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Alcohol Use Among Special Populations.
Authors: Larimer ME, Arroyo JA PMID: 27295724 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcohol Research)
Source: Alcohol Research - June 16, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.
Authors: Wall TL, Luczak SE, Hiller-Sturmhöfel S Abstract Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)-particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles-have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles dif...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 12, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations: An Epidemiologic Overview.
Authors: Delker E, Brown Q, Hasin DS Abstract Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18-25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified ...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.
Authors: Iwamoto DK, Kaya A, Grivel M, Clinton L Abstract Historically, Asian Americans have reported lower rates of alcohol misuse compared with other racial/ethnic groups (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 2009; Wechsler et al. 2000). However, epidemiological data illustrates that heavy episodic drinking and alcohol abuse are significant and increasing among U.S.-born Asian-American young adults ages 18-25 (Grant et al. 2004). Within one decade alone, the prevalence of alcohol abuse increased fivefold among Asian Americans, from 0.74 percent in 1991-1992 to 3.89 percent in 2001-2002 (Grant...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Recent Developments in Alcohol Services Research on Access to Care.
Authors: Schmidt LA Abstract In the United States, only about 10 percent of people with an alcohol or drug use disorder receive care for the condition, pointing to a large treatment gap. Several personal characteristics influence whether a person will receive treatment; additionally, many people with an alcohol use disorder do not perceive the need for treatment. The extent of the treatment gap differs somewhat across different population subgroups, such as those based on gender, age, or race and ethnicity. Recent health care reforms, such as implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010,...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use: Influences in a Social-Ecological Framework.
This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of macrolevel factors, such as advertising and marketing, immigration and discrimination factors, and how neighborhoods, families, and peers influence alcohol use. Specifically, the article describes how social and cultural contexts influence alcohol use/misuse and then explores future directions for alcohol research. PMID: 27159810 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcohol Research)
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.
Authors: Bloom AW Abstract Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and cu...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Religious Affiliation and Spiritual Practices: An Examination of the Role of Spirituality in Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorder.
Authors: Witkiewitz K, McCallion E, Kirouac M Abstract Religious affiliation, spirituality, and spiritual practices often have been studied as protective factors in the prevention and treatment of hazardous alcohol consumption (defined as drinking at a level that causes significant problems in functioning or that increases potential harms) and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Specifically, researchers have been interested in whether spirituality and spiritual practices, commonly associated with personal transformation, may also help in personal transformation of substance use behaviors. Personal transformation may invol...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Alcohol Use Patterns Among Urban and Rural Residents: Demographic and Social Influences.
Authors: Dixon MA, Chartier KG Abstract Rates of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder (AUD) vary with geographic location. Research on risks for AUD associated with living in a rural versus urban setting is complicated by the varied systems used to classify geographic location. Studies comparing the prevalence of heavier or binge drinking and AUD based on a dichotomous urban/rural classification have mixed findings when compared with those using more detailed urban-to-rural categories. In addition, urban/rural residence interacts with other demographic factors such as age, U.S. region, and race/ethnicity to affect ...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Alcohol Use and Related Problems Along the United States-Mexico Border.
Authors: Mills BA, Caetano R Abstract The southern border the United States shares with Mexico has been of particular interest to alcohol researchers because of the presence of multiple risk factors conducive to alcohol-related problems. The border region spans 2,000 miles and is home to more than 7 million U.S. residents of predominantly Mexican-American ethnicity. PMID: 27159814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcohol Research)
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Associations Between Socioeconomic Factors and Alcohol Outcomes.
Authors: Collins SE Abstract Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the many factors influencing a person's alcohol use and related outcomes. Findings have indicated that people with higher SES may consume similar or greater amounts of alcohol compared with people with lower SES, although the latter group seems to bear a disproportionate burden of negative alcohol-related consequences. These associations are further complicated by a variety of moderating factors, such as race, ethnicity, and gender. Thus, among individuals with lower SES, members of further marginalized communities, such as racial and ethnic minoriti...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on Early Adolescents and Youth.
This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information ...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on College Ages.
Authors: Merrill JE, Carey KB Abstract Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non-college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to th...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on Older Adults.
Authors: Barry KL, Blow FC Abstract A substantial and growing number of older adults misuse alcohol. The emerging literature on the "Baby Boom" cohort, which is now reaching older adulthood, indicates that they are continuing to use alcohol at a higher rate than previous older generations. The development and refinement of techniques to address these problems and provide early intervention services will be crucial to meeting the needs of this growing population. This review provides background on the extent of alcohol misuse among older adults, including the Baby Boom cohort that has reached age 65, the c...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems: Toward a Global Perspective.
Authors: Hughes TL, Wilsnack SC, Kantor LW Abstract Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems bet...
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans.
This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID: 27159820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcohol Research)
Source: Alcohol Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Macrophages anĀ£1 Alcohol-Related Liver Inflammation.
Macrophages an£1 Alcohol-Related Liver Inflammation. Alcohol Res. 2015;37(2):251-62 Authors: Ju C, Mandrekar P Abstract Recent studies have suggested that macrophages have a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced inflammation in the liver. To define the precise pathogenic function of these cells during alcoholic liver disease (ALD), it is extremely important to conduct extensive studies in clinical settings that further elucidate the phenotypic diversity of macrophages In the context of ALD. Research to date already has identified several characteristics of macrophages that underlie ...
Source: Alcohol Research - January 16, 2016 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Macrophages and Alcohol-Related Liver Inflammation.
Authors: Ju C, Mandrekar P Abstract Recent studies have suggested that macrophages have a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced inflammation in the liver. To define the precise pathogenic function of these cells during alcoholic liver disease (ALD), it is extremely important to conduct extensive studies in clinical settings that further elucidate the phenotypic diversity of macrophages in the context of ALD. Research to date already has identified several characteristics of macrophages that underlie the cells' actions, including macrophage polarization and their phenotypic diversity. Other analyses ha...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Alcohol Use As a Risk Factor in Infections and Healing: A Clinician's Perspective.
Authors: Trevejo-Nunez G, Kolls JK, de Wit M Abstract Physicians have recognized for more than a century that alcohol use is associated with infections and that alcoholics are especially at risk for pneumonia. Clear evidence now indicates that alcohol has a systemic effect on every organ. This review first presents a clinical case to describe a patient with immunity issues complicated by alcohol use-a setting familiar to many clinicians. This is followed by a description of the molecular mechanisms that explain the secondary immune deficiency produced by alcohol in the host, focusing mostly on the gut and lower res...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Impact of Alcohol Abuse on the Adaptive Immune System.
Authors: Pasala S, Barr T, Messaoudi I Abstract Alcohol exposure, and particularly chronic heavy drinking, affects all components of the adaptive immune system. Studies both in humans and in animal models determined that chronic alcohol abuse reduces the number of peripheral T cells, disrupts the balance between different T-cell types, influences T-cell activation, impairs T-cell functioning, and promotes T-cell apoptosis. Chronic alcohol exposure also seems to cause loss of peripheral B cells, while simultaneously inducing increased production of immunoglobulins. In particular, the levels of antibodies against liv...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Alcohol's Effects on Lung Health and Immunity.
Authors: Simet SM, Sisson JH Abstract It has long been known that people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) not only may develop physical dependence but also may experience devastating long-term health problems. The most common and identifiable alcohol-associated health problems include liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, cardiomyopathies, neuropathies, and dementia. However, the lung also is adversely affected by alcohol abuse, a fact often overlooked by clinicians and the public. Individuals with AUD are more likely to develop pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and acute respirator...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

The First Line of Defense: The Effects of Alcohol on Post-Burn Intestinal Barrier, Immune Cells, and Microbiome.
This article highlights the role of alcohol-mediated alterations of the intestinal epithelia and its defense against bacteria within the gut, and the impact of alcohol on intestinal immunity, specifically on T cells and neutrophils. Finally, it discusses how the gut microbiome both contributes to and protects the intestines from dysbiosis after alcohol exposure and trauma. PMID: 26695746 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcohol Research)
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

The Gastrointestinal Microbiome: Alcohol Effects on the Composition of Intestinal Microbiota.
Authors: Engen PA, Green SJ, Voigt RM, Forsyth CB, Keshavarzian A Abstract The excessive use of alcohol is a global problem causing many adverse pathological health effects and a significant financial health care burden. This review addresses the effect of alcohol consumption on the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although data are limited in humans, studies highlight the importance of changes in the intestinal microbiota in alcohol-related disorders. Alcohol-induced changes in the GIT microbiota composition and metabolic function may contribute to the well-established link between alcohol-induced o...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

The Role of Innate Immunity in Alcoholic Liver Disease.
Authors: Nagy LE Abstract The innate immune system represents the first-line response to invading microbes, tissue damage, or aberrant cell growth. Many of the proteins and cells involved in innate immunity are produced by, and reside in, the liver. This abundance in immune cells and proteins reflects the liver's adaptation to various immune challenges but also makes the organ particularly vulnerable to alcohol's effects. Heavy alcohol consumption may produce leakage of microbes and microbial products from the gastrointestinal tract, which quickly reach the liver via the portal vein. Exposure to these immune challe...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Alcohol's Burden on Immunity Following Burn, Hemorrhagic Shock, or Traumatic Brain Injury.
Authors: Molina PE, Katz PS, Souza-Smith F, Ford SM, Teng SX, Dodd TY, Maxi JK, Mayeux JP Abstract Alcohol consumption contributes to increased incidence and severity of traumatic injury. Compared with patients who do not consume alcohol, alcohol-consuming patients have higher rates of long-term morbidity and mortality during recovery from injury. This can be attributed in part to an impaired immune response in individuals who consume alcohol. Acute and chronic alcohol use can affect both the innate and adaptive immune defense responses within multiple organ systems; the combination of alcohol use and injury result...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System.
Authors: Gauthier TW Abstract Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Alcohol and HIV Effects on the Immune System.
Authors: Bagby GJ, Amedee AM, Siggins RW, Molina PE, Nelson S, Veazey RS Abstract HIV disease and alcohol independently influence the human immune system, so it stands to reason that, together, their influence may be additive. Here, we review the evidence that alcohol can exacerbate HIV's influence on the immune system, thereby affecting disease progression and transmission. We focus particularly on alcohol's effect on the mucosal immune system in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, the genital tract and the lungs, all of which play a role in transmission and progression of HIV disease. PMID: 26695751 [P...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Alcohol and Viral Hepatitis: Role of Lipid Rafts.
Authors: Dolganiuc A Abstract Both alcohol abuse and infection with hepatitis viruses can lead to liver disease, including chronic hepatitis. Alcohol and hepatitis viruses have synergistic effects in the development of liver disease. Some of these involve the cellular membranes and particularly their functionally active domains, termed lipid rafts, which contain many proteins with essential roles in signaling and other processes. These lipid rafts play a central role in the lifecycles of hepatitis viruses. Alcohol's actions at the lipid rafts may contribute to the synergistic harmful effects of alcohol and hepatiti...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Effects of Alcohol on Tumor Growth, Metastasis, Immune Response, and Host Survival.
Authors: Meadows GG, Zhang H Abstract Most research involving alcohol and cancer concerns the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer risk and the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. This review relates the amount and duration of alcohol intake in humans and in animal models of cancer to tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immune response, and host survival in specific types and subtypes of cancer. Research on the influence of alcohol drinking on human cancer patients is limited. Although there is more information in animal models of cancer, many aspects still are ill defined. More research is n...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Neuroimmune Function and the Consequences of Alcohol Exposure.
Authors: Crews FT, Sarkar DK, Qin L, Zou J, Boyadjieva N, Vetreno RP Abstract Induction of neuroimmune genes by binge drinking increases neuronal excitability and oxidative stress, contributing to the neurobiology of alcohol dependence and causing neurodegeneration. Ethanol exposure activates signaling pathways featuring high-mobility group box 1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), resulting in induction of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, which regulates expression of several cytokine genes involved in innate immunity, and its target genes. This leads to persist...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Alcohol's Effect on Host Defense.
Authors: Szabo G, Saha B Abstract Alcohol affects many organs, including the immune system, with even moderate amounts of alcohol influencing immune responses. Although alcohol can alter the actions of all cell populations involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses, the effect in many cases is a subclinical immunosuppression that becomes clinically relevant only after a secondary insult (e.g., bacterial or viral infection or other tissue damage). Alcohol's specific effects on the innate immune system depend on the pattern of alcohol exposure, with acute alcohol inhibiting and chronic alcohol accelerating ...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Primer on the Immune System.
Authors: Spiering MJ Abstract The human body regularly encounters and combats many pathogenic organisms and toxic molecules. Its ensuing responses to these disease-causing agents involve two interrelated systems: innate immunity and adaptive (or acquired) immunity. Innate immunity is active at several levels, both at potential points of entry and inside the body (see figure). For example, the skin represents a physical barrier preventing pathogens from invading internal tissues. Digestive enzymes destroy microbes that enter the stomach with food. Macrophages and lymphocytes, equipped with molecular detectors, such ...
Source: Alcohol Research - December 26, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Background for Real-Time Monitoring and Intervention Related to Alcohol Use.
Authors: Beckjord E, Shiffman S Abstract Real-time assessment, known as ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and real-time intervention (ecological momentary intervention [EMI]) can significantly extend the reach and impact of interventions to help individuals reduce their drinking behavior. For EMA, the user provides information on the variable of interest (e.g., drinking or craving) via a mobile device.This data reporting can occur either at pre-specified times or in certain high-risk situations.The primary benefits of EMA include external validity, minimized recall bias, and the ability to capture dynamic patt...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to Assess Situation-Level Predictors of Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Consequences.
Authors: Wray TB, Merrill JE, Monti PM Abstract Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has afforded several important advances in the field of alcohol research, including testing prominent models of alcohol abuse etiology in "high resolution." Using high-tech methods for signaling and/or assessment, such as mobile electronic diaries, personal data assistants, and smartphones, EMA approaches potentially can improve understanding of precipitants of drinking, drinking patterns, and consequences. For example, EMA has been used to study complex drinking patterns and dynamic predictors of drinking in near-real t...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Tracking the When, Where, and With Whom of Alcohol Use: Integrating Ecological Momentary Assessment and Geospatial Data to Examine Risk for Alcohol-Related Problems.
Authors: Freisthler B, Lipperman-Kreda S, Bersamin M, Gruenewald PJ Abstract Prevention researchers have found that drinking in different contexts is related to different alcohol problems. Where and with whom people drink affects the types of alcohol-related problems they experience. Consequently, identifying those contexts that result in the greatest number of problems pro-vides a novel opportunity to target new prevention efforts aimed at those contexts. However, identifying these contexts poses methodological challenges to prevention research. To overcome these challenges, researchers need tools that allow them ...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Biomonitoring for Improving Alcohol Consumption Surveys: The New Gold Standard?
Authors: Greenfield TK, Bond J, Kerr WC Abstract To assess alcohol consumption levels in large populations, researchers often rely on self-report measures. However, these approaches are associated with several limitations, particularly underreporting. Use of noninvasive biomonitoring approaches may help validate self-report alcohol consumption measurements and thus improve their accuracy. Two such devices currently are available, the WrisTASTM and SCRAMTM devices, both of which measure alcohol vapors emitted through the skin after alcohol consumption. Several studies assessing the utility of the WrisTASTM bracelet ...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Electronic Feedback in College Student Drinking Prevention and Intervention.
Authors: Cronce JM, Bittinger JN, Liu J, Kilmer JR Abstract Alcohol consumption is prevalent among college students and can be associated with serious negative consequences. Several efficacious programs using one-on-one brief intervention techniques have been developed to target high-risk drinking by individual students, such as the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) (Dimeff et al. 1999). To reach a larger population (e.g., the incoming freshman class), researchers have adapted these interventions so that students can access them via the Internet or in some other elec-tronic form...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Putting the Screen in Screening: Technology-Based Alcohol Screening and Brief Interventions in Medical Settings.
Authors: Harris SK, Knight JR Abstract Alcohol is strongly linked to the leading causes of adoles-cent and adult mortality and health problems, making medical settings such as primary care and emergency departments important venues for addressing alcohol use. Extensive research evidence supports the effective-ness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBIs) in medical settings, but this valuable strategy remains underused, with medical staff citing lack of time and training as major implementation barriers. Technology-based tools may offer a way to improve efficiency and quality of SBI delivery in such sett...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology.
This article describes how these health technologies are being applied in interlock programs and the outlook for new technologies and new court sanctioning programs that may influence the growth in the use of interlocks in the future. PMID: 26259002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcohol Research)
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults.
Authors: Moreno MA, Whitehill JM Abstract Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. He...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Ecological Momentary Assessment and Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment.
Authors: Morgenstern J, Kuerbis A, Muench F Abstract The ability to capture real-time data on human behavior inex-pensively, efficiently, and accurately holds promise to transform and broaden our understanding of many areas of health science. One approach to acquiring this type of real-time data is ecological momentary assessment (EMA).This method has been used to collect data in many domains of addiction research, including research on the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that use of EMA can improve the quality of AUD treatment research when compared with standa...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Mobile Delivery of Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders: A Review of the Literature.
Authors: Quanbeck A, Chih MY, Isham A, Gustafson D Abstract Several systems for treating alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) exist that operate on mobile phones. These systems are categorized into four groups: text-messaging monitoring and reminder systems, text-messaging intervention systems, comprehensive recovery management systems, and game-based systems. Text-messaging monitoring and reminder systems deliver reminders and prompt reporting of alcohol consumption, enabling continuous monitoring of alcohol use. Text-messaging intervention systems additionally deliver text messages designed to promote abstinence and reco...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Computerized Working-Memory Training as a Candidate Adjunctive Treatment for Addiction.
This article reviews emerging evidence for computerized working memory training as an efficacious adjunctive treatment for drug dependence and highlights future challenges and opportunities in the field of working-memory training, including duration of training needed, persistence of improvements and utility of booster sessions, and selection of patients based on degree of deficits. PMID: 26259006 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcohol Research)
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Computerized Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.
Authors: Carroll KM Abstract With an estimated 90 percent or more of alcohol use disorders going untreated (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 2012), the search for interventions that easily, effectively, and economi-cally reach more people has become a priority. The landmark 1990 report, Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems (Institute of Medicine 1990), refocused alcohol treatment research toward an emphasis on developing, standardizing, and disseminating new behavioral thera-pies to expand the reach of alcohol treatment. A particularly exciting development on this front has...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

The Promises and Pitfalls of Digital Technology in Its Application to Alcohol Treatment.
This article will review the current and potential advantages of DHTs in alcohol treatment and the technological, personal, organizational, and systemic limitations of integrating various technology-based assessment and intervention programs into care. PMID: 26259008 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcohol Research)
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Privacy and Security in Mobile Health (mHealth) Research.
Authors: Arora S, Yttri J, Nilse W Abstract Research on the use of mobile technologies for alcohol use problems is a developing field. Rapid technological advances in mobile health (or mHealth) research generate both opportunities and challenges, including how to create scalable systems capable of collecting unprecedented amounts of data and conducting interventions-some in real time-while at the same time protecting the privacy and safety of research participants. Although the research literature in this area is sparse, lessons can be borrowed from other communities, such as cybersecurity or Internet security, whi...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Translating Alcohol Research: Opportunities and Challenges.
Authors: Batman AM, Miles MF Abstract Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of stream-...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Advances in Medications and Tailoring Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder.
Authors: Seneviratne C, Johnson BA Abstract Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic heritable brain disorder with a variable clinical presentation. This variability, or heterogeneity, in clinical presentation suggests complex interactions between environmental and biological factors, resulting in several underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the development and progression of AUD. Classifying AUD into subgroups of common clinical or pathological characteristics would ease the complexity of teasing apart underlying molecular mechanisms. Genetic association analyses have revealed several polymorphisms-small dif...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments.
Authors: Naqvi NH, Morgenstern J Abstract Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience approaches to understand the neural mechanisms of behavior change in AUD, including st...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research

Utilization of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Research Involving Animal Models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.
Authors: Wang X, Kroenke CD Abstract It is well recognized that fetal alcohol exposure can profoundly damage the developing brain. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes the range of deficits that result from prenatal alcohol exposure. Over the past two decades, researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive technique to characterize anatomical, physiological, and metabolic changes in the human brain that are part of FASD. As using animal models can circumvent many of the complications inherent to human studies, researchers have established and explored a number of models...
Source: Alcohol Research - August 12, 2015 Category: Addiction Tags: Alcohol Res Source Type: research