No effect of test and treat on sexual behaviours at population level in rural South Africa: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Pruritic papular eruption in HIV-positive patients in Brazil
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in a patient with AIDS
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Incidental findings in elderly people living with HIV undergoing computed tomography coronary artery calcium scoring
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Nonmelanoma skin cancer and melanoma in HIV-1-infected patients
In this study, our aim was to assess the occurrence of cutaneous malignancies in 97 HIV-positive individuals visited in our Institute, and to evaluate the association with immunological parameters, as well as combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) duration. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letters Source Type: research

High levels of resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in newly diagnosed antiretroviral treatment-naive children in sub-Saharan Africa
Exposure of infants to antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission can induce resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Data from nine national surveys of pretreatment drug resistance in children newly diagnosed with HIV show high levels of resistance to NRTIs included in first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens (dual abacavir-lamivudine/emtricitabine resistance). Additional research is needed to determine the impact of NRTI resistance on treatment response and optimize infant ART. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letters Source Type: research

The relative contributions of HIV drug resistance, nonadherence and low-level viremia to viremic episodes on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa
Conclusion: Effective adherence interventions could substantially reduce viral nonsuppression (especially in men) and virological rebound (especially during LLV), but would have limited effect on improving viral resuppression. Alternative ART regimens could circumvent PDR and acquired resistance. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Severe intimate partner violence is associated with all-cause mortality among women living with HIV
Conclusion: Although we found that any lifetime experience of IPV was not associated with all-cause mortality, women ever experiencing severe IPV were significantly more likely to die during the study period. This may suggest a need for increased trauma- and violence-aware approaches. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Risk of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women in age-disparate relationships in sub-Saharan Africa
Objective: To determine the association between age-disparate relationships and risk of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) aged 15–24 years. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies until January 5, 2020 in sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: We searched several electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searched reference list of included studies to identify eligible studies for data abstraction. We assessed the quality of included studies using Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for nonrandomized studies. The DerSimonian–Laird random effects model was use...
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Determining standardized causes of death of infants, children, and adolescents living with HIV in Asia
Conclusion: Our standardized cause of death assessment provides robust data to inform regional resource allocation for pediatric diagnostic evaluations and prioritization of clinical interventions, and highlight the continued importance of opportunistic and nonopportunistic infections as causes of death in our cohort. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Variation in estimated viral suppression associated with the definition of viral suppression used
Discussion: The proportion suppressed varied greatly as a function of the subset of persons in whom it was calculated, the threshold used for suppression, and the way multiple viral loads per person per year were summarized. Measures of durable viral suppression, and low-level viremia (20–400 copies/ml), should be considered in describing the health of people with HIV, in addition to the standard estimates of suppression. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Projecting the impact of equity-based preexposure prophylaxis implementation on racial disparities in HIV incidence among MSM
Conclusion: Significant increases in PrEP use are needed among Black/African American MSM to reduce racial disparities in HIV incidence. PrEP expansion must be coupled with structural interventions to address vulnerability to HIV infection among Black/African American MSM. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Impact of HIV on the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus-infected patients
Background: Previous studies have suggested that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has an aggressive presentation and a shorter survival in people with HIV (PWH). This could be due to later diagnosis or lower rates of HCC treatment, and not to HIV infection itself. Aim: : To assess the impact of HIV on HCC survival in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Methods: Multicenter cohort study (1999–2018) of 342 and 135 HCC cases diagnosed in HIV/HCV-infected and HCV-monoinfected patients. Survival after HCC diagnosis and its predictors were assessed. Results: HCC was at Barcelona-Clinic Liver-Cancer (BCLC) s...
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Influence of hepatitis C virus co-infection and hepatitis C virus treatment on risk of chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive persons
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the impact of HCV cure on CKD in HIV-positive persons in the EuroSIDA study. Methods: HIV-positive persons with known HCV status and at least three serum creatinine measurements after 1/1/2004 were compared based on time-updated HCV-RNA and HCV treatment: anti-HCV-negative, spontaneously cleared HCV, chronic untreated HCV, successfully treated HCV, and HCV-RNA positive after HCV treatment. Poisson regression compared incidence rates of CKD [confirmed (>3 months apart) eGFR (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Immature/transitional B-cell expansion is associated with bone loss in HIV-infected individuals with severe CD4+ T-cell lymphopenia
Conclusion: These data suggest that BImm contribute to the increased B-cell RANKL/OPG ratio in PLWH, and reveal a previously unrecognized link between BImm expansion and HIV-induced bone loss in the axial and appendicular skeletons of severely immunocompromised HIV-infected individuals. BImm expansion may be a novel biomarker for screening patients at risk of osteoporosis. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

High abundance of genus Prevotella is associated with dysregulation of IFN-I and T cell response in HIV-1-infected patients
Objective: HIV-1-associated dysbiosis is most commonly characterized by overall decreased diversity, with abundance of the genus Prevotella, recently related to inflammatory responses. Design: A pilot study including 10 antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-1-infected men and 50 uninfected controls was performed to identify the main gut dysbiosis determinants (e.g. Prevotella enrichment), that may affect mucosal antiviral defenses and T cell immunity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Methods: 16rRNA gene sequencing was applied to the HIV-1-infected individuals’ fecal microbiota and compared with controls. Measureme...
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Hepatitis C virus modulates IgG glycosylation in HIV co-infected antiretroviral therapy suppressed individuals
Objective: Glycosylation plays a critical role in mediating several antibody (mainly immunoglobulin G; IgG) immunological functions, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated whether IgG glycosylation and immune profile patterns are differentially modulated in mono and dual infection using samples from untreated hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals with and without co-infection with antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed HIV. Design: IgG glycosylation, immune subsets, natural killer cell function, and liver enzymes were assessed in 14 HCV...
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Changes in gastrointestinal microbial communities influence HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade
Conclusion: The gut colonization of Fusobacteria in HIV infection is persistent and may influence anti-HIV T-cell immunity to PD-1 or TIGIT blockade. Strategies modulating Fusobacteria colonization may elicit a favourable mucosal immune landscape to enhance the efficacy of ICB for HIV cure. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Drug efflux transporters and metabolic enzymes in human circulating and testicular T-cell subsets: relevance to HIV pharmacotherapy
Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate for the first time that antiretroviral drug efflux transporters and metabolic enzymes are functionally expressed in T-cell subsets infiltrating the human testis. These transporters and enzymes can reduce antiretroviral intracellular concentrations, potentially contributing to residual HIV replication in the testis, and negatively impact HIV cure strategies. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

The changing HIV epidemic: a view from the front line in the United States
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: FIELD NOTES Source Type: research

Cases of coronavirus disease-2019 in HIV-infected transgender women
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Efficacy of nivolumab in HIV patient with melanoma brain metastases
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Low HIV incidence among women following sexually transmitted infection does not support national pre-exposure prophylaxis recommendations
Current United States guidelines recommend that clinicians offer HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to women with gonorrhea or syphilis. We estimated HIV incidence among women following a syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia diagnosis among women in King County, WA using surveillance data from 2008 to 2018. Among women with diagnosed with gonorrhea and among women diagnosed with chlamydia the estimated HIV incidence rates were 0.06 and 0.02 per 100 person years, respectively. No women reported with syphilis were diagnosed with HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

A pragmatic approach to managing antiretroviral therapy-experienced patients diagnosed with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: impact of antiretroviral therapy adherence and duration
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Orofacial outcomes in adolescents with perinatally infected HIV in antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion: Orofacial outcomes, in particular, cervical and submandibular lymphadenitis were common among the adolescents assessed. Long-term ART and long-term exposure to HIV virus may have altered the orofacial outcome profile in adolescents perinatally infected by HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Population-level viral suppression among pregnant and postpartum women in a universal test and treat trial
Objective(s): We sought to determine whether universal ‘test and treat’ (UTT) can achieve gains in viral suppression beyond universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) eligibility during pregnancy and postpartum, among women living with HIV. Design: A community cluster randomized trial. Methods: The SEARCH UTT trial compared an intervention of annual population testing and universal ART with a control of baseline population testing with ART by country standard, including ART eligibility for all pregnant/postpartum women, in 32 communities in Kenya and Uganda. When testing, women were asked about current pr...
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Direct maternal deaths attributable to HIV in the era of antiretroviral therapy: evidence from three population-based HIV cohorts with verbal autopsy
Conclusion: HIV-infected women face higher rates of mortality from direct maternal causes, which suggests that we need to improve access to quality maternity care for these women. These findings also have implications for the surveillance of HIV/AIDS-related mortality, as not all excess mortality attributable to HIV will be explicitly attributed to HIV/AIDS on the basis of a verbal autopsy interview. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Longitudinal patterns of illicit drug use, antiretroviral therapy exposure and plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs
Conclusion: We observed significantly higher HIV viral load during periods of crack cocaine use independent of ART exposure. Our findings support further research to investigate the possible biological mechanisms of this effect. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Safety of in-utero antiretroviral exposure: neurologic outcomes in children who are HIV-exposed but uninfected
Conclusion: Efavirenz and didanosine exposure during pregnancy were associated with higher risk of neurologic abnormalities in CHEU, and dolutegravir exposure showed some suggestive associations, which warrant further monitoring. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

What are the situational and behavioral factors associated with condomless anal sex without pre-exposure prophylaxis in MSM?
This study aimed to identify situational and behavioral factors associated with condomless anal sex without on-demand PrEP in the open-label extension (OLE) study of the ANRS-IPERGAY trial. Methods: Univariable and multivariable modified Poisson regressions with a generalized estimating equation (GEE) were used. The attributable risk percentage for each explanatory variable and for condomless anal sex without PrEP was calculated. Results: In the OLE, 19% of anal intercourses were unprotected (i.e. no PrEP or condom). Of these, 85% were attributable to sexual intercourse with main partners and 47% with HIV-negative pa...
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Malaria in HIV-infected patients in a nonendemic setting
Conclusion: HIV infection has an impact on the imported malaria profile, although it is unclear whether well controlled HIV-infected patients have a higher risk of severe malaria. HIV-infected patients should be particularly targeted for pretravel advice. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Low hepatitis C virus reinfection rate despite ongoing risk following universal access to direct-acting antiviral therapy among people living with HIV
Conclusion: No change was observed in levels of injecting or sexual risk behaviour for HCV infection following unrestricted access to direct-acting antiviral therapy in an Australian HIV/HCV cohort. Incidence of HCV reinfection was low potentially reflecting high levels of treatment coverage within this population. Continued screening and rapid retreatment of reinfection will be required to maintain progress towards elimination. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

HIV-exposed uninfected infant morbidity and mortality within a nationally representative prospective cohort of mother-infant pairs in Zimbabwe
Conclusion: Clinical interventions including maternal antiretroviral therapy; breastfeeding and infant feeding counseling and support; and early prevention, identification, and management of childhood illness; are needed to reduce HEU infant morbidity and mortality. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Near point-of-care, point-mutation test to detect drug resistance in HIV-1: a validation study in a Mexican cohort
Conclusions: Compared to MiSeq, OLA-Simple detected HIVDR with high sensitivity and accuracy. OLA-Simple could expand access to affordable and rapid HIVDR testing to guide appropriate ART choices in populations using NNRTI-based ART. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

An HIV-1 Nef genotype that diminishes immune control mediated by protective human leucocyte antigen alleles
Conclusion: Taken together, our study identifies the Nef genotype, non-Ser9 that subverts host immune control in HIV-1 subtype C infection. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Enhancing natural killer cell function with gp41-targeting bispecific antibodies to combat HIV infection
Conclusion: On the basis of their in-vitro killing efficacy, bsAbs may provide a promising strategy to improve NK-mediated immune targeting of infected cells during HIV infection. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Genetic variations in the host dependency factors ALCAM and TPST2 impact HIV-1 disease progression
Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that ALCAM and TPST2 play a role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. SNPs in these genes, without known functional implications, had a major effect on disease progression, and therefore, these HDFs may be attractive and effective targets for new treatment strategies. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Monocyte and CD4+ T-cell antiviral and innate responses associated with HIV-1 inflammation and cognitive impairment
The objective of this study was to identify phenotypic and transcriptional changes in blood monocytes and CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals and elucidate processes associated with neurocognitive impairment. Design: A group of chronically HIV-1-infected Thai individuals (n = 19) were selected for comparison with healthy donor controls (n = 10). Infected participants were further classified as cognitively normal (n = 10) or with HAND (n = 9). Peripheral monocytes and CD4+ T cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry and simultaneously isolated for multiplex qPCR-targeted gene expressio...
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Risk factors for loss to follow-up from antiretroviral therapy programmes in low-income and middle-income countries
Conclusion: There are several sociodemographic, clinical, patient behaviour, treatment-related and system level risk factors for LTFU from ART programs. Knowledge of risk factors should be used to better target retention interventions and develop tools to identify high-risk patients. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL REVIEW Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019 and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a diagnostic dilemma in HIV
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 infection in a highly experienced person living with HIV
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Potential impact of COVID-19 in people living with HIV: experience from previous 21st century coronaviruses epidemics
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The prescribing cascade 3.0: a case for recreational drugs in HIV
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

CD300a identifies a CD4+ memory T cell subset with a higher susceptibility to HIV-1 infection
Human CD300a is known to promote the infection by dengue and other enveloped viruses and is overexpressed on CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected patients. We found that infected CD4+RA− T cells from untreated HIV-1-infected patients were mostly CD300a+. Furthermore, CD300a expressing CD4+RA− T cells from healthy donors were significantly more infected by HIV-1 in vitro than CD300a− cells. CD300a might represent a biomarker of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection on memory CD4+ T lymphocytes. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Phylogenetics: an added ingredient in HIV prevention
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comment Source Type: research

Cancer risk following lymphoid malignancies among HIV-infected people
Conclusion: HIV–infected people with lymphoid malignancies have an increased risk of subsequent non–lymphoid cancers. As risks remained significant after adjustment for time since HIV diagnosis and prior AIDS diagnosis, it suggests that immunosuppression may explain some, but not all, of these risks. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Lung function in men with and without HIV
Objectives: Initial studies suggest HIV-positive persons may be at increased risk for chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but have commonly relied on single-center designs, lacked HIV-negative controls, or assessed lung function with only spirometry. We tested differences in spirometry and single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in persons with and without HIV. Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: Participants were enrolled from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a longitudinal cohort study of men who have sex with men (both HIV-positive and HIV...
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Frailty transitions, inflammation, and mortality among persons aging with HIV infection and injection drug use
Conclusion: Sustained, and to a lesser degree, intermittent frail states are associated with increased mortality. HIV virologic suppression with earlier antiretroviral therapy, reduced comorbidity, and reduced inflammation may prevent frailty progression and promote frailty recovery, consequently improving survival for persons aging with HIV and persons with prior injection drug use. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Psychiatric trajectories across adolescence in perinatally HIV-exposed youth: the role of HIV infection and associations with viral load
Conclusion: Despite significant adversity, AYA with PHIV and PHEU had relatively low prevalence of psychiatric disorder over time, although one-third had consistent or escalating psychiatric disorders. Among AYA with PHIV, psychiatric trajectories were associated with viremia in young adulthood. Given the growing population of AYA living with PHIV and PHEU worldwide, addressing the substantial and evolving mental health needs of both groups as they reach young adulthood is critical. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Expanding community engagement in HIV clinical trials: a pilot study using crowdsourcing
Conclusion: Conducting crowdsourcing in addition to CAB engagement can yield a broader range of stakeholder feedback to inform the design and conduct of HIV clinical trials. Video abstract: http://links.lww.com/QAD/B707 (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research