The antagonism of folate receptor by dolutegravir: developmental toxicity reduction by supplemental folic acid: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

IgG4-related disease masquerading as a fungating groin lesion in a patient with HIV and incomplete immune reconstitution
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Human leukocyte antigen B27 and B57 alleles in HIV-infected long-term nonprogressor children
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Maraviroc exposure is influenced by exogenous thyrotoxicosis
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Naloxone receipt and overdose prevention care among people with HIV on chronic opioid therapy
This study suggests that clinicians prescribing COT to PWH should improve overdose prevention care, including naloxone co-prescribing. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Increasing the urgency to identify adolescents and young adults with HIV infection…do or die
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

Preexposure prophylaxis is effective on a national level, but is it enough
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

Does HIV undermine breast cancer outcomes in women?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

Homonegativity, sexual violence and condom use with women in men who have sex with men and women in West Africa
Objective: The study aimed to explore longitudinal interactions between homonegativity and sexual behaviors with female partners among HIV-negative West African men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Design and method: The community-based cohort CohMSM ANRS 12324 – Expertise France enrolled MSM in Togo, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire and Mali. Sociobehavioral data were collected every 6 months. Using 30-month follow-up data, a multiprobit analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between psychosocial and behavioral variables ex-ante (t − 1) and ex-post (t). Results: ...
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Revealing HIV epidemic dynamics and contrasting responses in two WHO Eastern European countries: insights from modeling and data triangulation
Conclusions: Estonia has turned the tide of its epidemic – large scale-up of prevention and care programs probably contributed to it – whereas in Latvia it remains very active. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Population-level effectiveness of a national HIV preexposure prophylaxis programme in MSM
Conclusion: We demonstrate national population-level impact of PrEP for the first time in a real-world setting. HIV incidence reduced in MSM who had been prescribed PrEP and, to a lesser extent, in those who had not. Promotion of the benefits of PrEP needs to extend to MSM who do not access sexual health clinics. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Combining traditional and molecular epidemiology methods to quantify local HIV transmission among foreign-born residents
Conclusion: We found that the National HIV Surveillance System misclassified the majority of HIV-infected foreign-born residents as ‘new’ local infections, and that these cases contribute to an overestimate of local incidence. Our findings highlight how molecular epidemiology can augment traditional HIV surveillance activities and provide useful information to local health jurisdictions beyond molecular cluster detection. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Interactive digital interventions for prevention of sexually transmitted HIV
Conclusion: There is good evidence that IDIs have positive effects on knowledge, intention and HIV prevention behaviours. IDIs are appropriate for HIV prevention in a variety of settings. Supplementary Video Abstract, http://links.lww.com/QAD/B934 (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Increase in HIV incidence in women exposed to rape
Conclusion: Rape is a long-term risk factor for HIV acquisition. Rape survivors need both immediate and long-term HIV prevention and care. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Age-specific mortality rate ratios in adolescents and youth aged 10–24 years living with perinatally versus nonperinatally acquired HIV
Objective: To measure mortality incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) in adolescents and youth living with perinatally acquired HIV (YPHIV) compared with those living with nonperinatally acquired HIV (YNPHIV), by region, by sex, and during the ages of 10–14, 15–19, and 20–24 years in IeDEA. Design and methods: All those with a confirmed HIV diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive at enrollment, and who have post-ART follow-up while aged 10–24 years between 2004 and 2016 were included. We estimated post-ART mortality incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) per...
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Impact of rosuvastatin on atherosclerosis in people with HIV at moderate cardiovascular risk: a randomised, controlled trial
Conclusion: In PLHIV, statins prescribed at a lower threshold than guidelines did not lead to improvements in CIMT but was associated with significant adverse events. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Impact of HIV infection on baseline characteristics and survival of women with breast cancer
Conclusion: Compared with HIV-negative women, WLWH are diagnosed with breast cancer at a more advanced stage and have a worse overall survival. These results should raise awareness regarding the detection and survival gap among WLWH with breast cancer and further studies are needed to decipher the reasons behind these disparities. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Circulating extracellular vesicles as new inflammation marker in HIV infection
Conclusion: These data demonstrate, for the first time that HIV infection induces the production of extracellular vesicles containing mediators that possibly feed the chronic inflammation and the viral replication. These two effects are connected as the inflammation itself induces the viral replication. We, therefore, hypothesize that HIV infection inhibits the production of extracellular vesicles that carry anti-inflammatory molecules. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Benefits of enhanced infection prophylaxis at antiretroviral therapy initiation by cryptococcal antigen status
Conclusion: Relative reductions in cryptococcal disease/death did not depend on CrAg status. Deaths of unknown cause were unlikely to be cryptococcus-related; plausibly azithromycin contributed to their reduction. Findings support including 100 mg fluconazole in an enhanced-prophylaxis package at antiretroviral therapy initiation where CrAg screening is unavailable/impractical. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Losartan to reduce inflammation and fibrosis endpoints in HIV disease
Conclusion: Among older PHIV with viral suppression, losartan did not improve blood measures of inflammation nor T-cell immune recovery. Losartan treatment is unlikely to reduce inflammation associated comorbidities to a clinically meaningful degree, beyond the benefits from lowering blood pressure. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02049307. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Maintenance of statin therapy among people living with HIV
Conclusion: Maintenance of statin therapy is poor among PLHIV on ART but is not associated with using contraindicated antiretroviral/statin combinations. A better understanding of statin use in PLHIV will aid clinicians treating individuals and policy makers designing interventions for population-level ASCVD risk reduction. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Maternal HIV, antiretroviral timing, and spontaneous preterm birth in an urban Zambian cohort: the role of local and systemic inflammation
Conclusion: Women not receiving ART at entry into pregnancy care had more vaginal inflammation than women entering on treatment. They also experienced an increase in vaginal inflammation between the two sampling timepoints, possibly as a consequence of ART initiation. Vaginal (but not systemic) inflammation was associated with sPTB and offers a potential mechanistic insight into this important adverse birth outcome. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein A-I mimetics attenuate macrophage activation in chronic treated HIV
Conclusion: Given that gut barrier dysfunction and macrophage activation are contributors to comorbidities like cardiovascular disease in HIV, apoA-I mimetics should be tested as therapy for morbidity in chronic treated HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

HIV in Iran: onset, responses, and future directions
Iran, a country in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, has been actively involved in the fight against HIV/AIDS over the past three decades. The unique features of the HIV epidemic in Iran are reflected by the modes of transmission and its recent changes to improve management and prevention programs. In this review, we recount the initial onset and subsequent spread of HIV infection in Iran, beginning with the first case diagnosed to the ongoing responses and most recent achievements in controlling this epidemic. Although in the MENA region, Iran is one of the pioneers in implementing pertinent policies includi...
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL REVIEW Source Type: research

Risk of adverse coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes for people living with HIV
Conclusion: Emerging evidence suggests a moderately increased risk of COVID-19 mortality among PLWH. Further investigation into the relationship between COVID-19 outcomes and CD4+ T-cell count, HIV viral load, ART and the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is warranted. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: FAST TRACK Source Type: research

A multilevel intervention to reduce stigma among alcohol consuming men living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy: findings from a randomized control trial in India: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Preexposure prophylaxis care continuum among transgender women at a patient-centered preexposure prophylaxis program in Atlanta, Georgia
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Differences in tenofovir trough concentrations between branded and generic formulations in people taking PrEP
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The role of e-commerce platforms in optimizing the HIV care continuum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Viral suppression during COVID-19 among people with HIV experiencing homelessness in a low-barrier clinic-based program
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) threatens to further worsen HIV outcomes among people experiencing homelessness. We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis of care engagement and viral suppression among unhoused individuals in the ‘POP-UP’ low-barrier, high-intensity HIV primary care program during COVID-19. Among 85 patients, care engagement and viral suppression did not decrease in the 5 months following implementation of San Francisco's ‘shelter-in-place’ ordinance. Low-barrier, in-person HIV care for homeless individuals may be important for maintaining HIV outcomes during COVID-19. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Kaposi sarcoma: a fresh look
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

HIV neurocognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: sniffing out the difference
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comments Source Type: research

Accuracy of self-reported HIV-testing history and awareness of HIV-positive status in four sub-Saharan African countries
Background: In many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, self-reported HIV testing history and awareness of HIV-positive status from household surveys are used to estimate the percentage of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who know their HIV status. Despite widespread use, there is limited empirical information on the sensitivity of those self-reports, which can be affected by nondisclosure. Methods: Bayesian latent class models were used to estimate the sensitivity of self-reported HIV-testing history and awareness of HIV-positive status in four Population-based HIV Impact Assessment surveys in Eswatini, Malawi, Tanz...
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Depressive symptoms and use of HIV care and medication-assisted treatment among people with HIV who inject drugs
Conclusion: High levels of depressive symptoms were common among people living with HIV who inject drugs in Ukraine but were less common in Vietnam and Indonesia. The study intervention was effective among participants with or without baseline depression symptoms. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Optimizing respondent-driven sampling to find undiagnosed HIV-infected people who inject drugs
Conclusion: pRDS identified twice as many undiagnosed and viremic PWID significantly faster than the standard approach. Leveraging RDS or similar network-based strategies should be considered alongside other strategies to ensure meeting UNAIDS targets. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Maternal HIV and child anthropometric outcomes over time: an analysis of Zimbabwe demographic health surveys
Conclusion: In Zimbabwe, having a mother who tested positive for HIV at the time of the survey has been associated with greater child undernutrition over the last two decades with no significant change by survey round. This emphasizes the need for continued programming to address nutritional deficiencies, sanitation, and infectious disease prevention in this high-risk population. The greatest impact of maternal HIV status has been on child stunting and underweight, associated with poor long-term child development. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Interventions to improve daily medication use among adolescents and young adults: what can we learn for youth pre-exposure prophylaxis services?
Conclusion: Interventions that improve medication adherence among youth include enhanced counseling, extended pill supply, adolescent-friendly services, and text message reminders. PrEP programs could incorporate and evaluate such interventions for their impact on PrEP adherence and continuation among at-risk adolescents. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Preexposure prophylaxis strategies for African–American women affected by mass incarceration
Conclusion: Expanding PrEP for African–American women and their male partners affected by incarceration should be considered in national HIV prevention goals and correctional facilities leveraged as intervention sites. Partner characteristics in the current CDC indications may be more effective and efficient if guidelines considered criminal justice involvement. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Monocyte activation in persons living with HIV and tuberculosis coinfection
Objectives: To characterize monocyte subsets and activation in persons living with HIV (PLWH) with tuberculosis coinfection. Design: Cross-sectional study within a cohort of PLWH and HIV-uninfected participants at the Joint Clinical Research Centre in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: Participants were at least 45 years old with at least one cardiovascular risk factor. PLWH had an HIV viral load 1000 copies/ml or less on stable antiretroviral therapy prior to cohort entry. QuantiFERON-TB testing was performed to define latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Prior active TB was defined by self-report and verified...
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and weight gain following switch to integrase strand transfer inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion: Those in European mtDNA haplogroup clade UK and African haplogroup L3 had significantly greater weight gain after switching to INSTI-based ART, especially those receiving TAF. Additional studies in large and diverse populations are needed to clarify the mechanisms and host risk factors for weight gain after switching to INSTI-based ART, with and without TAF. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

The utility of olfactory function in distinguishing early-stage Alzheimer's disease from HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
We examined UPSIT scores in relation to aMCI risk and HAND status, and continuous memory scores considering adjustments for demographics and relevant clinical or HIV disease characteristics. Results: Fifty-seven participants were classified with HAND (70%) and 35 participants were classified as high aMCI risk (43%). UPSIT scores were lower (worse) in the high versus low aMCI risk group [F (1,76) = 10.04, P = 0.002], but did not differ by HAND status [F (1,76) = 0.62, P = 0.43]. UPSIT scores positively correlated with all memory outcomes (Ps  (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and safety of maraviroc in neonates
Conclusion: Median maraviroc exposure met the Cavg target in neonates receiving 8 mg/kg twice daily, although exposures were variable. Maternal efavirenz use did not impact maraviroc exposure and no discontinuations were due to maraviroc toxicity/intolerance. No infants acquired HIV-1 infection during follow-up. Maraviroc 8 mg/kg twice daily appears well tolerated during the first 6 weeks of life. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of tenofovir alafenamide with and without cobicistat in pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV
Conclusion: TAF exposures were comparable or higher than those measured in nonpregnant adults during pregnancy and postpartum. These findings provide reassurance on adequate TAF exposures during pregnancy, and support efforts to expand the use of TAF in pregnant women with HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

A comparative study of classic and HIV-viremic and aviremic AIDS Kaposi sarcoma
Conclusion: We showed that Kaposi sarcoma in PLHIV with controlled viremia were generally indolent, similarly to CKS. Visceral involvement is, however, possible. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

HIV-DNA content in pTfh cells is associated with residual viremia in elite controllers
Conclusion: This association suggests that pTfh cells could have an important contribution to persistent viremia in elite controllers. This could be the consequence of a more limited control of HIV replication in elite controllers with higher transcriptional activity of HIV in pTfh cells of elite controllers than that in cART patients. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Effects of anticholinergic medication use on brain integrity in persons living with HIV and persons without HIV
This study examined relationships between anticholinergic medication burden and brain integrity in people living with HIV (PLWH) and people without HIV (HIV−). Methods: Neuropsychological performance z-scores (learning, retention, executive function, motor/psychomotor speed, language domains, and global cognition), and neuroimaging measures (brain volumetrics and white matter fractional anisotropy) were analyzed in PLWH (n = 209) and HIV− (n = 95) grouped according to the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale (0 = no burden, 1–3 = low burden,>3 = high burden). Neuropsy...
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Influence of dapivirine vaginal ring use on cervicovaginal immunity and functional microbiome in adolescent girls
Objective: The antiretroviral-based dapivirine vaginal ring reduced HIV risk among women in phase III clinical trials. However, limited data exists on the impact of dapivirine on the vaginal microenvironment in adolescents. Design: A comprehensive metaproteomics approach was used to assess host proteome and microbiome changes in cervicovaginal mucus with dapivirine ring use in adolescents enrolled in the MTN-023/IPM 030 (MTN-023) trial. Methods: Participants were randomized 3 : 1 to use dapivirine or placebo vaginal rings monthly for 6 months. Cervicovaginal samples from a subset of 35 participants (8...
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

HIV-1 infection of the kidney: mechanisms and implications
People living with HIV are at higher risk for acute and chronic kidney disease compared with uninfected individuals. Kidney disease in this population is multifactorial, with several contributors including HIV infection of kidney cells, chronic inflammation, genetic predisposition, aging, comorbidities, and coinfections. In this review, we provide a summary of recent advancements in the understanding of the mechanisms and implications of HIV infection and kidney disease, with particular focus on the role of direct HIV infection of renal cells. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL REVIEW Source Type: research

Caring for people living with HIV during the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: FIELD NOTES Source Type: research

Organizing pneumonia-presenting acute respiratory distress syndrome because of paradoxical tuberculosis-immune reconstitution disease?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - January 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research