Efficacy of glucosamine sulfate in lowering serum level of interleukin-1β in symptomatic primary knee osteoarthritis: Clinical and laboratory study
Conclusion Adding α-d GS to treatment of primary symptomatic knee OA could relieve symptoms, improve function and affect some of the disease mechanisms. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

MRI features of some uncommon causes of painful knee
Conclusion MRI is a useful tool in evaluation of some uncommon causes of painful knee. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Prevalence and outcome of peptic ulcer bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis
Conclusion The commonest cause of NVUGIB in patients with liver cirrhosis was PUB. Mortality in patients with PUB was particularly high among males, patients who had adherent clot, bleeding recurrence, development of complications and a high Rockall score. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Albumin to creatinine ratio in a random urine sample: Correlation with severity of preeclampsia
Conclusions Random urine ACR may be a reliable method for prediction and assessment of severity of preeclampsia. Using the estimated cut-off may add to the predictive value of such a simple quick test. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve: An anatomical study
Publication date: June 2014 Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 2 Author(s): Ayman Ahmad Khanfour , El Sayed Aly Mohamed Metwally Introduction Knowledge of the course and anatomical relations of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (MMBFN) in the head and neck is important to avoid its injury during surgery. Aim The aim of this work was to study the course and relations of the (MMBFN) to the lower border of the mandible and parotid gland. Material and methods The material of this work included thirty halves of formalin preserved head and neck specimens obtained from the Dissecting Room...
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Endoscopic approach to the infratemporal fossa
Conclusions Endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approach is considered one of the most useful surgical solutions to manage selected tumors that involve the infratemporal fossa. A good understanding of the endoscopic anatomy of infratemporal fossa allows safe and complete resection of lesions arising or extending to infratemporal fossa. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Endoscopic management of septated, multiloculated hydrocephalus
Conclusion The treatment of loculated hydrocephalus remains a difficult problem in the practice of neurosurgery, yet neuroendoscopy has yielded encouraging results and may be able to dramatically change the prognosis of this troublesome condition in the near future. So neuroendoscopic surgery can be considered a valid alternative to traditional multiple shunt placement surgery and craniotomy in the management of multiloculated hydrocephalus. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Congenital hearing loss. Is CT enough?
Conclusion Although HRCT scan can be used as a solitary diagnostic imaging tool for diagnosis of pure CHL, combined CT and MRI examination is crucial for preoperative evaluation of SNHL patients. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Plasma substance P and soluble P-selectin as biomarkers of β-thalassemia induced hypercoagulability
Conclusions Substance P and sP-selectin might have a role in platelet activation and subsequent hypercoagulability in thalassemic patients. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Somatosensory evoked potentials in children with autism
Conclusions Children with autism have abnormal SSEP changes and were significantly related to the presence of sensory abnormalities, indicating central cortical dysfunction of somatosensory area. On the other hand, these abnormal SSEP changes were not related to the severity of autism. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Microalbuminuria and glycated hemoglobin in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus
Conclusion Microalbuminuria in children with T1 DM is not limited to those with disease duration of 5years or more and it may occur earlier. MA is significantly associated with poor glycemic control especially in adolescents. Other factors that may contribute to MA are not yet fully understood, further research is needed to clarify these factors. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Computed tomography enterography in assessment of Crohn’s disease activity
Conclusion CTE is a non invasive and reliable technique that has a significant value in assessment of CD activity in correlation with endoscopy, hence, it is useful in follow up and preoperative guidance. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Neuroprotective role of vitamin D3 in colchicine-induced Alzheimer’s disease in rats
Conclusion Prophylactic use of active form of vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) appears to possess a neuroprotective effect in AD involving various mechanisms. Hence, vitamin D3 or its analogues can be considered as promising agents for development of new prophylactic and therapeutic neuroprotectors. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Cogan’s anterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia in young Ethiopian: A case report and review of literature
Conclusion Isolated reversible internuclear ophthalmoplegia in a previously healthy young patient could be an initial manifestation of a serious illness like multiple sclerosis. Though the incidence of multiple sclerosis in non-white population near the equator is low, high index of suspicion and close follow up are warranted. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Relation of the vertebral artery segment from C1 to C2 vertebrae: An anatomical study
Conclusion The vertebral artery adopts a serpentine course in relationship to C1 and C2 vertebrae, making it susceptible to injury during surgical procedures in this region. Comprehensive knowledge of the surgical anatomy is essential before performing surgery around the vertebral artery. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Evaluation of lymphatic regeneration in rat incisional wound healing and its use in wound age estimation
Conclusion Lymphatic elements appear transiently in the wound edge, concurrent with the appearance of blood vessels but regress earlier. Identification of lymphatic vascular channels in the region of the wound may help to estimate the wound age in the early days after the injury. At later time points in the regeneration process, it may help to recognize the injured area, being the area where the dermis and subcutaneous tissue are devoid of lymphatics. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Estimation of average bioburden values on flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes after clinical use and cleaning: Assessment of the efficiency of cleaning processes
Conclusions HLD is superior to manual cleaning in the process of endoscopic disinfection. Recommendations Microbiological screening should be undertaken for all the Endoscopy Unit personnel responsible for cleaning or if there is a clinical suspicion of cross-infection related to endoscopy. All health-care personnel in an endoscopy unit in standard infection control should be trained to reprocess endoscopes. Safe working practices in the decontamination area of each unit should be written down and understood by all staff. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

An infrequent cause of total lung collapse: Endobronchial lipoma
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2014 Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine Author(s): Fahd Ahmed Suhail , Mohamed Mahmoud El Shafei , Basma Mohamed El.Sabaa , Adel Mohamed Risk , Shadya Halmy Abou Safe Endobronchial lipomas are rare benign tumors of the lung. The reported case was a 46-year-old man who came to our center for follow up of endobronchial lesion and contracted it 5years ago. A fibrobronchoscopy failed to reach the lesion due to narrowing in the upper respiratory tract and the percutaneous sampling (CT-guided FNA) was taken. Histopathological investigation revealed that the tumor was an endobronchi...
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

How to define a pharmacological or a toxic food?
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2014 Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine Author(s): Abdelaziz Ghanemi (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Efficacy of biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training in females with pelvic floor dysfunction
Conclusion Biofeedback-assisted PFMT is an effective therapy compared to PFMT alone for well-motivated females with mild to moderate PFD. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Anemia and associated factors among Kuwaiti preschool children and their mothers
Conclusions Anemia remains a common health problem for Kuwaiti preschool children and further studies are needed to focus on etiologies and interventions. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical and pharmaceutical students in Alexandria University
Conclusion The study revealed significant distress among both medical and pharmaceutical students. Moreover, it was concluded that the prevalence of anxiety and depression in Faculty of Medicine was found higher than that in Faculty of Pharmacy. Furthermore, it was noticed that the prevalence of symptoms was higher among females. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Evaluation of early changes of cartilage biomarkers following arthroscopic meniscectomy in young Egyptian adults
Conclusion Cartilage volume loss by MRI combined with changes in cartilage matrix turnover detected by molecular biomarkers may reflect the initial changes associated with cartilage degeneration that account for early OA. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery
Conclusion The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in eliminating chronic migraine headache. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Targeting the orexinergic system: Mainly but not only for sleep-wakefulness therapies
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2014 Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine Author(s): Abdelaziz Ghanemi , Xintian Hu Orexin receptors belong to the big family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that constitute the main targets in the modern pharmacological approaches. Although the orexinergic system is involved in a variety of processes, treating sleep-wakefulness disorders such as narcolepsy and insomnia, remains the main therapeutic implication of targeting orexinergic receptors. After novel advances, such as the description of the binding pockets, and ligand developments, more researchers are focusing...
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Role of pelvic lymphadenectomy in stage 1A endometrial carcinoma diagnosed preoperatively by pelvic ultrasonography and CT scan
Conclusion There is no need for lymphadenectomy in stage 1A diagnosed preoperatively using CT scan and vaginal US, preventing high risk surgical intervention in this early stage. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Histopathological characteristics of breast cancer and evaluation of ER alpha and Her-2neu using immunohistochemical and RT-PCR techniques
Conclusion IHC and RT-PCR must be combined for more informative results regarding the ER alpha and HER-2 status. Further studies are mandatory to evaluate the efficacy of anti-estrogens on ER alpha variant expression. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Association between the polymorphisms of angiotensin converting enzyme (Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A) INDEL mutation (I/D) and Angiotensin II type I receptor (A1166C) and breast cancer among post menopausal Egyptian females
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 3 Author(s): Rania Mohamed El Sharkawy , Ahmed Mohamed Zaki , Amal Abd El Fattah Kamel , Rania Nabil Bedair , Ahmed Saad Ahmed Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Angiotensin (Ang II) is converted from angiotensin I via angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Ang II exerts its effects by binding to two types of receptors; AT1R and AT2R. Ang II effect on AT1R promotes proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis in breast tissues. ACE (I/D) polymorphism is an insertion/deletion of a 2...
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Prognostic value of FOXP3 and TGF-β expression in both peripheral blood and lymph nodes in patients with B-Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma
In this study the role of circulating and intra-tumoral Treg and TGF-β in patients with B-NHL before and after chemotherapy was evaluated. Enumeration of Treg cells was carried out by flow cytometric staining of their cell surface markers CD4 and CD25 as well as by molecular analysis of its signature transcription factor FoxP3. Expression of FoxP3 was done using quantitative real-time PCR while TGF-β mRNA expression was semi-quantitatively assayed by the conventional reverse transcription-PCR. In addition, spontaneous versus mitogen-induced release of TGF-β by PBMCs was assessed by a short term cell culture ...
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver cancer induced by dimethylnitrosamine in mice
Conclusion The protective effect of cannabis extract is more pronounced in group taking cannabis before DMNA. Cannabinoids might exert their anti-tumor effects by the direct induction of apoptosis and can decrease telomerase activity by inhibiting the expression of the TERT gene. Coordination between inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of apoptosis might be a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Angiogenic output in viral hepatitis, C and B, and HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma
Conclusion The increased hepatic angiogenesis in chronic HCV and HBV could provide the molecular basis for liver carcinogenesis and contribute to the increased risk of HCC in patients with cirrhosis due to HCV and/or HBV. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Serum clusterin as a marker for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma
Conclusions Although the diagnostic performance of serum AFP outperformed that of serum CLU, their combined parallel approach improved the sensitivity which is required in screening high risk populations such as CHC patients. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Role of serum glypican-3 in the diagnosis and differentiation of small hepatocellular carcinoma from hepatitis-C virus cirrhosis
Conclusion Serum GLP-3 levels are higher in HCC versus HCV cirrhosis, which can differentiate HCC from liver cirrhosis. Also, serum GLP-3 is highly sensitive and specific for detecting HCC. Moreover, GLP-3 is more sensitive than AFP for the detection of small HCC. Furthermore, a combination of both serum markers yielded an improved specificity and both sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of small and unicentric HCC, respectively. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Prognostic significance of COX-2 and β-catenin in colorectal carcinoma
Conclusion Both β-catenin and COX-2 expression may play an important role in the evolution of colon carcinogenesis. Increased expression of both could be used as a marker of tumor progression and poor prognosis. This might be of therapeutic value for allocating patients with colorectal carcinoma to different treatment modalities. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia: Propensity for lung metastasis
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 3 Author(s): Talha Bader , Abdelsalam Ismail KRAS mutation is widely accepted as a key factor in colorectal tumorigenesis. Although KRAS mutation is widely studied in CRC limited data are available about mutation rates and spectrum in CRC from developing countries like Saudi Arabia where epidemiological features of the disease are different. We studied retrospectively tumor samples of 83 Saudi metastatic CRC patients for KRAS mutations in codon 12 and codon 13, to evaluate the relevance of KRAS mutation positive colorectal cancers wi...
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Colorectal cancer in Egypt is commoner in young people: Is this cause for alarm?
Conclusions CRC is not uncommon among Egyptian patients subjected to colonoscopy. There are relatively higher CRC rates in patients under 40years of age than reported in the West. This has implications relating to future epidemiological trends in Egypt. Physicians must have a greater awareness of the potential for CRC in young people in the Middle East. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Cogan’s Syndrome in a Jordanian patient: A case report
We reported a Jordanian case of Cogan’s Syndrome (CS). A 22-year old male patient presented with interstitial keratitis. The patient was treated successfully with topical steroids but over the following months, he developed vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and generalized vasculitis. This is the first reported case of CS in Jordanian population. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

The effect of HCV serological status on Doxorubicin based chemotherapy induced toxicity and disease-free survival in breast cancer patients
Conclusion Patients receiving chemotherapy should undergo screening for the virus. Most patients with HCV were able to tolerate chemotherapy and continue the initial chemotherapy plan, without a significant change in the toxicity profile or the natural course of their malignancy. Dose or regimen adjustments may be of help to less tolerant patients. A preemptive 10% initial Doxorubicin dose reduction might reduce the frequency of severe toxicity for selected patients. The assistance of a gastroenterologist in HCV positive breast cancer patients, planned for chemotherapy is important. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Predictors of mortality in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage who underwent endoscopy and confirmed to have variceal hemorrhage
Conclusion Patients with acute VH and hemodynamic instability at admission, Child class C, blood in UGI tract at the index endoscopy, rebleeding within five days of endoscopy and in-hospital complications are at an increased risk of mortality after the acute VH episode. Rebleeding within five days of endoscopy and in-hospital complications are the most significant independent predictors of mortality. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Impact of parathion exposure on some biochemical parameters in rabbit as a non target organism
Conclusion The results indicated that changes in body and organ weights have been used as indicators of adverse effects of parathion and also alteration in tested enzymes activity can be used as relevant biomarkers for monitoring toxicity due to parathion exposure in non target organisms. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Clinicopathological review of surgically removed appendix in Central Nigeria
Conclusion The findings in this study compared favourably with those of our environment and in the developed world although acute appendicitis in this study showed slight female preponderance. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Microbiological assessment of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) isolates in Alexandria Main University Hospital
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2014 Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine Author(s): Nancy Omar , Hala Abd El Raouf , Hadir Okasha , Nermien Nabil Nosocomial spread of B. cepacia complex (Bcc) isolates amongst non-CF patients has been documented, where inadequate laboratory identification and limited treatment options are considered the main obstacles hindering accurate diagnosis and thus proper therapeutic outcome. The present study aimed to detect the isolation percentage of Bcc from patients in Alexandria Medical University Hospital (AMUH) according to site of infection (specimen), throughout a 6month...
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

The clinical outcome of lateral mass fixation after decompressive laminectomy in cervical spondylotic myelopathy
Conclusions Lateral mass fixation of the cervical spine after cervical laminectomy is safe and reliable with few complications. It also improves neck pain and brachialgia. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Role of IL-28B polymorphisms in virologic response to combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in genotype 4 chronic HCV infected patients with and without cirrhosis
Conclusion In Egypt, where chronic HCV genotype 4 and schistosoma coinfection predominate, both schistosoma infection and cirrhosis are more potent than IL28B polymorphisms as strong baseline negative predictors of hepatitis C treatment response. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Alzheimer’s disease therapies: Selected advances and future perspectives
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2014 Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine Author(s): Abdelaziz Ghanemi Among the neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents one of the biggest challenges that the modern health care system has to deal with. The lack of data about the etiology and the complexity of the underlying pathogenesis constitute the biggest struggle facing the development of new therapeutical approaches. Within this paper we describe selected currently used approaches, point some challenges and give indications about the future perspectives in AD treatments. We hope this pap...
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Differentiation of thyroid nodules using diffusion-weighted MRI
Conclusion Differentiation of thyroid nodules whether benign or malignant can be done using the diffusion-weighted MR technique. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Role of Doppler US and MRI in diagnosis of placenta accreta
Conclusion In conclusion, data of the present study show that the use of transabdominal color Doppler ultrasonography complemented by MRI in suspected cases improves the diagnostic accuracy in prediction of placenta accreta in patients with previous cesarean delivery. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research