Erratum: Timeline Followback Self-Reports Underestimate Alcohol Use Prior to Successful Contingency Management Treatment
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - June 25, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

‘Mother’s Ruin’—Why Sex and Gender Differences in the Field of Alcohol Research Need Consideration
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - June 25, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Antabuse Treatment for Alcoholism
, by BrewerC and StreelE (2018). 276pp, paperback, CreateSpace. ISBN: 9781977929228 (Available from Amazon Books at about 16 euros, less for Kindle version) (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - June 20, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcoholic Hepatitis: A Review
AbstractAlcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a spectrum of injury, ranging from simple steatosis to alcoholic hepatitis to cirrhosis. Regular alcohol use results in fatty changes in the liver which can develop into inflammation, fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis with continued, excessive drinking. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute hepatic inflammation associated with significant morbidity and mortality that can occur in patients with steatosis or underlying cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of ALD is multifactorial and in addition to genetic factors, alcohol-induced hepatocyte damage, reactive oxygen species, gut-derived ...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - June 20, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Value-Based Decision Making Underlie Substance Use Disorders in Females
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - June 20, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Contemporary Appraisal of Sex Differences in Prevalence, Correlates, and Outcomes of Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy
ConclusionIndividuals with ACM are at increased likelihood of adverse outcomes. Women with ACM are at increased risk of depression and anxiety, while men are at increased risk of HF. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - June 17, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on Healthcare Utilization in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder
ConclusionsSSRI initiation in patients with AUD and PTSD is associated with significantly reduced odds of alcohol-related medical hospitalization and alcohol-related ER visits within 2 years of first PTSD diagnosis. Additional studies are needed to verify these results. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - June 11, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Tramadol, Methadone and Benzodiazepines added to Alcoholic Beverages
ConclusionsThe wide availability of addictive pharmaceutical is leading to fortification of alcoholic beverages on some countries. The addition of such depressant additives should be better known because of the potentially fatal consequences of the combination with ethanol, as well as the potential for adverse effects on behavior. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - June 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Pair Bond Maintenance and Potential Neural Substrates in Female Prairie Voles
ConclusionsEstablished partner preference in female prairie voles is resistant to alcohol consumption. This finding suggests that the risk for disruption of intimate partner relationships in females is not mediated by a decreased motivation to be with their partners. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - May 7, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Cochrane 2018 Review on Brief Interventions in Primary Care for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption: A Distillation for Clinicians and Policy Makers
ConclusionsBrief interventions can reduce harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption in men and women. Short, advice-based interventions may be as effective as extended, counselling-based interventions for patients with harmful levels of alcohol use who are presenting for the first time in a primary care setting. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - May 7, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Role of Sex and Age on Pre-drinking: An Exploratory International Comparison of 27 Countries
ConclusionsPre-drinking is a worldwide phenomenon, but varies substantially by sex and age between countries. These variations suggest that policy-makers would benefit from increased understanding of the particularities of pre-drinking in their own country to efficiently target harmful pre-drinking behaviours. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - May 7, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Outcome in Relation to Drinking Goals in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Follow-up Study 2.5 and 5 Years After Treatment Entry
ConclusionsThe findings suggest that: (1) alcohol-dependent patients who have abstinence as their own drinking goal have a more favorable treatment outcome than those who have low-risk drinking as a goal or no decided goal. (2) Abstinence as a drinking goal should be considered for those who have a longer duration (for example more than 10 years) of their alcohol-related problems. (3) Patients who have no decided goal should be recommended abstinence as a drinking goal. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - May 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Adult-Life Alcohol Consumption and Age-Related Cognitive Decline from Early Adulthood to Late Midlife
AbstractAimsAlcohol consumption is a modifiable and plausible risk factor for age-related cognitive decline but more longitudinal studies investigating the association are needed. Our aims were to estimate associations of adult-life alcohol consumption and consumption patterns with age-related cognitive decline.MethodsWe investigated the associations of self-reported adult-life weekly alcohol consumption and weekly extreme binge drinking ( ≥10 units on the same occasion) with changes in test scores on an identical validated test of intelligence completed in early adulthood and late midlife in 2498 Danish men from theLif...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - May 2, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Future Thinking in Korsakoff Syndrome
ConclusionOur findings demonstrate a diminished ability to construct specific future scenarios as well as a diminished subjective experience during future thinking in KS. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - May 2, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Aversion-Resistant Ethanol Intake in Mice
ConclusionsCollectively, these data suggest that females exhibit a higher degree of aversion-resistance than male mice. Because we observed no effect of estrous cycle phase, it is likely that the presence of threshold levels of estradiol or progesterone, as opposed to their natural fluctuation across the estrous cycle, mediates increased aversion-resistance in females. Alternatively, or in combination, developmental effects of sex hormones could contribute to aversion-resistant ethanol intake. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 19, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Dose –Response Relative Risk of Injury From Acute Alcohol Consumption in 22 Countries: Are Women at Higher Risk Than Men?
AbstractAimsThe risk of injury from alcohol consumption was analyzed by gender, controlling for frequency of heavy drinking occasions, and by cause of injury (traffic, violence, fall, other).MethodsCase-crossover analysis was conducted on 18,627 injured patients arriving at the emergency department (ED) within six hours of the event.FindingsRisk of injury was similar for females and males at ≤3 drinks prior to injury (OR = 2.74 vs. 2.76, respectively). At higher volume levels females were at greater risk than males, and significantly so at 3.1–6 drinks and 6.1–10 drinks (gender by volume interaction: OR = 0....
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 11, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Ethyl Glucuronide as a Long-term Alcohol Biomarker in Fingernail and Hair. Matrix Comparison and Evaluation of Gender Bias
ConclusionsOur results support the use of EtG to indicate alcohol consumption over the previous 90 days, or ~3 months as is the normal practice in hair analysis. The results confirm that fingernails can be a useful alternative matrix where hair samples are not available. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 23, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Emotional Face Processing among Treatment-Seeking Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders: Investigating Sex Differences and Relationships with Interpersonal Functioning
ConclusionsResults were consistent with extant literatures examining cognitive, affective and interpersonal functioning among individuals with AUD, and provided novel evidence of vulnerability to alcohol-associated deficits in emotion processing among women. While similar sex-contingent effects were not apparent among other measures, results support modest interrelationships, specifically including the import of emotion processing to interpersonal functioning in AUD. These data offer guidance for further systematic investigation and highlight important considerations for future relapse-prevention and recovery-facilitation ...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 23, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Individual and Social Factors Related to Trajectories of Blackouts among Underage Drinkers in the Emergency Department
ConclusionBlackout frequency was largely stable over time and riskier trajectories were marked by risk factors such as negative peer influences and college/Greek life involvement. Findings may inform targeted interventions, particularly for women who were in higher risk trajectories. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - January 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Japanese Abstracts*
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - July 30, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Alcohol Interventions for Incarcerated People
ConclusionsResults show that interventions in the prison setting have the potential to positively impact on alcohol use; however, because of small numbers and the use of different outcome measures we could not conduct a meta-analysis or generalise findings. Future studies are needed to standardise approaches to ensure greater rigour and efficacy. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - May 10, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Biochemical Effects on the Liver of 1 Month of Alcohol Abstinence in Moderate Alcohol Consumers
In this study, 16 moderate alcohol consumers without structural liver disease ceased alcohol intake for 1 month and underwent liver measurements at three time points. Gamma-glutamyl transferase, although within the normal range, decreased significantly after abstinence and increased after the resumption of alcohol consumption.Short summary: In this study in healthy moderate alcohol consumers, we observe that one month of alcohol abstinence results in decreased gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, which return to baseline levels after resumption of alcohol consumption. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - May 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Comparing and Combining Topiramate and Aripiprazole on Alcohol-Related Outcomes in a Human Laboratory Study
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - April 27, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

List of Reviewers
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - April 23, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Religiosity, Guilt, Altruism and Forgiveness in Alcohol Dependence: Results of a Cross-sectional and Prospective Cohort Study
This study in Franconia (a mainly Christian protestant region of southern Germany) applied six questionnaires to evaluate religiosity, guilt, altruism and forgiveness in 166 alcohol-dependent in-patients during withdrawal and compared findings with that of 240 healthy controls.ResultsCompared to controls religious denomination was more frequently reported by the patients (OR = 1.72,P = 0.014) and patients showed higher guilt (P
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - April 18, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Therapist –Client Interactions in Motivational Interviewing: The Effect of Therapists’ Utterances on Client Change Talk
ConclusionsThe findings extend those of previous studies, suggesting that open questions and complex reflections play a central role in preparing clients for, and facilitating strong commitment to, behaviour change. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - April 12, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Real-time monitoring using a breathalyzer-based eHealth system can identify lapse/relapse patterns in alcohol use disorder patients
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - April 5, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Screening for At-Risk Alcohol Consumption in Primary Care: A Randomized Evaluation of Screening Approaches
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 31, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Predictors of Alcohol Withdrawal Readmissions
ConclusionAW readmission within 30 days and multiple readmissions during the year were common and were particularly predicted by AMA discharge and comorbid psychotic disorder. While these and other factors can help identify high-risk patients, further study to determine causal mechanisms may aid efforts to improve both the outcomes and costs associated with acute AW treatment. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 30, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

What Happens After Treatment? Long-Term Effects of Continued Substance Use, Psychiatric Problems and Help-Seeking on Social Status of Alcohol-Dependent Individuals
ConclusionSpecialty addiction treatment alone was not sufficient to have positive long-term impacts on social status and social integration of most alcohol-dependent people. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 30, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Real-time Monitoring using a breathalyzer-based eHealth system can identify lapse/relapse patterns in alcohol use disorder Patients
AbstractAimWe introduce a new remote real-time breathalyzer-based method for monitoring and early identification of lapse/relapse patterns for alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients using a composite measure of sobriety, the Addiction Monitoring Index (AMI).MethodsWe constructed AMI from (a) obtained test results and (b) the pattern of ignored tests using data from the first 30 patients starting in the treatment arms of two on-going clinical trials. The patients performed 2 –4 scheduled breath alcohol content (BrAC)-tests per day presented as blood alcohol content (BAC) data. In total, 10,973 tests were scheduled, 7743 ...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 24, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Impact of Alcohol on HIV Disease Pathogenesis, Comorbidities and Aging: Integrating Preclinical and Clinical Findings
AbstractAlcohol ’s multisystemic effects impact HIV disease pathogenesis and increase the risk for comorbidities in persons living with HIV (PLWH). The increased number of aging PLWH increases the potential for alcohol to enhance the risk for comorbidities. Integration of epidemiological, preclinical and translat ional studies provide an overarching view of the impact of heavy alcohol consumption on HIV risk, pathogenesis, treatment and burden of disease. The combined insult of HIV infection, heavy alcohol consumption and toxic effects of antiretroviral therapy in aging PLWH poses a public health challenge t hrough i...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 13, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Life Course Approach to Understanding Racial/Ethnic Differences in Transitions Into and Out of Alcohol Problems
ConclusionsWhile Whites appear to ‘age out’ of alcohol problems in their 30s, Blacks are at greater risk after young adulthood. These findings signal a need for interventions that target racial/ethnic minorities beyond young adulthood. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 13, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Confusion in Sobriety: A Case Study on Disulfiram Encephalopathy in a Middle-Aged Male Patient
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 13, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Medical Council on Alcohol ’s 50th Anniversary Witness Seminar
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Evaluating Within-Person Change in Implicit Measures of Alcohol Associations: Increases in Alcohol Associations Predict Increases in Drinking Risk and Vice Versa
ConclusionResults from this study indicate bi-directional relationships between increases in alcohol associations (drinking identity, alcohol excite and alcohol approach) and subsequent increases in drinking risk. Intervention and prevention efforts may benefit from targeting these associations. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - March 1, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Chinese Women ’s Drinking Patterns Before and After the Hong Kong Alcohol Policy Changes
This study compared alcohol consumption patterns in Hong Kong Chinese women before and after a period of major alcohol policy amendments and found increased drinking among certain subgroups, particularly middle-aged women. These increases are likely due to personal factors (e.g. changing perceptions) as well as environmental influences (e.g. greater marketing).MethodsCross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted on adult Chinese women prior to the 2007 –2008 beer and wine tax eliminations in 2006 (n = 4946) and in 2011 (n = 2439).ResultsOver the study period, only women in the 36 –45 year age stratum reporte...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 23, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

PNPLA3 Association with Alcoholic Liver Disease in a Cohort of Heavy Drinkers
ConclusionOur case-control study confirmed thatPNPLA3 rs738409 SNP is associated with ALD. This is an important replication in a US clinical sample with control subjects who had long histories of alcohol consumption. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 21, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Reply: Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Tale of Bridges
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 15, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Tale of Bridges
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 15, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Alcohol Use in Adolescence and Later Working Memory: Findings From a Large Population-Based Birth Cohort
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 13, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Survey Estimates of Changes in Alcohol Use Patterns Following the 2012 Privatization of the Washington Liquor Monopoly
ConclusionsThese findings accurately mirror the overall flat trend in per capita alcohol sales but seem to exaggerate the very small shift towards beer seen in sales data. Effects of increased spirits availability appear to have been countered by increased spirits prices and a decreased beer tax, leading to a shift to beer consumption.Short summarySurvey-based analyses of alcohol use across Washington ’s spirits privatization, beer tax reduction and marijuana legalization found no change in alcohol volume, a reduction in spirits volume and a shift to more moderate drinking patterns. Reductions in drinking occurred am...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 8, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Association Analysis Between Genetic Variation in GATA Binding Protein 4 (GATA4) and Alcohol Use Disorder
In this study, we aimed to replicate those findings in an independent sample and analyze their association with anxiety.MethodsOverall, 1044 individuals with AUD [534 European American (EA), 510 African Americans (AA)] and 645 controls [413 EA, 232 AA] were genotyped using 34 markers. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between cases and controls using chi-square analysis. Other phenotype data were analyzed for possible associations withGATA4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in individuals with AUD.ResultsRs6601604 was nominally significantly associated with AUD in EA, and 3 SNPs (rs6990313, rs11250159 and ...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 5, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Patient Satisfaction as a Moderator of Risky Alcohol Consumers ’ Attitude Towards Screening and Brief Intervention: A Cross Sectional Survey
AbstractAimsAlthough shown to be effective, General Practitioners (GPs) tend to refuse the implementation of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI). Their expectation of negative response by patients seems to contrast with the positive attitude towards SBI of these patients. This discrepancy may be resolved by regarding moderators such as drinking status and patient satisfaction. We hypothesized that the attitude towards SBI will be more positive for abstainers or low-level consumers in comparison to high risk consumers especially in case of low patient satisfaction.MethodsTen GP offices in Germany received the questionnai...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - January 25, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue on Alcohol and Liver Transplantation
(Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - January 25, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Transplanting Patients with Alcohol-related Liver Disease in the National Health System: New Rules and Decisions
ConclusionLiver transplantation for ArLD is well established in the UK. Recent organizational changes seek to reduce inequities in access to transplant services.Short SummaryLiver disease in the UK is reaching epidemic proportions. Concerns over equity of access to liver transplantation prompted revision of the UK listing criteria for alcohol-associated liver disease in 2016, to improve to the availability of tertiary hepatology services.Transplanting patients with alcohol-related liver disease in the National Health System: New Rules and Decisions‘…The second property of your excellent sherris is, the warming...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - January 23, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease
ConclusionThere is a very limited amount of data available on LDLT for ALD. Existing data suggests that LDLT for ALD results in excellent outcomes.Short SummaryPublished data on living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are limited. One- and five-year survival rates range from 82% to 100% and 78% to 87%, respectively. Rates of alcohol relapse following transplant appear low, ranging from 7% to 23%; 6-month abstinence periods prior to LDLT for ALD do not appear to have a significant impact on relapse. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - January 23, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol Content in the ‘Hyper-Reality’ MTV Show ‘Geordie Shore’
ConclusionsAlcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the UK Reality TV show ‘Geordie Shore’ Series 11. Two-thirds of all alcohol branding occurred in episodes age-rated by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) as suitable for viewers aged 15 years. The organizations OfCom, Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) and the Portman Group should implement more effect ive policies to reduce adolescent exposure to on-screen drinking. The drinks industry should consider demanding the withdrawal of their brands from the show.Short SummaryAlcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent ...
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - January 21, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Self-Reported Knowledge, Correct Knowledge and use of UK Drinking Guidelines Among a Representative Sample of the English Population
ConclusionsTwo decades after their introduction, previous UK drinking guidelines were not well known or used by current drinkers. Those who reported using them tended to overestimate recommended daily limits.SHORT SUMMARYWe examined public knowledge and use of UK drinking guidelines just before new guidelines were released (2016). Despite previous guidelines being in place for two decades, only one in four drinkers accurately estimated these, with even fewer using guidelines to monitor drinking. Approximately 8% of drinkers overestimated maximum daily limits. (Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism)
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - January 17, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research