardones N, Medina K, Olivo V, Pettit K, Jackson SS, Paredes F, Sanchez R, Huidobro A, Villaseca M, Bellolio E, Losada H, Roa JC, Hildesheim A, Araya JC, Ferreccio C, Chile BiLS Study Group Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Male-to-Female Presumed Transmission of Toxoplasmosis Between Sexual Partners.
a P, Kaňková Š Abstract Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread human parasitoses in developed countries. Sexual transmission has been confirmed in several animal species, and indirect evidence suggests that it may occur in humans. We compared the seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii in couples who visited the Center for Assisted Reproduction in Prague from June 2016 to June 2018 and analyzed various risk factors including the serological status of sexual partner. By comparing the risk factors in men and women, we tested the hypothesis of man-to-woman sexual transmission of toxoplasmosis. The pre...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 14, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hlaváčová J, Flegr J, Řežábek K, Calda P, Kaňková Š Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "e-cigarette use to aid long-term smoking cessation in the united states: prospective evidence from the path cohort study".
RE: "E-CIGARETTE USE TO AID LONG-TERM SMOKING CESSATION IN THE UNITED STATES: PROSPECTIVE EVIDENCE FROM THE PATH COHORT STUDY". Am J Epidemiol. 2020 Sep 12;: Authors: PMID: 32918082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Global seasonal influenza mortality estimates: a comparison of three different approaches.
Abstract Prior to updating global influenza-associated mortality estimates, the World Health Organization convened a consultation in July 2017 to understand differences in methodology and implications on results of three influenza mortality projects from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Netherlands Institute for Health Service Research (GLaMOR), and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). The expert panel reviewed estimates and discussed differences in data sources, analysis, and modeling assumptions. We performed a comparison analysis of the estimates. Influe...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 10, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cozza V, Campbell H, Chang HH, Iuliano AD, Paget J, Patel NN, Reiner RC, Troeger C, Viboud C, Bresee JS, Fitzner J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "covid-19 in health-care workers: a living systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes".
RE: "COVID-19 IN HEALTH-CARE WORKERS: A LIVING SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS, CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND OUTCOMES". Am J Epidemiol. 2020 Sep 11;: Authors: PMID: 32916697 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 10, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Oral Glucocorticoids and Incident Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and Venous Thromboembolism in Children.
This study quantified rates of incident treatment for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with oral glucocorticoid exposure in children ages 1-18. The retrospective cohort included>930,000 children diagnosed with autoimmune diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, or psoriasis) or a non-immune comparator condition (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) identified using US Medicaid claims (2000-2010). Associations of glucocorticoid dose per age-/sex-imputed weight with incident treated diabetes, hypertension, and VTE were estimated using Cox regress...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 8, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Horton DB, Xie F, Chen L, Mannion ML, Curtis JR, Strom BL, Beukelman T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Characteristics Associated with Nonreceipt of Surveillance Testing and the Relationship with Survival in Stage II and III Colon Cancer.
Abstract We investigated characteristics of colon cancer patients that predicted nonreceipt of post-treatment surveillance testing and the subsequent associations between surveillance status and survival outcomes. This was a retrospective cohort study of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database combined with Medicare claims. Patients diagnosed between 2002-2009, with disease stages II-III, and between 66-84 years of age were eligible. A minimum of three years follow-up was required with patients categorized as having received any surveillance testing (Any Testing) vs. none (No Testing). Poisson reg...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 8, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hines RB, Jiban MJH, Lee E, Odahowski CL, Wallace AS, Adams SJE, Rahman SMM, Zhang S Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Ambiguous Associations of Air Pollution with Mortality in Massachusetts.
PMID: 32893850 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 6, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cox LA Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Response Letter to AJE-00992-2020 -  Ambiguous Associations of Air Pollution with Mortality in Massachusetts.
Response Letter to AJE-00992-2020 - Ambiguous Associations of Air Pollution with Mortality in Massachusetts. Am J Epidemiol. 2020 Sep 07;: Authors: Wei Y, Schwartz J PMID: 32893868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 6, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wei Y, Schwartz J Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Re: "mediation by placental dna methylation of the association of prenatal maternal smoking and birth weight".
RE: "MEDIATION BY PLACENTAL DNA METHYLATION OF THE ASSOCIATION OF PRENATAL MATERNAL SMOKING AND BIRTH WEIGHT". Am J Epidemiol. 2020 Sep 05;: Authors: PMID: 32889530 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mortality in a Cohort of People Living with HIV in Rural Tanzania, Accounting for Unseen Mortality Among Those Lost to Follow-up.
Abstract Mortality assessment in cohorts with high lost to follow-up (LTFU) is challenging in settings with limited civil registration systems. We aimed to assess mortality in a clinical cohort (KIULARCO) of HIV-infected persons in rural Tanzania, accounting for unseen deaths among participants LTFU. We included adults enrolled in 2005-2015 and traced a non-random sample of those LTFU. We estimated mortality using Kaplan-Meier methods with: A) routinely-captured data; B) crudely incorporating tracing data; C) weighting using tracing data to crudely correct for unobserved deaths among participants LTFU; and D) weig...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vanobberghen F, Weisser M, Kasuga B, Katende A, Battegay M, Tanner M, Glass TR, Kiularco Study Group OBOT Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Do Case-Control Studies Always Estimate Odds Ratios?
Abstract Case-control studies are an important part of the epidemiologic literature, yet there remains a lot of confusion about how to interpret estimates from different case-control study designs. We demonstrate that not all case-control study designs estimate odds ratios. In contrast, case-control studies in the literature often report odds ratios as their main parameter even when using designs that do not estimate odds ratios. Therefore, only studies using specific case-control designs should report odds ratios, whereas the case-cohort and incidence density sampled case-control studies must report risk ratio an...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Labrecque JA, Hunink MMG, Ikram MA, Ikram MK Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Is Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Mental Health Related during Childhood, Preadolescence, and Adolescence? 11-Year Results from the German MoMo Cohort Trial.
Abstract Mental health (MH) and behavioural health are fundamental to a good quality of life. Only few studies investigated the influence between behavioural health (e.g., physical activity (PA), screen-time (ST)) and MH from childhood to adolescence. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between PA and ST with MH by sex in a 11-year longitudinal cohort of German school children during 2003-2017. A German Motorik-Modul Cohort-Study subsample (N=686; 55.2% female; MageT1=5.57 years, SDageT1=1.00; MageT2=11.85 years, SDageT2=1.03; MageT3=16.86 years, SDageT3=1.04) who participated in all three measurem...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nigg CR, Wunsch K, Nigg C, Niessner C, Jekauc D, Schmidt SCE, Woll A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

The association between age of alcohol onset with type 2 diabetes: a 0.5 million cohort study in china.
Abstract It is well known that alcohol consumption is associated with type 2 diabetes. However, the association between age of alcohol onset (AAO) and drinking duration with type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults is not fully understood. Our study was based on the data from the China Kadoorie Biobank, which included 512,712 participants aged 30-79 years in China from 2004-2008. Cox proportional-hazard model was used to estimate the association between AAO and drinking duration with type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for potential covariates, 18.1 ≤ AAO ≤ 29.0, 29.1 ≤ AAO &l...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 1, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Li H, Lv J, Yu C, Guo Y, Bian Z, Fan J, Yang L, Chen Y, Du H, Long H, Zhang Z, Chen J, Chen Z, Huang T, Li L, Collaborative Group OBOTCKB Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Mid-Pregnancy Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Association with Child Autism Spectrum Disorder in a California Population-Based Case-Control Study.
Abstract Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical for brain development and have been linked with neurodevelopmental outcomes. We conducted a population-based case control study in California to examine the association between PUFAs measured in mid-pregnancy serum samples and child autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD cases (n = 499) were identified through the Department of Developmental Services and matched to live-birth population controls (n = 502) on birth month, year (2010-2011), and sex. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine associations. Secondary ana...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - September 1, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lyall K, Windham GC, Snyder NW, Kuskovsky R, Xu P, Bostwick A, Robinson L, Newschaffer CJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

A Likelihood Ratio Test for Gene-Environment Interaction Based on the Trend Effect of Genotype Under an Additive Risk Model Using the Gene-Environment Independence Assumption.
Abstract Several statistical methods have been proposed for testing gene(G)-environment(E) interactions under additive risk models using genome-wide association study data. However, these approaches have strong assumptions on underlying genetic models such as dominant or recessive effects that are known to be less robust when the true genetic model is unknown. We aim to develop a robust trend test employing a likelihood ratio test for detecting G-E interaction under an additive risk model, while incorporating the G-E independence assumption to increase power. We used a constrained likelihood to impose two sets of ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 31, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: de Rochemonteix M, Napolioni V, Sanyal N, Belloy ME, Caporaso NE, Landi MT, Greicius MD, Chatterjee N, Han SS Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Potential Biases Arising from Epidemic Dynamics in Observational Seroprotection Studies.
Abstract The extent and duration of immunity following SARS-CoV-2 infection are critical outstanding questions about the epidemiology of this novel virus, and studies are needed to evaluate the effects of serostatus on reinfection. Understanding the potential sources of bias and methods to alleviate biases in these studies is important for informing their design and analysis. Confounding by individual-level risk factors in observational studies like these is relatively well appreciated. Here, we show how geographic structure and the underlying, natural dynamics of epidemics can also induce noncausal associations. ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 31, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kahn R, Kennedy-Shaffer L, Grad YH, Robins JM, Lipsitch M Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

COVID-19 in Healthcare Workers: A Living Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prevalence, Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes.
Glisic M, Muka T Abstract Health care workers (HCW) are at the frontline response to the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), being at a higher risk of acquiring the disease, and subsequently, exposing patients and colleagues. Searches in eight bibliographic databases were performed to systematically review the evidence on the prevalence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among HCW. Ninety-seven studies (All published in 2020), including 230,398 HCW, met the inclusion criteria. From the screened HCW using RT-PCR and ...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 31, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gómez-Ochoa SA, Franco OH, Rojas LZ, Raguindin PF, Roa-Díaz ZM, Wyssmann BM, Guevara SLR, Echeverría LE, Glisic M, Muka T Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Concerns About the Special Article on Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in High Risk Outpatients with COVID-19 by Dr. Harvey Risch.
Abstract In May, this journal published an opinion piece by one of the members of the Editorial Board, Dr. Harvey Risch, that reviewed several papers and argued that using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) early to treat symptomatic COVID-19 cases in high-risk patients should be broadly applied. As members of the journal's editorial board, we are strongly supportive of open debate in science, which is essential even on highly contentious issues. However, we must also be thorough in our examination of the facts and open to changing our minds when new information arises. In this commentary, we document se...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fox MP, D'Agostino McGowan L, James BD, Lessler J, Mehta SH, Murray EJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Directed Acyclic Graphs, Effect Measure Modification, and Generalizability.
Abstract Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) have had a major impact on the field of epidemiology by providing straightforward graphical rules for determining when estimates are expected to lack causally interpretable internal validity. Much less attention has been paid, however, to what DAGs can tell researchers about effect measure modification and external validity. In this work, we describe two rules based on DAGs related to effect measure modification. Rule 1 states that if a variable, $P$, is conditionally independent of an outcome, $Y$, within levels of a treatment,$X$, then $P$ is not an effect measure modifier...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 24, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Webster-Clark M, Breskin A Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

von Ehrenstein et. al respond to "Sibling comparison designs, are they worth the effort?"
von Ehrenstein et. al respond to "Sibling comparison designs, are they worth the effort?" Am J Epidemiol. 2020 Aug 24;: Authors: von Ehrenstein OS, Cui X, Yan Q, Aralis H, Ritz B PMID: 32830843 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: von Ehrenstein OS, Cui X, Yan Q, Aralis H, Ritz B Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Maternal Prenatal Smoking and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring: a California Statewide Cohort and Sibling Study.
We examined associations between maternal smoking and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children in a statewide population-based cohort and sibling comparison design using California birth records (n=2,015,104) with information on maternal smoking, demographics and pregnancy (2007-2010). ASD cases (n=11,722) were identified through California Department of Developmental Services records with diagnoses based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-R. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for ASD with/without intellectual disability in the full cohort using logistic regression, and conditional logistic regres...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: von Ehrenstein OS, Cui X, Yan Q, Aralis H, Ritz B Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Identification and Estimation of Causal Effects Using a Negative Control Exposure in Time-series Studies with Applications to Environmental Epidemiology.
Abstract The initial aim of environmental epidemiology is to estimate the causal effects of environmental exposures on health outcomes. However, due to lack of enough covariates in most environmental datasets, current methods without enough adjustments for confounders inevitably lead to residual confounding. We propose a Negative Control Exposure based on Time-series Studies (NCE-TS) model to effectively eliminate unobserved confounders using a post-outcome exposure as a negative control exposure. We show that the causal effect is identifiable and can be estimated by the NCE-TS for continuous and categorical outco...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - August 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yu Y, Li H, Sun X, Liu X, Yang F, Hou L, Liu L, Yan R, Yu Y, Jing M, Xue H, Cao W, Wang Q, Zhong H, Xue F Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research