Letter to the editor re: Cabrera: et al.: , 2019 ‘The antagonism of folate receptor by dolutegravir: developmental toxicity reduction by supplemental folic acid’
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

HIV viral load algorithm: what are the needs in the field?: authors’ response
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

HIV viral load algorithm: what are the needs in the field?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Weight gain in people living with HIV switched to dual therapy: changes in body fat mass
Changes in weight and body composition were assessed in long-term suppressed HIV-infected patients switching to dolutegravir/rilpivirine (n = 37), and compared with similar patients switching to darunavir/lamivudine (n = 17). At month 12, weight significantly increased with dolutegravir/rilpivirine (1.8 kg, IQR −1.2 to 4.1; 2.5%; P = 0.03). A follow-up DXA (median, 16 months) showed similar increases in trunk (7.8%), arms (5.6%), and legs (6.2%) fat mass, without changes in lean mass. Despite lower weight gain (0.70 kg, IQR −0.8 to 4.0, P = 0.28), fat mass increase was similar in the darunav...
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Recently formed age-disparate partnerships are associated with elevated HIV-incidence among young women in South Africa
We examined heterogeneity in HIV-acquisition risk by duration of partnership (defined by quartiles) at cohort enrolment. Results: During 1139 person-years (mean: 1.4 years) of follow-up, 54 (6.5%) women seroconverted, a weighted HIV-incidence estimate of 4.41/100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.30–6.06]. HIV-acquisition risk did not differ significantly between women in age-disparate vs. age-similar partnerships (adjusted hazard ratios: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.55–2.21). However, for women in the shortest partnership quartile ( (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

CD4+ cell count stratification to guide tuberculosis preventive therapy for people living with HIV
Conclusion: TB incidence was high among all patients who did not receive IPT, including those with CD4+ cell count more than 350 cells/μl and negative or unknown TST results. TB preventive therapy should be provided to all people living with HIV in medium burden settings, regardless of CD4+ cell count and TST status. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Antiretroviral therapy adherence among treatment-naive HIV-infected patients
Conclusion: Low ART adherence observed among treatment-naive patients in this nationally representative study suggests the need for public health interventions to improve adherence among this population. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Human papillomavirus infection and cervical dysplasia in HIV-positive women: potential role of the vaginal microbiota
Conclusions: hrHPV infection (and/or increased sexual risk-taking) may cause anaerobic vaginal dysbiosis, but a bidirectional relationship is also possible. In this population, dysbiosis did not increase CIN2+ risk, but CIN2+ increased dysbiosis risk. The CIN2+ risk associated with progestin-only injectable use requires further evaluation. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

No overall change in the rate of weight gain after switching to an integrase-inhibitor in virologically suppressed adults with HIV
Conclusion: We found no clear evidence of an overall increase in rate of weight gain following switch to INSTI in virologically suppressed individuals. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic profiles of boosted darunavir, dolutegravir and lamivudine in aging people living with HIV
Objectives: The pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs may differ in elderly people living with HIV (PLWH) because of age-related physiological changes. We aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics of several antiretroviral drugs in aging PLWH enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort (SHCS). Design: Full pharmacokinetic profiling nested in a multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study. Additional collection of single point pharmacokinetic data during SHCS follow-up visits (unselected PLWH). Methods: PLWH were eligible for the full pharmacokinetics investigation if they were over the age of 55 years, on a stable boost...
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

HIV drug resistance in a cohort of HIV-infected MSM in the United States
Conclusion: High prevalence of drug resistance was observed among MSM. Some had multiclass resistance, resistance to drugs used for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and INSTI resistance. These findings highlight the need for improved HIV care in this high-risk population, identification of alternative regimens for PrEP, and inclusion of integrase resistance testing when selecting ART regimens for MSM in the United States. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Clinical and procedural characteristics of persons living with HIV presenting with acute coronary syndrome
Conclusion: PLWH hospitalized with ACS were more likely to have severe single-vessel disease, present with STEMI rather than non-STEMI, and undergo revascularization, and less likely to have a drug-eluting stent placed than matched HIV-negative controls, suggesting that coronary plaque morphology and/or distribution is different with HIV infection and warrants further investigation. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Longitudinal assessment of abnormal Papanicolaou test rates among women with HIV
Conclusion: Rates of abnormal cytology among women with HIV have fallen during the past two decades. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Adherence to tuberculosis preventive therapy measured by urine metabolite testing among people with HIV
Conclusion: Adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy among patients with HIV in Brazil and South Africa is inadequate, is overestimated by self-report, and declines with time on treatment. Shorter regimens for TB preventive therapy may improve adherence and completion, but adherence support for all patients may be necessary. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Switching from efavirenz to rilpivirine improves sleep quality and self-perceived cognition but has no impact on neurocognitive performances
Conclusion: Our results do not support the hypothesis that switching to RPV improves cognitive function in patient under stable treatment with EFV. Nonetheless, improvements in neuropsychiatric symptoms, sleep quality and self-perceived cognition were observed. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Early diagnosis and risk factors of acute hepatitis C in high-risk MSM on preexposure prophylaxis
Conclusion: HCV antigen and RNA tests were positive within a median of 2 months before the detection of antibodies and ALT elevation. These tests could be considered for HCV screening in high-risk MSM. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Female genital tract shedding of HIV-1 is rare in women with suppressed HIV-1 in plasma
Conclusion: ART that suppresses HIV-1 in the plasma of women also prevents genital tract HIV-1 shedding, even in the presence of genital tract inflammation. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

High soluble CD163 levels correlate with disease progression and inflammation in Kenyan children with perinatal HIV-infection
Objectives: CD163 is a hemoglobin scavenger receptor on monocytes and macrophages, cleaved to soluble CD163 (sCD163) in the plasma following activation. In HIV+ adults, sCD163 is linked to non-AIDS morbidity and predicts mortality, but there is limited data in children. We investigated sCD163 levels in HIV+ children and their correlations with disease progression, immune activation and gut mucosal damage. Design and methods: We quantified sCD163 levels in Kenyan children aged 0–20 years with perinatal HIV infection, including 74 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve (ART−) and 64 virally suppressed on ...
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Association of complement C3d receptor 2 genotypes with the acquisition of HIV infection in a trial of recombinant glycoprotein 120 vaccine
Conclusion: The current study suggests that CR2 may play a role in HIV-1 acquisition after vaccination with rgp120 proteins. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

T cells with high PD-1 expression are associated with lower HIV-specific immune responses despite long-term antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion: PD-1HI T cells persist in blood despite prolonged suppression on ART, correlate with HIV DNA levels, and are associated with lower HIV-specific T-cell responses but not CMV-specific or EBV-specific responses, suggesting that these cells are HIV-specific. The findings support evaluating PD-1 blockade strategies for their effect on HIV persistence and HIV-specific immunity. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Comorbidities of HIV infection: role of Nef-induced impairment of cholesterol metabolism and lipid raft functionality
Combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically changed the outcome of HIV infection, turning it from a death sentence to a manageable chronic disease. However, comorbidities accompanying HIV infection, such as metabolic and cardio-vascular diseases, as well as cognitive impairment, persist despite successful virus control by combination antiretroviral therapy and pose considerable challenges to clinical management of people living with HIV. These comorbidities involve a number of pathological processes affecting a variety of different tissues and cells, making it challenging to identify a common cause(s) that would li...
Source: AIDS - December 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL REVIEW Source Type: research

Women, incarceration and HIV: a systematic review of HIV treatment access, continuity of care and health outcomes across incarceration trajectories: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Mesenteritis in immunosuppressed patient with Mycobacterium genavense infection
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Long-term safety and efficacy of dolutegravir and unboosted atazanavir among experienced HIV-infected adults
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Symptomatic cerebrospinal fluid HIV escape syndrome in a patient on highly active antiretroviral therapy and suppressed plasma viral load
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in plasma and breastmilk in a treatment-experienced perinatally HIV-1-infected woman
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Polypharmacy and evaluation of anticholinergic risk in a cohort of elderly people living with HIV
As a consequence of ageing, the number of prescribed medications for people living with HIV is increasing. Concomitant use of different drugs and their potential interactions may increase anticholinergic exposure and escalate the risk for side effects. We conducted an analysis in our cohort of people living with HIV over 50 years of age to evaluate the overall anticholinergic risk, as it is useful to identify, prevent, and manage increased side effect risks. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Narrowing down the causes of failure of tenofovir (only) for preexposure prophylaxis
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comment Source Type: research

High yield of new HIV diagnoses during active case-finding for tuberculosis
Conclusion: We observed a high yield of new HIV diagnoses among adults identified by active application of a broad symptom screen. Use of integrated tuberculosis and HIV screening could help close the detection gap for both conditions. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Decreased HIV-associated mortality rates during scale-up of antiretroviral therapy, 2011–2016
Conclusions: Mortality rates among HIV-infected individuals declined substantially during ART expansion between 2011 and 2016, though less than during early ART introduction. Mortality trends among HIV-infected populations are critical to understanding epidemic dynamics. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

High incidence of tuberculosis in the first year of antiretroviral therapy in the Botswana National antiretroviral therapy programme between 2011 and 2015
Conclusion: We report a high incidence of TB within the first year of ART and in patients with advanced immunodeficiency. Improved screening strategies and virologic monitoring during this early period on ART, coupled with TB preventive treatment, will reduce the burden of TB. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Association between HIV antiretroviral therapy and preterm birth based on antenatal ultrasound gestational age determination: a comparative analysis
Conclusion: Women starting HIV ART in pregnancy remained at higher risk of PTB when determined by ultrasound, consistent with prior data using newborn exam. However, newborn exam misclassified cases of PTB compared with gold standard ultrasound. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Progress toward HIV epidemic control in Lesotho
Conclusions: Findings from this population-based survey provide encouraging data in terms of HIV testing and treatment uptake and coverage. Specific attention to reaching youth to engage them in HIV-related interventions are critical to achieving epidemic control. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Reversible effect on lipids by switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide and back
Objective: The aim of the current study is to assess the effect of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on lipids in patients switching from TDF to TAF and back. Methods: Retrospective data collection on patients who were initially switched from TDF to TAF and switched back to TDF after generics of TDF became available. Results: In total, 385 patients were included. Median duration of TDF exposure before switch was 317 weeks (interquartile range 172–494). After switching from TDF to TAF, mean total cholesterol (TC) increased from 186 ± 37 mg/dl at baseline to 206 ...
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Attrition of HIV-positive children from HIV services in low and middle-income countries
Conclusions: These findings underscore the high attrition of children from HIV services in LMICs. Early ART initiation and decentralized patient support services (e.g. tracing for those LTFU) have potential to improve retention in care. Implementation research and resources are urgently needed to improve retention among this vulnerable population. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Higher soluble CD14 levels are associated with lower visuospatial memory performance in youth with HIV
Conclusion: Impaired visuospatial memory in YWH is associated with immune activation, as reflected by higher sCD14. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

MicroRNA biomarkers associated with type 1 myocardial infarction in HIV-positive individuals
Conclusion: MiR-125a-5p and miR-139-5p, transcripts known to be differentially expressed in HIV-positive individuals, may serve as unique biomarkers predictive of cardiovascular disease in these patients and may help clarify processes because of HIV infection that contribute to cardiovascular disorders in this population. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Impact of early antiretroviral treatment on sexual behaviour: a randomised comparison
Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV infectiousness but the effect of early ART on sexual behaviour is unclear. Methods: We assessed, within the START randomized trial that enrolled HIV-positive adults with CD4+ cell count greater than 500 cells/μl, the effect of early (immediate) versus deferred ART on: condomless sex with HIV-serodifferent partners (CLS-D); all condomless sex (CLS); HIV transmission-risk sex (CLS-D-HIV risk, defined as CLS-D and: not on ART or started ART (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Non-AIDS comorbidity burden differs by sex, race, and insurance type in aging adults in HIV care
Objective: To understand the epidemiology of non-AIDS-related chronic comorbidities (NACMs) among aging persons with HIV (PWH). Design: Prospective multicenter observational study to assess, in an age-stratified fashion, number and types of NACMs by demographic and HIV factors. Methods: Eligible participants were seen during 1 January 1997 to 30 June 2015, followed for more than 5 years, received antiretroviral therapy (ART), and virally suppressed (HIV viral load (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Comorbidity and polypharmacy among women living with HIV in British Columbia
We examined baseline data from 267 WLWH and 276 HIV-negative women, aged at least 19 years, enrolled in the Children and Women: Antiretrovirals and Markers of Aging (CARMA) cohort. Methods: Self-reported demographic, medical condition, medication, vitamin, and substance exposure data were collected at baseline CARMA study visits. We considered conditions with appropriate concomitant medications to be ‘treated’. Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact tests compared continuous and categorical variables between WLWH and HIV-negative women. Number of diagnoses, prescribed medications (excluding HIV/antiretrovirals...
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Better executive function is independently associated with full HIV suppression during combination therapy
Conclusion: In a 15-year research cohort of almost 2000 HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy, better executive function was associated with full virologic suppression, possibly as a result rather than a cause. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

HIV-1 genetic diversity to estimate time of infection and infer adherence to preexposure prophylaxis
Conclusion: We estimated time of infection in participants from BTS and found several infections when high levels of adherence to TDF were reported. Our results suggest that the biological efficacy of daily TDF against parenteral HIV exposure is not 100%. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Delayed gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue reconstitution in duodenum compared with rectum in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion: HIV-mediated immunological disruption is greater in the duodenum than rectum and blood before and during ART. Small intestine damage may represent a unique environment for T-cell depletion, which might be attenuated by interaction with Gram-positive bacteria. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Cannabinoids and inflammation: implications for people living with HIV
Thanks to the success of modern antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) have life expectancies which approach that of persons in the general population. However, despite the ability of ART to suppress viral replication, PLWH have high levels of chronic systemic inflammation which drives the development of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-AIDS associated malignancies. Historically, cannabis has played an important role in alleviating many symptoms experienced by persons with advanced HIV infection in the pre-ART era and continues to be used by many PLWH in the ART era, thoug...
Source: AIDS - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL REVIEW Source Type: research

Vedolizumab use and the associations between α4β7 expression and HIV reservoir in the gut during treated primary HIV infection
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Simplified two-drug antiretroviral HIV treatment: novel data and expected impact
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Two-drug regimens with dolutegravir for maintaining viral suppression: looking at the right companion
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Response to letter to the editor: switch to dolutegravir and unboosted atazanavir
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Rhodococcus defluvii pneumonia: first reported case in humans
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Brexit and United Kingdom citizens with HIV residing in Spain: a matter of public health
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - November 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research