Nudgeathons to control HIV: designing strategies using behavioural economics
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Fetal biometry following in-utero exposure to dolutegravir-based or efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

HIV-associated neurodegenerative disorders: extracellular and intracellular mechanisms
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

HIV-associated neurodegenerative disorders: role of endoplasmic reticulum in Gp120-mediated neurotoxicity
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Viral suppression rates in a safety-net HIV clinic in San Francisco destabilized during COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to hinder US End the HIV Epidemic goals. We evaluated viral suppression and retention-in-care before and after telemedicine was instituted, in response to shelter-in-place mandates, in a large, urban HIV clinic. The odds of viral nonsuppression were 31% higher postshelter-in-place (95% confidence interval = 1.08–1.53) in spite of stable retention-in-care and visit volume, with disproportionate impact on homeless individuals. Measures to counteract the effect of COVID-19 on HIV outcomes are urgently needed. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letters Source Type: research

Can the ‘Ending the HIV Epidemic’ initiative transition the USA towards HIV/AIDS epidemic control?
Using a dynamic HIV transmission model calibrated for six USA cities, we projected HIV incidence from 2020 to 2040 and estimated whether an established UNAIDS HIV epidemic control target could be met under ideal implementation of optimal combination strategies previously defined for each city. Four of six cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, New York City and Seattle) were projected to achieve epidemic control by 2040 and we identified differences in reaching epidemic control across racial/ethnic groups. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letters Source Type: research

Advanced HIV disease during the ‘Treat All’ era in Botswana
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTS Source Type: research

Tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: integrating systematic review findings into practice and policy
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTS Source Type: research

An unrecognized key population? Traditional treatment practices associated with HIV risk among traditional healers in rural South Africa
Conclusion: Nearly all traditional healers are routinely performing minimally invasive skin incisions that could expose them to patient blood. The lack of training and access to personal protective equipment increase their risk of acquisition of blood–borne pathogens, including HIV. Given the widespread practice of traditional skin incisions across southern Africa, and the higher levels of HIV among traditional healers exposed to patient blood, it is likely that traditional healers are a hitherto unrecognized key population at disproportionate risk of acquiring HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Ending an HIV epidemic among persons who inject drugs in a middle-income country: extremely low HIV incidence among persons who inject drugs in Hai Phong, Viet Nam
Conclusion: The data from Hai Phong clearly demonstrate that it is possible to achieve very low HIV incidence – ‘end an HIV epidemic’ – among PWID in a middle-income country. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Decision-making regarding condom use among daily and event-driven users of preexposure prophylaxis in the Netherlands
Conclusion: Condoms remain a viable option for PrEP users in certain settings. Condoms were applied in higher risk settings, to avoid PrEP disclosure, or as substitute for PrEP, especially among edPrEP users. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Hazardous alcohol use, antiretroviral therapy receipt, and viral suppression in people living with HIV who inject drugs in the United States, India, Russia, and Vietnam
We examined associations between hazardous alcohol use, ART receipt, and viral suppression among PLHIV who reported current or former injection drug use. Participants were from nine studies in the United States (high-income country), India (LMIC), Russia (upper middle-income country), and Vietnam (LMIC). Methods: Hazardous alcohol use was measured via Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Outcomes were HIV viral suppression (viral load of (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Characteristics and outcomes of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV within Southern Africa
Background: Using data from 15 International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS in Southern Africa sites, we compared the characteristics and outcomes of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (ALPH). Methods: We included ALPH entering care aged less than 13 years with at least one HIV care visit during adolescence (10–19 years). We compared the characteristics and cross-sectional outcomes: transfer out, loss to follow-up (no visit in the 12 months prior to database closure), mortality, and retention between those who entered care aged less than 10 vs. aged 10–13 years; and explored pr...
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Immunological and virological efficacy of different antiretroviral regimens initiated during acute/recent HIV infection
Conclusion: Viral suppression and immunological recovery were excellent, with no differences between ART regimens. Earlier ART initiation was associated with a higher proportion of long-term immunological recovery. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Tenofovir alafenamide vs. tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: an updated meta-analysis of 14 894 patients across 14 trials
Conclusion: Across all main safety endpoints, no differences between TAF and TDF are seen. Boosted TDF regimens were associated with lesser comparative efficacy than boosted TAF and a higher risk of renal event discontinuation. However, modern antiretroviral regimens are more commonly unboosted. This study finds no difference in efficacy or safety in unboosted TAF vs. TDF. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Screening strategies for the detection of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in women living with HIV
Objective: HIV-infected women (WLHIV) have more than 10-fold higher risk for squamous cell cancer of the anus. Experts suggest cytology-based strategies developed for cervical cancer screening may prevent anal cancer by detecting anal cytologic or histological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (hHSIL) for treatment. Currently, there is no consensus on anal-hHSIL screening strategies for WLHIV. Design: Between 2014 and 2016, 276 WLHIV were recruited at 12 US AIDS Malignancy Consortium clinical trials sites to evaluate hHSIL prevalence and (test) screening strategies. Methods: Participants complete...
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Performance of a short, self-report adherence scale in a probability sample of persons using HIV antiretroviral therapy in the United States
Conclusion: The adherence measure had good psychometric qualities and a linear relationship with viral load, supporting its use in both clinical care and research. Adherence interventions should focus on persons with the highest risk of poor adherence. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Noninvasive detection of impaired pulmonary artery endothelial function in people living with HIV
Conclusion: Using noninvasive MRI methods to quantify PAEF, we observed significantly impaired PAEF in PLWH compared with matched HIV-negative controls. Noninvasive PAEF testing may be useful in evaluating early HIV-related pulmonary vascular disease. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Advanced HIV disease in the Botswana combination prevention project: prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes
Objective(s): To determine the proportion of individuals linking to HIV-care with advanced HIV-disease (CD4+ cell counts ≤200 cells/μl) in the Botswana Combination Prevention Project, describe the characteristics of these individuals, and examine treatment outcomes. Design: A subanalysis of a cluster-randomized HIV-prevention trial. HIV status was assessed in 16–64-year-olds through home and mobile testing. All HIV-positive persons not on antiretroviral therapy were referred to local Ministry of Health and Wellness clinics for treatment. Methods: Analysis was restricted to the 15 intervention ...
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA HOTAIRM1 promotes myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion and suppressive functions through up-regulating HOXA1 expression during latent HIV infection
Conclusion: These results indicate that the HOTAIRM1--HOXA1 axis enhances differentiation and suppressive functions of MDSCs and could be a potential therapeutic target for immunomodulation during latent HIV infection. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Resistance profile of HIV-1 quasispecies in patients under treatment failure using single molecule, real-time sequencing
Conclusion: Our results validate the SMRT sequencing-based test for detection of HIV drug resistance. In addition, this method unraveled the complex dynamic of HIV quasispecies during treatment failure, which might have several implications on clinical management. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Differential utilization of CD4+ by transmitted/founder and chronic envelope glycoproteins in a MSM HIV-1 subtype B transmission cluster
Conclusion: These results suggest that envelope glycoproteins from transmitted/founder viruses bind CD4+ less efficiently than those of viruses from chronic infections. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

The importance of advanced cytometry in defining new immune cell types and functions relevant for the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection
In the last years, novel, exciting immunological findings of interest for HIV research and treatment were identified thanks to different cytometric approaches. The analysis of the phenotypes and functionality of cells belonging to the immune system could clarify their role in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection, and to elaborate key concepts, relevant in the treatment of this disease. Important discoveries have been made concerning cells that are important for protective immunity like lymphocytes that display polyfunctionality, resident memory T cells, innate lymphoid cells, to mention a few. The complex phenotype of m...
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL REVIEW Source Type: research

Pulmonary tuberculosis masquerading as coronavirus disease 2019 in an HIV-infected individual with advanced immune suppression
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: FIELD NOTES Source Type: research

Recently acquired and early chronic hepatitis C in MSM: Recommendations from the European treatment network for HIV, hepatitis and global infectious diseases Consensus panel: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Errata Source Type: research

HIV-associated plasmablastic lymphoma in the era of HAART: a single-center experience of 21 patients: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Second-generation integrase strand inhibitors can be effective against elvitegravir-derived multiple integrase gene substitutions
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid viral replication and burden of resistance in three HIV-1-infected people taking Ibalizumab with multiple drug class-wide resistance
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Persons living with HIV may be reluctant to access to COVID-19 testing services: data from ‘D. Cotugno’ Hospital, Naples, Southern Italy
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Placental transfer of the integrase strand inhibitors cabotegravir and bictegravir in the ex-vivo human cotyledon perfusion model
The objective of this study was to determine their transplacental pharmacokinetics. Maternal-to-fetal transfer was investigated using the open-circuit ex-vivo dually perfused human cotyledon model. Cabotegravir or bictegravir was added to a maternal perfusate containing 2 g/l of human albumin and antipyrine, a marker to validate the cotyledon's viability, and cotyledons were dually perfused for up to 90 min. For cabotegravir, in five experiments, the median (IQR 25–75) concentrations in the maternal and in the fetal compartments were, respectively, 550 ng/ml (344–788) and 48 ng/ml (37–54), with a ...
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

The need to reassess our approaches at HIV cure and prevention
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Unexpectedly low levels of transplacental transfer of second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitors bictegravir and cabotegravir
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comment Source Type: research

The effect of universal testing and treatment on HIV stigma in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa
Conclusion: We found little evidence that UTT either increased or decreased HIV stigma measured among people living with HIV, or among community members or health workers not living with HIV. Stigma reduced over time, but slowly. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01900977. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Using HIV self-testing to increase the affordability of community-based HIV testing services
Conclusion: In Lesotho, adding HIVST to community-based HTS improves its overall affordability for HIV-positive case finding. The reporting of both full and incremental cost estimates increase transparency for use in priority setting, budgeting and financial planning for scale-up. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Modeling an integrated HIV prevention and care continuum to achieve the Ending the HIV Epidemic goals
Conclusion: Reaching the EHE 75% incidence reduction goals by their target dates will require immediate and substantial improvements in HIV screening, PrEP, and ART care retention. Meeting these EHE goals in target jurisdictions like Atlanta will be possible only by addressing the HIV service needs of black MSM. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Clinical and pathological features of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus-associated inflammatory cytokine syndrome
We report novel clinical and pathological features in an HIV-1 infected patient diagnosed with KICS. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Deciphering the serological response to syphilis treatment in men living with HIV
Objective: To examine syphilis serology after treatment in people living with HIV. No unanimous guidelines exist in the era of increasing coinfection. Design: Retrospective review using a tertiary care clinic in Toronto from 2000 to 2017. Methods: The 2015 Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention syphilis guidelines were used to define an adequate serologic response. Cumulative distribution estimates and proportional hazards models accounting for interval censoring estimated the time to serologic response and seroreversion. Multistate models were used to investigate extended periods of serofast serology. Result...
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Neurobehavioral outcomes in young adults with perinatally acquired HIV
Conclusion: These pHIVAd displayed high rates of cognitive, psychiatric, and autoimmune dysfunction, greater than age-matched or HIV duration-matched comparators. Although this small study is largely descriptive in nature, it suggests that a lack of cART in early life may result in long-term neurobehavioral and immune abnormalities manifesting into adulthood. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

The predictors of pain extent in people living with HIV
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of widespread pain among people with HIV (PWH) and describe associations with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and markers of HIV disease stage. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of cohort study in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Methods: Pain information was collected during the baseline visit (conducted from 2013 to 2015) through a self-completed manikin identifying pain at 15 sites from five body regions. Pain was classified as widespread if reported at at least four regions and at least seven sites, or regional otherwise. Chi-squared tests, Kruskal–Wallis tests and ordi...
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Prevalence and predictors of bone health among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents
Conclusion: Stiffness index was a significantly lower in PHIVA than in HIV−, especially during puberty. Among PHIVA, detectable viral load and use of lopinavir/ritonavir were risk factors for low stiffness index. Further longitudinal studies are important to determine the clinical implications. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Substantial decline in heavily treated therapy-experienced persons with HIV with limited antiretroviral treatment options
Conclusion: Results of this large multicenter study show a dramatic decline in the prevalence of PWH with LTO to less than 1% with the availability of more potent drugs and a marked increase in virologic suppression in the current ART era. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Inflammation, cytomegalovirus and the growth hormone axis in HIV-exposed uninfected Zimbabwean infants
Conclusion: Overall, we found evidence for greater disruption of the GH axis in HEU compared with HIV-unexposed infants as early as 6 weeks of age, suggesting a role for reduced IGF-1 in mediating growth impairment in HEU infants. Inflammation and coinfections may be drivers of growth impairment in HEU infants by disrupting the GH axis. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Persistence of HIV transmission clusters among people who inject drugs
Objective: We investigated the duration of HIV transmission clusters. Design: Fifty-four individuals newly infected at enrollment in the ALIVE cohort were included, all of whom had sequences at an intake visit (T1) and from a second (T2) and/or a third (T3) follow-up visit, median 2.9 and 5.4 years later, respectively. Methods: Sequences were generated using the 454 DNA sequencing platform for portions of HIV pol and env (HXB2 positions 2717–3230; 7941–8264). Genetic distances were calculated using tn93 and sequences were clustered over a range of thresholds (1--5%) using HIV-TRACE. Analyses were perfo...
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Frequent expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma tissues from persons living with HIV
Conclusion: Collectively, these findings support a potential role for AID in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lymphomas and suggest the need of further investigations into the involvement of the DC-SIGN receptor-signaling pathway. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Mechanistic differences underlying HIV latency in the gut and blood contribute to differential responses to latency-reversing agents
Conclusion: The gut harbors HIV-infected cells in a latent-like state that can be reversed by T-cell activation involving CD3/CD28 signaling. Histone deacetylation and protein kinase B may contribute less to HIV transcriptional initiation in the gut, whereas protein kinase C may contribute more. New LRAs or combinations are needed to induce multiply-spliced HIV and should be tested on both blood and gut. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

The paradox of HIV prevention: did biomedical prevention trials show how effective behavioral prevention can be?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: OPINION Source Type: research

Preventing HIV outbreaks among people who inject drugs in the United States: plus ça change, plus ça même chose
This editorial review covers current trends in the epidemiology of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States, including four recent HIV outbreaks. We discuss gaps in the prevention and treatment cascades for HIV and medications for opioid disorder and propose lessons learned to prevent future HIV outbreaks. Over the last decade, North America has been in the throes of a major opioid epidemic, due in part to over-prescribing of prescription opiates, followed by increasing availability of cheap heroin, synthetic opioids (e.g. fentanyl), and stimulants (e.g. methamphetamine). Historically, HIV infection am...
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL REVIEW Source Type: research

AIDS new editor announcement
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Assessing the validity of and factors that influence accurate self-reporting of HIV status after testing: a population-based study: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

A letter to a young HIV doctor
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research