David Katzenstein and James Hakim—In Memoriam
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: In Memoriam Source Type: research

Employing telehealth within HIV care: advantages, challenges, and recommendations
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

When the absence of an interaction can become clinically relevant
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

A 44-year-old man with an ulcerating skin rash in the setting of advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Assessment of retinal microvascular health by optical coherence tomography angiography among persons with HIV
Microvasculopathy may link HIV-related chronic inflammation and premature multimorbidity. In this proof-of-concept study, we used optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to evaluate the retina as a convenient assessment of microvascular health among persons with HIV (PWH) undergoing surveillance ophthalmic care at Emory from 2018 to 2021. Among patients with longstanding HIV, OCTA identified microvascular abnormalities even among eyes without clinical retinal disease. Retinovascular evaluation by OCTA is a feasible, noninvasive technique for assessing microvasculopathy among PWH. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letters Source Type: research

Tenofovir, pregnancy and renal function changes in pregnant women living with HIV
This retrospective study of 100 pregnant women living with HIV [66 on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) compared to 34 women on tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)] found no significant difference in renal function in pregnant women with HIV receiving TDF versus TAF. Our results demonstrate that, in regard to renal toxicity, both TDF and TAF appear to be safe for pregnant women living with HIV, but larger prospective cohort studies in pregnant women living with HIV are encouraged. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letters Source Type: research

Advancing long-acting and extended delivery HIV prevention and treatment regimens through behavioural science: NIH workshop directions
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Cost analyses of HIV treatment should be standardized and report cost drivers
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

FDG PET/computed tomography can detect region-specific neuronal changes following antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

Dosing lamivudine or emtricitabine in renal impairment: new data confirm it's time for updated guidance!
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

Fixed-dose darunavir/cobicistat in pregnancy of HIV-infected women, pharmacokinetic concerns
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

Syndemics and preexposure prophylaxis are independently associated with rectal immune dysregulation in sexual minority men
Conclusion: Syndemic conditions could increase biological vulnerability to HIV and other STIs in sexual minority men by potentiating rectal immune dysregulation. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Late presentation for HIV impairs immunological but not virological response to antiretroviral treatment
Conclusion: Despite safety and effectiveness of initial ART in terms of viral suppression, late presenters may not experience complete immunological response. In late presenters, effectiveness and safety depends on both the class and the specific first-line ART regimen. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Global estimates for the lifetime cost of managing HIV
Conclusion: Estimating the lifetime costs of managing HIV is useful for budgetary planning and to ensure HIV management is affordable for all. Furthermore, HIV prevention strategies need to be strengthened to avert these high costs of managing HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Clinic and care: associations with adolescent antiretroviral therapy adherence in a prospective cohort in South Africa
Objective: Adolescent antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence remains critically low. We lack research testing protective factors across both clinic and care environments. Design: A prospective cohort of adolescents living with HIV (sample n = 969, 55% girls, baseline mean age 13.6) in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa were interviewed at baseline and 18-month follow-up (2014–2015, 2015–2016). We traced all adolescents ever initiated on treatment in 52 government health facilities (90% uptake, 93% 18-month retention, 1.2% mortality). Methods: Clinical records were collected; stand...
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Progress toward HIV elimination goals: trends in and projections of annual HIV testing and condom use in Africa
Conclusions: We observed limited progress on annual HIV testing and condom use at last higher-risk sex in Africa and little prospect of reaching global targets for HIV/AIDS elimination. Although some funding agencies are considering withdrawal from supporting Africa, more attention to funding and expanding testing and treatment is needed in this region. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Viral suppression is associated with HIV-antibody level and HIV-1 DNA detectability in early treated children at 2 years of age
Objectives: Early infant HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation are now implemented shortly after birth. Maintaining and monitoring ART adherence is difficult and requires frequent visits. We, therefore, investigated whether HIV antibodies and HIV-1 DNA levels are markers of cumulative viremia. Design: We conducted a cross sectional investigation at 2 years of age of HIV antibodies and HIV-1 DNA levels in a well characterized cohort of 31 children who started ART shortly after birth. Methods: HIV antibodies were measured by a combination of the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo and Geeni...
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Evaluation of the POP-UP programme: a multicomponent model of care for people living with HIV with homelessness or unstable housing
Conclusion: A novel care model for PWH-HUH demonstrates early success in engaging viraemic patients in care and improving viral suppression. Low-barrier, high-contact primary care programmes offering comprehensive services and incentives may improve outcomes for this vulnerable population. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in hospitalizations among persons with HIV in the United States and Canada, 2005–2015
Objective: To examine recent trends and differences in all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates by race, ethnicity, and gender among persons with HIV (PWH) in the United States and Canada. Design: HIV clinical cohort consortium. Methods: We followed PWH at least 18 years old in care 2005–2015 in six clinical cohorts. We used modified Clinical Classifications Software to categorize hospital discharge diagnoses. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variances to compare racial and ethnic groups, stratified by gender, adjusted for cohort, calendar y...
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Normal structural brain development in adolescents treated for perinatally acquired HIV: a longitudinal imaging study
Conclusion: While using long-term antiretroviral treatment, structural brain development of adolescents growing up with perinatally acquired HIV appears largely normal. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Redistribution of brain glucose metabolism in people with HIV after antiretroviral therapy initiation
Conclusion: Our findings support pretreatment basal ganglia and thalamic neuroinflammatory changes in PWH, which decrease after treatment with eventual unmasking of long-term irreversible neuronal damage. Meanwhile, increased frontal cortex metabolism following ART initiation suggests reversible cortical dysfunction which improves with virologic control and increased CD4+ cell counts. Early initiation of treatment after HIV diagnosis and secondary control of inflammation are thus necessary to halt neurological damage in PWH. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

To dose-adjust or not to dose-adjust: lamivudine dose in kidney impairment
Conclusion: As 3TC is a well tolerated drug with a wide therapeutic window, dose adjustment may be unnecessary among PWH with eGFR between at least 30 and 49 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or less. Clinical judgement is key when weighing the risks and benefits of 3TC dose adjustment for PWH experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms or moderate lab abnormalities. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of darunavir and cobicistat in pregnant and postpartum women with HIV
Objective: To evaluate darunavir and cobicistat pharmacokinetics during pregnancy compared with postpartum and in infant washout samples after delivery. Design: Nonrandomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter phase-IV prospective study of darunavir and cobicistat pharmacokinetics in pregnant women with HIV and their children in the United States. Methods: Intensive steady-state 24-h pharmacokinetic profiles were performed after administration of 800 mg of darunavir and 150 mg of cobicistat orally in fixed dose combination once-daily during the second trimester, third trimester, and postpartum. ...
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Mechanisms of residual immune activation in HIV-1-infected human lymphoid tissue ex vivo
Conclusion: The system of ex-vivo human lymphoid tissue allowed investigation, under laboratory-controlled conditions, of possible mechanisms involved in persistent immune activation in HIV-1 patients under ART. Mechanisms of this immunoactivation identified in ex-vivo tissues may indicate potential therapeutic targets for restoration of immune system homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

HIV-1 infection and the lack of viral control are associated with greater expression of interleukin-21 receptor on CD8+ T cells
Conclusion: Our data demonstrates significant associations between IL-21R expression on peripheral CD8+ T cells and viral load, as well as disease trajectory. This suggests that the IL-21 receptor could be a novel marker of CD8+ T-cell dysfunction during HIV-1 infection. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

HLA-associated preadaptation in HIV Vif is associated with higher set point viral load and faster CD4+ decline in Zambian transmission pairs
Conclusion: Adaptation in Pol had the greatest impact on viral control. Despite containing a large proportion of HLA-associated sites, Vif was the only regulatory or accessory protein for which preadaptation significantly correlated with disease progression. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - June 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Global progress and gaps in tuberculosis screening and treatment among people with HIV: experience from 32 countries
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Response to: Asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment is a risk for symptomatic decline over a 3-year study period
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 in a patient with HIV-2 infection
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Kidney injury biomarkers during exposure to tenofovir-based preexposure prophylaxis
We previously reported a higher incidence of non-albumin proteinuria and a small but significant decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among HIV-negative adults randomized to emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate preexposure prophylaxis (FTC/TDF PrEP) versus placebo. In a nested case--control study among participants randomized to FTC/TDF PrEP, established kidney injury biomarkers measured at 12 months were not significantly different between participants who subsequently experienced one of these kidney endpoints and randomly selected controls who did not. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Impact of the coronavirus disease 2019-related global recession on the financing of the global HIV response
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Effects of preconception antiretroviral therapy in placenta development and pregnancy outcomes
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

The importance of wearables: sleep assessment devices for people with HIV
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

Disregarding drug resistance mutations without peril
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

Scale-up of antiretroviral treatment access among people living with HIV in Rivers State, Nigeria, 2019--2020
Conclusion: The strategies applied by HIV program stakeholders contributed to scale-up of PWH identification and ART linkage within the Rivers State ART Surge. Continued gains through time indicate the importance of the application of a quality improvement approach to maintain programme flexibility and effectiveness. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Mathematical modelling of the influence of serosorting on the population-level HIV transmission impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis
Conclusion: Models assuming sero-proportionate mixing may underestimate population-level HIV-incidence reductions due to PrEP. PrEP-mediated changes in serosorting could lead to programmatically important reductions in PrEP-impact under low PrEP-effectiveness. Our findings suggest the need to monitor sexual mixing patterns to inform PrEP implementation and evaluation. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Time spent with HIV-RNA ≤ 200 copies/ml in a cohort of people with HIV during the U=U era
Conclusion: Our results reinforce the validity of the U=U message in real-world setting. However, we identified subsets of our study population at higher risk of losing the ‘U status’ for whom additional efforts are needed. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Rectal microbiota diversity in Kenyan MSM is inversely associated with frequency of receptive anal sex, independent of HIV status
Conclusion: Both HIV infection and sexual behaviour were associated with rectal microflora alpha diversity, in particular richness, but not Prevotella spp. dominance, in Kenyan MSM. Associations were more robust for sexual behaviour. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Pre-treatment integrase inhibitor resistance is uncommon in antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals with HIV-1 subtype A1 and D infections in Uganda
Conclusion: We detected no HIV-1 polymorphisms associated with high levels of DTG resistance in Uganda in the pre-DTG era. Our results support widespread implementation of DTG but careful monitoring of patients on INSTI with virologic failure is warranted to determine if unique mutations predict failure for non-B subtypes of HIV-1. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Assisted reproductive technology outcomes in women with a chronic viral disease
Conclusion: HIV-infected women had lower cumulative live birth rate than women with chronic hepatitis, and this was due to less favourable ovarian reserve parameters. These findings underscore the need to better inform practitioners and patients regarding fertility issues and the importance of early fertility assessment. However, larger studies are necessary to gain more in-depth knowledge of the direct impact of HIV on live birth rates. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Long-term efficacy and safety of fostemsavir among subgroups of heavily treatment-experienced adults with HIV-1
Objectives: The aim of this study was to understand how demographic and treatment-related factors impact responses to fostemsavir-based regimens. Design: BRIGHTE is an ongoing phase 3 study evaluating twice-daily fostemsavir 600 mg and optimized background therapy (OBT) in heavily treatment-experienced individuals failing antiretroviral therapy with limited treatment options (Randomized Cohort 1-2 and Nonrandomized Cohort 0 fully active antiretroviral classes). Methods: Virologic response rates (HIV-1 RNA (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Agreement between self-reported and objective measures of sleep in people with HIV and lifestyle-similar HIV-negative individuals
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between self-reported sleep measures and insomnia with objectively measured sleep parameters in people with HIV (PWH) and HIV-negative individuals. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of PWH and lifestyle-similar HIV-negative individuals. Methods: Self-reported measures included time spent in bed, sleep onset latency and a validated insomnia questionnaire. Objective measures were assessed via 7-days/nights of actigraphy data to determine average and intra-individual variability of several sleep measures (including time spent in bed and onset l...
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial of colchicine to improve vascular health in people living with HIV
Conclusions: In PWH with no history of CAD, low-dose colchicine was well tolerated but did not improve impaired coronary endothelial function, a predictor of cardiovascular events. These findings suggest that this anti-inflammatory approach using colchicine in PWH does not improve vascular health, the central, early driver of coronary atherosclerosis. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Markers of inflammation and immune activation are associated with lung function in a multi-center cohort of persons with HIV
Conclusion: Among PWH, different markers of immune activation and inflammation are associated with FEV1% predicted than with DLco% predicted and with an iso↓DLco, representing possible unique pathways of chronic lung disease. Identifying plausible drivers of these inflammatory pathways may clarify mechanisms underlying impaired lung function in HIV infection and may identify therapeutic avenues. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Comparison of predictors for terminal disease progression in simian immunodeficiency virus/simian-HIV-infected rhesus macaques
Conclusion: These results demonstrate that monocytes/macrophages significantly affect HIV/SIV pathogenesis outcomes. Monocyte turnover analyses are not currently feasible in humans, so there is a need to identify surrogate biomarkers reflecting tissue macrophage damage that predict HIV infection disease progression. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Drug resistance mutations in HIV provirus are associated with defective proviral genomes with hypermutation
Background: HIV proviral sequencing overcomes the limit of plasma viral load requirement by detecting all the ‘archived mutations’, but the clinical relevance remains to be evaluated. Methods: We included 25 participants with available proviral sequences (both intact and defective sequences available) and utilized the genotypic sensitivity score (GSS) to evaluate the level of resistance in their provirus and plasma virus. Defective sequences were further categorized as sequences with and without hypermutations. Personalized GSS score and total GSS score were calculated to evaluate the level of resist...
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected adults with coronary artery disease are characterized by a distinctive regulatory T-cell signature
Conclusion: ART-treated PWH with diagnosed CAD are characterized by profound alterations in populations of anti-inflammatory and athero-protective Treg subsets. These changes may contribute to atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression during chronic HIV infection in the ART era. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - May 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Hemorrhagic cystitis from BK virus in a patient with AIDS
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - April 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk assessment for primary prevention in Malawian HIV patients on ART: are measurements of glycated hemoglobin and lipids worth the effort?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - April 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors for extended or severe neurological immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - April 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research