Is Alcohol an "Essential Good" During COVID-19? Yes, but Only as a Disinfectant!
Is Alcohol an "Essential Good" During COVID-19? Yes, but Only as a Disinfectant! Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2020 Jul 31;: Authors: Neufeld M, Lachenmeier DW, Ferreira-Borges C, Rehm J Abstract Alcohol adversely affects people around the world on a large scale even in non-pandemic times, with about three million deaths attributed to alcohol use each year (Shield et al., 2020). During the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, a variety of government reactions related to alcohol control were seen, with some countries banning the sale of alcohol outright, and others formally declaring off-...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Neufeld M, Lachenmeier DW, Ferreira-Borges C, Rehm J Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Neural Responses to Signals for Behavior Change: Greater Within-Person Variability is Associated With Risk Factors for Substance Dependence.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the measurement of inter-trial variability in brain activity may be more valuable than the average level for revealing neurophysiological differences associated with impulsivity and personality risk factors for dependence. EEG measures may be particularly valuable in this context because they offer superior temporal resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics. PMID: 32735715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Bauer LO Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Selective Deficits in Contingency-Driven Ethanol Seeking Following Chronic Ethanol Exposure in Male Mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that chronic ethanol exposure impairs contingency-driven ethanol seeking more readily than sucrose-seeking behavior. Further, these findings indicate that the transition from contingency-mediated ethanol seeking occurs more rapidly than for sucrose seeking under similar ethanol exposure conditions. PMID: 32735737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Barker JM, Bryant KG, Montiel-Ramos A, Goldwasser B, Chandler LJ Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Association of Alcohol Consumption and Ideal Cardiovascular Health among South Asians: The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study.
CONCLUSION: We found evidence of an inverse association of moderate to heavy alcohol consumption and ideal CVH in South Asian men. These findings further underscore the important relationship between alcohol consumption and CVH in this unique population of South Asians. PMID: 32735738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Chevli PA, Hari KJ, Kanaya AM, Talegawkar SA, Needham BL, Herrington D Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Subtypes of Alcohol Dependence and 36-Year Mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the clinical usefulness of subtypes of alcohol dependence for examining different alcohol use outcomes, including predicting mortality. The increased risks for returning to regular drinking once a week or more and early death posttreatment among subtypes associated with conduct problems and externalizing disorders suggest the need for continued monitoring and possible additional intervention postdischarge. PMID: 32701168 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Hesselbrock MN, Hesselbrock VM, Chan G, Del Boca F, Chartier K Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Alcohol Use Trajectories Before and After Pregnancy Among Adolescent and Young Adult Mothers.
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent and young adult mothers show heterogeneous risky drinking trajectories from prepregnancy to postpregnancy. Pregnant women in the transitional age of early adulthood who report exposure to caregiver alcohol use, more friends who drink, and coping motives for drinking may have elevated risk for moderate-heavy drinking during the perinatal period and may benefit from targeted intervention. PMID: 32701186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Tung I, Chung T, Krafty RT, Keenan K, Hipwell AE Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Interaction of Ethanol and Oral ANS-6637, a Selective ALDH2 Inhibitor in Males: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Ascending Dose Cohort Study.
CONCLUSIONS: A single oral dose of ANS-6637 with up to 5 standards drinks over 2.5 hrs was generally well tolerated in healthy males. The most common pharmacological response was flushing and an increase in HR, which are known effects of acetaldehyde accumulation and consistent with inhibition of ADLH2 with oral ANS-6637 in combination with alcohol. The results of this alcohol interaction study support further testing of ANS-6637 in individuals with substance use disorders who may consume alcohol. PMID: 32687612 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: O'Malley SS, Shram MJ, Levy-Cooperman N, Vince B, Strumph PM, Diamond I, Blackburn BK Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Moderate Alcohol Consumption Targets S100 β+ Vascular Stem Cells and Attenuates Injury-Induced Neointimal Hyperplasia.
CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight resident vascular S100β + stem cells as a novel target population for alcohol, and suggest that regulation of these progenitors in adult arteries, particularly in males, may be an important mechanism contributing to the anti-atherogenic effects of moderate alcohol consumption. PMID: 32671866 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Liu W, Harman S, DiLuca M, Burtenshaw D, Corcoran E, Cahill PA, Redmond EM Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Inbred Substrain Differences Influence Neuroimmune Response and Drinking Behavior.
CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, this work has elucidated additional influences that substrain has on both innate immune response and drinking phenotypes. Our observations highlight the importance of considering and reporting the source and background used for production of transgenic and knockout mice. This data provides further evidence that genetic background must be carefully considered when investigating the role of neuroimmune signaling in ethanol abuse. PMID: 32640038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 8, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Warden AS, DaCosta A, Mason S, Blednov YA, Mayfield RD, Harris RA Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Deficiency of Intestinal α1-2-fucosylation Exacerbates Ethanol-Induced Liver Disease in Mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal α1-2-fucosylation acts as a host protective mechanism against ethanol-induced liver disease. 2'-FL is an oligosaccharide naturally present in human milk that could be considered as therapeutic agent for alcohol-associated liver disease. PMID: 32628772 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Zhou R, Llorente C, Cao J, Gao B, Duan Y, Jiang L, Wang Y, Kumar V, Stärkel P, Bode L, Fan X, Schnabl B Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Chemogenetic Inactivation of Orbitofrontal Cortex Decreases Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Ethanol and Sucrose Seeking in Male and Female Wistar Rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results are aligned with previous work indicating a selective suppressive effect of OFC inactivation on reinstatement for alcohol and other drugs of abuse. They extend these findings to demonstrate no effect on homecage consumption or FR1 seeking as well as showing an impact of sucrose reinstatement. These data indicate that OFC plays a uniquely important role when reward seeking is driven by associations between external stimuli and internal representations of reward value, both for natural and drug rewards. They further implicate the OFC as a key structure driving relapse-associated seeking and potential...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Hernandez JS, Binette AN, Rahman T, Tarantino JD, Moorman DE Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Safety of Gabapentin Prescribed for Any Indication in a Large Clinical Cohort of 571,718 US Veterans with and without Alcohol Use Disorder.
CONCLUSIONS: Gabapentin is associated with falls or fractures and altered mental status. Clinicians should be monitoring gabapentin safety, especially at doses ≥600 mg/day, in patients with and without AUD. PMID: 32628784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Rentsch CT, Morford KL, Fiellin DA, Bryant KJ, Justice AC, Tate JP Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

The Many Levels of Relapse to Drinking: Commentary on Meyerhoff and Durazzo (ACER 2020).
Abstract Traditionally, the desired successful recovery from alcohol dependence has required complete abstinence, without transgression, for a sustained period, ideally the rest of one's life. This stringent definition marks a goal that is unachievable by a majority of men and women with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) despite sincere efforts to stop drinking. While perhaps ideal, that goal of complete and permanent abstinence puts behavioral and pharmacological treatment at substantial risk for failure. Here we ask, are there acceptable alternatives to abstinence, and how are they established and substantiated? P...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 5, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Sullivan EV Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Heightened Exploratory Behavior Following Chronic Excessive Ethanol Drinking: Mediation by Neurotensin Receptor Type 2 in the Anterior Paraventricular Thalamus.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that chronic, excessive, but not lower level, ethanol drinking induces heightened or flexible exploratory behavior, which predicts future ethanol drinking and is partly mediated by elevated NTS2R signaling in the aPVT. These ethanol-induced alterations represent adaptations that could perpetuate excessive drinking and lead to the development of ethanol dependence. PMID: 32623746 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 5, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Pandey S, Barson JR Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption with Vascular Structure and Arterial Stiffness in the Spanish Population. EVA Study.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that heavy alcohol consumption (>70 g/week) is associated with increased c-IMT and cf-PWV. Moreover, we found a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and c-IMT and cf-PWV values as markers of vascular structure and arterial stiffness, with no association with ba-PWV and CAVI being observed. PMID: 32623750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 5, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Gonzalez-Sanchez J, Garcia-Ortiz L, Rodriguez-Sanchez E, Maderuelo-Fernandez JA, Tamayo-Morales O, Lugones-Sanchez C, Recio-Rodriguez JI, Gomez-Marcos MA, EVA Investigators, Perez MB, de Cabo-Laso A, Aguadero NS, González-Porras JR, Bastida-Bermejo JM Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Reduction in World Health Organization Risk Drinking Levels and Cardiovascular Disease.
CONCLUSIONS: These results show that reductions in WHO risk drinking levels are associated with reduced CVD risk among very-high-risk and high-risk drinkers in the US general population, and provide further evidence that reducing high levels of drinking provides important benefit across multiple clinical domains. PMID: 32619058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 3, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Knox J, Scodes J, Witkiewitz K, Kranzler HR, Mann K, O'Malley SS, Wall M, Anton R, Hasin DS, Alcohol Clinical Trials (ACTIVE) Workgroup Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

The Search for Contributors to Low Rates of Recognition of Paternal Alcohol Use Disorders in Offspring from the San Diego Prospective Study.
CONCLUSIONS: In the SDPS, FHM sensitivity was most closely related to the father's drinking characteristics, not the offspring characteristics. While unique aspects of SDPS families potentially limit generalizability of results, the data demonstrate how the FHM can offer important initial steps in the search for genetically related AUD risks in a subset of families. PMID: 32583872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Schuckit MA, Clarke DF, Smith TL, Mendoza LA, Schoen L Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

A Mixed Methods Study: Sex Differences in Experiences of Stigma Associated with Alcoholism and Alcohol Use Disorders Among Injury Patients in Tanzania.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest there is an underlying sex difference, further stigmatizing women for alcohol use among the injury patient population at KCMC. Tanzanian women suffer from unequal access to healthcare and the stigmatization of alcohol-use likely increases this disparity. PMID: 32583874 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Griffin SM, Karia FP, Zimmerman A, Minnig MCC, Swahn M, Makelarski J, Mmbaga B, Vissoci JRN, Staton C Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Chronic Alcohol Consumption Exacerbates the Severity of Psoriasiform Dermatitis in Mice.
CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption leads to subliminar skin inflammation, which is revealed by the exacerbation of Aldara-induced experimental psoriasiform dermatitis, likely through Th17-type minimal skin inflammation. These results favor the systematic management of alcohol consumption in psoriatic patients. PMID: 32583876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Vasseur P, Pohin M, Gisclard C, Jégou JF, Morel F, Silvain C, Lecron JC Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Microecological Relationships Between Area Income, Off-Premise Alcohol Outlet Density, Drinking Patterns, and Alcohol Use Disorders: The East Bay Neighborhoods Study.
CONCLUSIONS: Using a stratified microecological sampling design, we were able to directly assess statistical associations of off-premise outlet density and neighborhood median household income with patterns of drinking and AUDs. Caution should be used interpreting prior study findings linking off-premise outlet densities to drinking. PMID: 32573798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Mair C, Sumetsky N, Gruenewald PJ, Lee JP Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Intravenous Ethanol Administration and Operant Self-Administration Alters Extracellular Norepinephrine Concentration in the Mesocorticolimbic Systems of Male Long Evans Rats.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that acute ethanol stimulates both the locus coeruleus (which projects to the mPFC) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (which projects to the basal forebrain) noradrenergic neurons. Additionally, limited ethanol self-administration experience alters dialysate norepinephrine in the mPFC in a manner consistent with a decrease in tonic norepinephrine release. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms by which ethanol exerts these variable effects. PMID: 32573991 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Jaime S, Vena AA, Gonzales RA Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Normal Ethanol Sensitivity and Rapid Tolerance Require the G Protein Receptor Kinase 2 in Ellipsoid Body Neurons in Drosophila.
CONCLUSION: Our work on GPRK2 has established a role for this GRK4/5/6 subfamily member in ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance. PMID: 32573992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Kang YY, Wachi Y, Engdorf E, Fumigali E, Wang Y, Myers J, Massey S, Greiss A, Xu S, Roman G Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Molecular Correlates of Topiramate and GRIK1 rs2832407 Genotype in Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cultures.
CONCLUSIONS: This work highlights the use of iPSC technologies to study pharmacogenetic treatment effects in psychiatric disorders and furthers our understanding of the molecular effects of topiramate exposure in human neural cells. PMID: 32574382 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Lieberman R, Jensen KP, Clinton K, Levine ES, Kranzler HR, Covault J Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Integrating Behavioral Economic and Social Network Influences in Understanding Alcohol Misuse in a Diverse Sample of Emerging Adults.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the influence of social network alcohol density on alcohol misuse may be, in part, through variance accounted for by alcohol reinforcing value. Longitudinal testing of this mechanistic pathway is warranted. PMID: 32568458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Acuff SF, MacKillop J, Murphy JG Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Transcriptome-wide Regulation of Key Developmental Pathways in the Mouse Neural Tube by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.
CONCLUSIONS: These data give a comprehensive view of the changing landscape of the embryonic transcriptome networks in regions of the neural tube that give rise to brain structures impacted by a neurulation-stage alcohol exposure. Identification of gene networks dysregulated by alcohol will help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of alcohol's actions. PMID: 32557641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 18, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Boschen KE, Ptacek TS, Simon JM, Parnell SE Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Heaviness of Alcohol Use, Alcohol Problems, and Subjective Intoxication Predict Discrepant Drinking Reports in Daily Life.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Self-reported consumption is pervasive in alcohol research, though retrospective recall bias is a concern. Fine-grained methods are designed to limit retrospection; yet, discrepancies can arise when comparing responses on fine-grained surveys with responses to retrospective surveys across weeks or months. Many fine-grained studies use both repeated daily surveys (RDS) and end-of-day (EOD) summaries, but little research has examined whether these survey types are consistent. The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude and directionality of discrepancy between EOD summaries and RDS a...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Stevens AK, Sokolovsky AW, Treloar Padovano H, White HR, Jackson KM Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Impact of labelled glasses in a bar-laboratory setting: no effect on ad libitum alcohol consumption.
CONCLUSIONS: Labelled glasses did not change alcohol consumption in the current study, potentially due to ineffectiveness of this type of message in a young adult population. The information on the glasses was attended to, highlighting that glasses could be a feasible tool for providing information. PMID: 32524612 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Clarke N, Rose AK Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists play a neuroprotective role in chronic alcoholic hippocampal injury related to pyroptosis pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol induces hippocampal pyroptosis, which leads to neurotoxicity thereby indicating that pyroptosis may be an essential pathway involved in chronic alcohol-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity. Further, cannabinoid receptors are regulated during this process, which suggests promising therapeutic strategies against alcohol-induced neurotoxicity through pharmacologic inhibition of CB1R. PMID: 32524615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Zhang D, Liu X, Dong X, Zhu R, Jiang J, Ye Y, Jiang Y Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Para-limbic Structural Abnormalities are Associated with Internalizing Symptoms in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.
CONCLUSIONS: Caudate structure may be disproportionately affected by PAE and may be associated with the later development of internalizing symptoms in those affected by PAE. PMID: 32524616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Krueger AM, Roediger DJ, Mueller BA, Boys CA, Hendrickson TJ, Schumacher MJ, Mattson SN, Jones KL, Riley EP, Lim KO, Wozniak JR Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Hospitalizations and Mortality in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Public health recommendations on the benefits and harms of moderate alcohol intake require a thorough and unbiased understanding of all potential effects of various levels and patterns of alcohol consumption. We seek to evaluate the associations between patterns of current and past alcohol consumption with hospitalizations and mortality. METHODS: Data came from a prospective cohort of 12,327 adults (56% women, 78% white, mean age 60 years) participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study visit 3 (1993-1995). Current and past alcohol consumption was based on self-repor...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Daya NR, Rebholz CM, Appel LJ, Selvin E, Lazo M Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Alcohol Use Disorders are Associated with a Unique Impact on Airways Epithelial Cell Gene Expression.
CONCLUSIONS: AUDs have a distinct impact on AEC gene expression that may influence proximal airway function independent of smoking. Alcohol-associated alterations may influence risk for CAP through modifying key mechanisms important in protecting proximal airways integrity. PMID: 32524622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Bailey KL, Smith H, Mathai SK, Huber J, Yacoub M, Yang IV, Wyatt TA, Kechris K, Burnham EL Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Alcohol use disorder masks the effects of childhood adversity, lifetime trauma, and chronic stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adversity, lifetime trauma, and chronic stress likely exert persistent, measurable effects upon HPA axis functioning in healthy controls. This association appears to be masked in individuals with AUD, potentially confounding studies examining the effects of stress, adversity, and/or trauma upon the HPA axis in this population during the protracted withdrawal phase of recovery. Future work targeting stress exposure and reactivity should consider the heightened effect of previous alcohol use relative to past adversity and trauma. PMID: 32491213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholi...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Zhang A, Price JL, Leonard D, North CS, Suris A, Javors MA, Adinoff B Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Sexual Aggression Analogues Used in Alcohol Administration Research: Critical Review of their Correspondence to Alcohol-Involved Sexual Assaults.
CONCLUSIONS: These analogues were designed to address important theoretical questions; however, they do not represent the full range of alcohol-involved sexual assaults. This hampers the development of evidence-based prevention and treatment programs because we do not know if these findings generalize to other types of sexual assaults (e.g., with incapacitated victims, within serious relationships, with sexual and other gender minorities). Funding agencies need to support more alcohol administration research in order to provide a strong foundation for the development of effective interventions. PMID: 32492181 [PubMed ...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Abbey A, Helmers BR Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Ethanol and cannabinoids regulate zebrafish GABAergic neuron development and behavior in a sonic hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor dependent mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies provide evidence that forebrain GABAergic neuron development, and zebrafish risk-taking behavior, are sensitive to both ethanol and cannabinoid exposure in a Shh- and Fgf-dependent mechanism, and provide additional evidence that a signaling pathway involving Shh and Fgf crosstalk is a critical target of ethanol and cannabinoids in FASD. PMID: 32472575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Boa-Amponsem O, Zhang C, Burton D, Williams KP, Cole GJ Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Difficulties in daily living experienced by adolescents, transition-aged youth, and adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience a range of problems in their cognitive, affective, and physical functioning following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), in addition to multiple complex difficulties in daily living that impact wellbeing. Using the Canadian National FASD Database, we sought to profile a range of difficulties in daily living, along with risk factors, in a large cross-sectional cohort of adolescents, transition-aged youth, and adults with PAE, of which a subset was ultimately diagnosed with FASD. METHODS: We summarized data for nine current di...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: McLachlan K, Flannigan K, Temple V, Unsworth K, Cook J Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Acute Alcohol Intake Produces Widespread Decreases in Cortical Resting Signal Variability in Healthy Social Drinkers.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that alcohol intake produces diffuse reductions in RSV among structures associated with attentional processes. Within these structures, signal complexity was also reduced in a subset of frontal regions. Neurobehavioral effects of acute alcohol consumption may be partially driven by disruption of intraregional neural dynamics among regions involved in higher order cognitive and attentional processes. PMID: 32472620 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Sevel L, Stennett B, Schneider V, Bush N, Nixon SJ, Robinson M, Boissoneault J Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Using Demand Curves to Quantify the Reinforcing Value of Social and Solitary Drinking.
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of peers increases alcohol demand compared to a solitary scenario, and greater relative solitary drinking demand may be a risk factor for greater alcohol consumption and problems. PMID: 32472649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Acuff SF, Soltis KE, Murphy JG Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Increased responding for alcohol and resistance to aversion in female mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Females respond more for EtOH at higher concentrations and continue to respond for 10% EtOH at all concentrations of quinine, suggesting that female mice are more motivated to respond for alcohol in an operant self-administration paradigm than males. Understanding behavioral and mechanistic sex differences in responding for alcohol will allow for the advancement of treatments for women with AUD. PMID: 32472651 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Sneddon EA, Ramsey OR, Thomas A, Radke AK Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Does Alcohol Initiation in Early-To-Middle Adolescence Predict Changes in Reward Motivation? Evidence of Sex Differences.
CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that alcohol initiation among adolescents might precede changes in reward motivation, and the effects of alcohol on reward and behavioral inhibition may differ by adolescent sex. PMID: 32463517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Mauro KL, Goncalves SF, Sinha R, Ansell E, Chaplin TM Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

The Effects of Low-Risk Drinking ON Neurocognition Among Older Persons Living with HIV as Compared to Those Without HIV.
CONCLUSIONS: In HIV- "low-risk" drinkers, intermediate levels of recent alcohol use were associated with better neurocognition, consistent with the inverted J-shaped association. The same non-linear effect of recent alcohol consumption on neurocognition was absent in PWH indicating there may be no beneficial or deleterious effects of low-risk alcohol consumption on neurocognition among PWH. Future research is warranted to examine associations between alcohol consumption and HIV-related biopsychosocial disadvantages that may supersede the neurocognitive benefits of alcohol. PMID: 32449941 [PubMed - as supplie...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 25, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Kohli M, Paolillo EW, Saloner R, Umlauf A, Ellis R, Moore DJ Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Effects of Prazosin on Provoked Alcohol Craving and Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Response to Stress in Alcohol Use Disorder.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol results in changes to stress biology and autonomic arousal contributing to acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms, neuroendocrine tolerance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses, high stress-induced craving, and risk of alcohol relapse. Thus, stress coping and recovery from alcohol during early abstinence may be jeopardized by such stress system dysfunction. Significant preclinical evidence suggests that noradrenergic disruption may contribute to these alcohol-related stress arousal changes and that alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, such as prazosin, may normalize...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 25, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Milivojevic V, Angarita GA, Hermes G, Sinha R, Fox HC Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Phosphatidylethanol Levels in Postpartum Women and Their Newborns in Uruguay and Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians may want to consider newborn PEth screening in high-risk populations where prenatal alcohol use is common. The mechanism underlying significantly higher PEth levels in newborns compared with their mothers is not known. PMID: 32441809 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Baldwin AE, Hayes N, Ostrander E, Magri R, Sass N, Dos Anjos Mesquita M, Martínez M, Juliani MC, Cabral P, Fleming M Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Comprehensive Assessment of Alcohol Consumption in People Living with HIV (PLWH): The New Orleans Alcohol Use in HIV Study.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the importance of comprehensive assessments for alcohol use, including self-report via multiple assessment tools administered by trained staff, as well as the addition of biomarkers for improved classification of subjects into different drinking categories. PMID: 32441814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Ferguson TF, Theall KP, Brashear M, Maffei V, Beauchamp A, Siggins RW, Simon L, Mercante D, Nelson S, Welsh DA, Molina PE Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of Very Integrated Program (VIP): Health promotion for patients with alcohol and drug addiction - A Randomized Trial.
CONCLUSION: Overall, adding VIP intervention did not improve outcome of the alcohol or drug addiction care or the lifestyle compared to the addiction care alone. This patient group is still in need of effective programs and new intervention research is required to develop that. PMID: 32424821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 18, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Hovhannisyan K, Rasmussen M, Adami J, Wikström M, Tønnesen H Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Effects of orexin-2 receptor antagonist on sleep and event-related oscillations in female rats exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that AIE can produce lasting changes in sleep in female rats, highly similar to what we previously found in males. Additionally, while the OX2 R antagonist promoted sleep in both alcohol-exposed and unexposed rats, it did not reverse most of the alcohol-induced disruptions in sleep. Thus, OX2 R antagonism may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of insomnia, but not the specific signs of alcohol-induced insomnia. PMID: 32424852 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 18, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Amodeo LR, Wills DN, Sanchez-Alavez M, Ehlers CL Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Effect of ethanol on Munc13-1 C1 in membrane: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.
CONCLUSIONS: Ethanol forms hydrogen bonds with Glu-582. While occupancy of the ethanol molecules at the vicinity (4Å) of Glu-582 is 34.4 %, the occupancy in the E582A mutant is 26.5 % of the simulation time. In addition, the amount of PS in the membrane influences the conformational stability of the C1 domain and interactions in the ternary complex. This study is important in providing the structural basis of ethanol's effects on synaptic plasticity. PMID: 32424866 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 18, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: You Y, Das J Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

The impact of long-term alcohol consumption and relapse on genome-wide DNA methylation changes in alcohol-dependent subjects: a longitudinal design.
CONCLUSION: Although the present study represents the largest study of methylation levels in a sample of AUD patients with a follow up period of one year and accounting for alcohol consumption and relapse to date, the sample size might still not be large enough to detect genome-wide significant effects. Therefore, large-scale, long-term studies with AUD subjects are needed to determine the utility of DNA methylation for the assessment and monitoring of persons with alcohol use disorders. PMID: 32419198 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 17, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Friedel E, Walter H, Veer IM, Zimmermann U, Heinz A, Frieling H, Zindler T Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Alcohol Cue-Induced Ventral Striatum Activity Predicts Subsequent Alcohol Self-Administration.
CONCLUSIONS: Neuroimaging alcohol taste cue paradigms may be predictive of laboratory paradigms such as self-administration. Elucidation of the relationships among different paradigms will inform how these paradigms may be used synergistically in experimental medicine and medication development. PMID: 32406553 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Lim AC, Green R, Grodin EN, Venegas A, Meredith LR, Donato S, Burnette E, Ray LA Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Effects of Alcohol Cue Reactivity on Subsequent Treatment Outcomes among Treatment-Seeking Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder: A Multisite Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Varenicline.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results are among the first to show alcohol cue-induced craving captured during a human laboratory paradigm predicts drinking outcomes in the context of a clinical trial. PMID: 32363592 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - May 3, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Miranda R, O'Malley SS, Treloar Padovano H, Wu R, Falk DE, Ryan ML, Fertig JB, Chun TH, Muvvala SB, Litten RZ Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Examining the Relationship Between Self-Reported Drinking and In-Laboratory Drinking and Craving: Is There Concordance?
CONCLUSIONS: The observed relationships between self-reported drinking and drinking in-laboratory across drinking indices suggest that in-laboratory alcohol consumption may reflect participants' real-world alcohol consumption, supporting the value of laboratory-based drinking paradigms. The demonstrated relationship with self-reported drinking and ADP alcohol craving further supports the value of such paradigms to model key drinking predictors. These results provide support for the validity of laboratory-based paradigms to accurately reflect participants' recent drinking levels. PMID: 32352581 [PubMed - as supplied by...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: DeMartini KS, Pittman B, Krystal JH, O'Malley SS, Krishnan-Sarin S Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research