RAPID antiretroviral therapy: high virologic suppression rates with immediate antiretroviral therapy initiation in a vulnerable urban clinic population: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

A shot at equity? Addressing disparities among Black MSM in the coming era of long-acting injectable preexposure prophylaxis
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Workforce development needs in HIV care: a response to mental health and HIV/AIDS: the need for an integrated response
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

HIV-related risk behaviors and testing among adolescent gay and bisexual boys in the United States
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Acute myocarditis after switch to dolutegravir: a reminder of potential toxicity of integrase inhibitor-including HAART
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Contributing awareness of autoimmune hepatitis in HIV patients
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Delays in fast track antiretroviral therapy initiation and reasons for not starting treatment among eligible children in Eastern Cape, South Africa
We report data from an observational cohort of South African children living with HIV less than 12 years of age eligible for fast track antiretroviral therapy (rapid) initiation. We found that less than half of children eligible for rapid antiretroviral therapy initiation based on immunologic and disease status started treatment within 1 week. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Déjà vu all over again
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENT Source Type: research

Association between zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy exposure in utero and leukocyte telomere length at birth
We examined the association between in utero exposure to ZDV and telomere length at birth in HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) newborns. Methods: We selected 94 ZDV-exposed HEU children and 85 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-unexposed HEU children from the Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities Study and the Women and Infants Transmission Study. We assessed relative telomere length in stored peripheral blood mononuclear cells taken in the first 7 days of life using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We used linear regression to compare relative telomere length between ZDV-exposed and ART-unexposed children. We addition...
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

The association of provider and practice factors with HIV antiretroviral therapy adherence
Objective: While antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential to patients with HIV, there is substantial variation in adherence nationally. We assess how provider and practice factors contribute to successful HIV ART adherence. Design: We used Medicaid Analytic Extract claims from 2008 to 2012. We attributed patients with HIV to the provider that provided the plurality of HIV-related services or primary care in a given year and assigned these providers to a medical practice based on the National Provider Identifier registry file. We fit successive linear hierarchical models with patient, provider, and practice characteri...
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

How are transgender women acquiring HIV? Insights from phylogenetic transmission clusters in San Francisco
Conclusion: Transmission patterns of transgender women may stand apart from MSM epidemics. Transgender women clustered with people who inject drugs, and with men who have sex with transgender women and cisgender women. Aggregation of transgender women into the category of MSM may obscure understanding of how they acquire HIV and to whom they may transmit infection. Phylogenetic insights strengthen the case that HIV prevention programs for MSM may not be applicable to transgender women or their partners. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Long-term safety and vaccine-induced seropositivity in healthy volunteers from HIV vaccine trials
Conclusion: Volunteers showed a sustained high commitment. No long-term safety alert was identified during the postvaccine follow-up. Participating in vaccine trials did not increase risky behaviors for HIV infection. Vaccine-induced seropositivity may persist for more than 23 years after receiving rgp160. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Growth curve modelling to determine distinct BMI trajectory groups in HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
Conclusion: The largest gain in BMI in HIV patients occurred in the first year on ART. During follow-up, over 50% of our population changed BMI categories putting them at an increased risk for NCDs. Consistent counselling on nutritional and lifestyle changes could help improve ART patients’ long-term health outcomes. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Inflammatory biomarkers prior to antiretroviral therapy as prognostic markers of 12-month mortality in South Africa and Uganda
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the utility of biomarkers of immune activation, systemic inflammation and coagulopathy prior to antiretroviral therapy to predict mortality during the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Design: A prospective, observational cohort. Methods: We measured soluble CD14, interleukin-6 and D-dimer in nonpregnant individuals initiating ART in South Africa and Uganda in the Measuring Early Treatment Adherence (META) Study. We used survival analysis methods to estimate their association with 12-month mortality, and fit receiver operator curves (...
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

The use of molecular markers for cervical screening of women living with HIV in South Africa
Conclusion: Molecular screening strategies using HPV, with or without HPV16/18 genotyping, and FAM19A4/miR124-2 methylation have higher sensitivity with an acceptable loss in specificity compared with current cytology screening and are efficient for the detection of CIN3+ in South African women living with HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Contributions of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and traditional vascular risk factors to peripheral artery disease in women
Conclusion: The high PAD prevalence in this nationally representative cohort of women with or at risk for HIV is on par with general population studies in individuals a decade older than our study's median age. HIV and HCV infection are not associated with greater PAD risk relative to uninfected women with similar risk factors. Modifiable traditional CVD risk factors may be important early intervention targets in women with and at risk for HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Uptake and effectiveness of two-drug compared with three-drug antiretroviral regimens among HIV-positive individuals in Europe
Objective: To assess the use of two-drug antiretroviral regimens (2DR) and virologic and immunologic outcomes compared with three-drug regimens (3DR) in the EuroSIDA cohort. Design: Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Methods: Logistic regression was used to analyse the uptake and outcomes among HIV-positive individuals who started or switched to a 2DR compared with those on a 3DR. Virologic outcomes were assessed on-treatment as the proportion of individuals with controlled viral load ( (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Low-level viremia and virologic failure in persons with HIV infection treated with antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion: LLV between 201 and 500 was associated with virologic failure, as was LLV between 51 and 200, particularly among ART-experienced patients. Patients with LLV below the current Department of Health and Human Services threshold for virologic failure (persistent viremia ≥200) may require more intensive monitoring because of increased risk for virologic failure. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

A pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic evaluation of contraceptive implants and antiretroviral therapy among women in Kenya and Uganda
Objectives: To evaluate pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of contraceptive implant progestin concentrations in HIV-positive women initiating efavirenz (EFV)-containing or nevirapine (NVP)-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: We analyzed stored samples from women self-reporting implant use in the Partners PrEP Study. Methods: Plasma samples collected every 6 months were analyzed for levonorgestrel and etonogestrel concentrations. Progestin concentrations from samples collected after ART initiation were compared with pre-ART concentrations for intraindividual comparisons. We used adjusted linear mixed...
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Viro-immunological outcomes after 13-valent pneumococcal vaccination in HIV-1-infected individuals on stable virological suppression
Background: Very limited data are available on the immunovirological outcomes after 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated patients. The aim of this study was to assess the immune-virological outcomes in HIV-1-infected ART-treated patients on stable virological suppression who underwent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Methods: Retrospective, cohort study on ART-treated HIV-1-infected individuals, age at least 18 years, with three consecutive determinations of HIV-RNA less than 50 copies/ml before the administration of PCV13 (baseline) at San Raffaele Hospital and w...
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Long-term evolution of transmitted CXCR4-using HIV-1 under effective antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion: CXCR4-using viruses persisted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of several patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy for a median duration of 12.5 years after PHI. The genetic complexity of HIV-1 evolved differently post-PHI in patients infected with R5X4 viruses from those infected with R5 viruses. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

The antagonism of folate receptor by dolutegravir: developmental toxicity reduction by supplemental folic acid
Conclusion: Folates and FOLR1 are established modifiers of risk for neural tube defects, and binding data indicates DTG is a partial antagonist of FOLR1. Supplemental folate can ameliorate increased developmental toxicity due to DTG in zebrafish. The results from these studies are expected to inform and guide future animal models and clinical studies of DTG-based antiretroviral therapy in women of childbearing age. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Antibody-mediated control of HIV-1 infection through an alternative pathway
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: OPINION Source Type: research

Strong sex bias in elite control of paediatric HIV infection: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Preclinical evaluation of an mRNA HIV vaccine combining rationally selected antigenic sequences and adjuvant signals (HTI-TriMix): Erratum Phase I clinical trial of an intranodally administered mRNA-based therapeutic vaccine against HIV-1 infection: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Errata Source Type: research

IL-7 immunotherapy for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with already controlled HIV-1 infection on antiretroviral therapy
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

HIV presenting as AIDS in previously undiagnosed tourists in a low-prevalence setting
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Eliminating the HIV epidemic: the US government can make preexposure prophylaxis affordable now
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The influence of constraints on the efficient allocation of resources for HIV prevention: authors’ response
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The influence of constraints on the efficient allocation of resources for HIV prevention
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Lack of HIV-1 integrase inhibitor resistance among 392 antiretroviral-naïve individuals in a tertiary care hospital in Beijing, China
Reports of resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are now not uncommon. We analyzed the HIV int gene from plasma of antiretroviral-naïve individuals during acute and chronic HIV-1 infection. No individual with major INSTI mutations was identified. Two individuals harbored INSTI accessory mutations E157Q/T97A were detected for the first time. Our results emphasize the need to consider testing for INSTI resistance at baseline as this class of drugs is increasingly used in clinical routine. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Distinguishing cognitive impairment from HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder versus substance use?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comment Source Type: research

Excess heart age in adult outpatients in routine HIV care
Conclusions: Excess heart age is common among PLWH, begins in early adulthood, and impacts both women and men. Among PLWH, CVD risk factors should be addressed early and proactively. Routine use of the heart age calculator may help optimize CVD risk stratification and facilitate interventions for aging PLWH. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Nonadherence and unsuppressed viral load across adolescence among US youth with perinatally acquired HIV
Objective: To identify factors associated with nonadherence and unsuppressed viral load across adolescence among youth with perinatally acquired HIV. Design: Longitudinal study at 15 US clinical sites. Methods: Self-reported antiretroviral medication nonadherence (any missed dose, past week) and unsuppressed viral load (HIV RNA > 400 copies/ml) were assessed annually. Individual, caregiver, social, and structural factors associated with nonadherence and unsuppressed viral load were identified by age (years): 8–11 (preadolescence), 12–14 (early adolescence), 15–17 (middle adolescence), and 1...
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

A modeling framework to inform preexposure prophylaxis initiation and retention scale-up in the context of ‘Getting to Zero’ initiatives
Conclusion: Simulation results indicate that expanded PrEP interventions alone may not accomplish GTZ goals within a decade, and integrated scale-up of PrEP, antiretroviral therapy, and other interventions might be necessary. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

Height and timing of growth spurt during puberty in young people living with vertically acquired HIV in Europe and Thailand
Conclusion: Stunting at ART initiation was associated with later growth spurts in girls. Children with HAZ at least −1 at ART initiation grew in height at the level expected in HIV negative children of a comparable age. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research

A 24-week pilot study of dual maintenance therapy with raltegravir and lamivudine
Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that switching to raltegravir along with lamivudine in patients with viral suppression maintains efficacy and is well tolerated. A larger study of longer duration is required to confirm these findings. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Performance of Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 viral load plasma assay to accurately detect treatment failure
Conclusion: The Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 viral load plasma assay results were highly comparable to laboratory-based technologies with limited bias and high sensitivity and specificity to detect treatment failure. Alternative specimen types and technologies that enable decentralized testing services can be considered to expand access to viral load. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Risk factors and impact of patterns of co-occurring comorbidities in people living with HIV
Aims: To assess associations of comorbidity patterns observed in people living with HIV (PLWH) with risk factors and health outcomes. Methods: Common patters of comorbidities in PLWH participating in the Pharmacokinetic and Clinical Observations in People Over Fifty study were determined using principal component analysis and a severity score for each pattern was derived. Associations between each pattern's severity score and risk factors were assessed using median regression. The independent associations of patterns’ severity scores with self-reported physical and mental health (SF-36 summary scores) were asses...
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Double dissociation of HIV and substance use disorder effects on neurocognitive tasks dependent on striatal integrity
Objective: Substance use is common among individuals infected with HIV, yet whether neurocognitive effects of HIV can be distinguished from more nonspecific effects of drug dependence and associated comorbidities is not known. Design: Cross-sectional observational study of neurocognitive function among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals with and without substance use disorders (SUDs). Methods: We compared the performance of 458 (31% HIV-infected) substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) and 90 individuals (23% HIV-infected) with no history of SUDs on measures of delay discounting and probability learning, tasks,...
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Coronary atherosclerosis characteristics in HIV-infected patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy: insights from coronary computed tomography–angiography
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess coronary artery disease (CAD) characteristics by coronary computed tomography–angiography (CCTA) in individuals with HIV infection on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) Design: Retrospective case-controlled matched cohort study. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive patients who underwent 128-slice dual source CCTA (mean age 54.9 years, 26.1% women) with mean 17.8 ± 9.4 years of HIV infection and a mean duration on ART of 13 ± 7.3 years were propensity score-matched (1 : 1) for age, sex, BMI, and five cardiovascular risk factors with 69 co...
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Imaging correlates of the blood–brain barrier disruption in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder and therapeutic implications
Objective: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in the context of suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) still occur. We explored the role of blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the pathogenesis of HAND in the context of fully suppressive cART using dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion (DCE-P) MRI. DCE-P is a new MRI technique that measures capillary permeability as an indicator for BBB integrity. We hypothesized that virally suppressed incident HAND would be associated with an impaired BBB as determined by DCE-P. Design: A cross sectional study. Methods: K-trans, a metric derivat...
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Distinct inflammatory profiles in HIV-infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy using cannabis, cocaine or cannabis plus cocaine
Conclusion: In HIV infection, the use of cannabis induces predominantly an anti-inflammatory profile. The use of cocaine and cannabis-plus-cocaine showed a mixed pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory profile, with predominance of inflammatory status. Further studies are required to better understand the action of these drugs in HIV infection. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

IL-27 posttranslationally regulates Y-box binding protein-1 to inhibit HIV-1 replication in human CD4+ T cells
Conclusion: IL-27-pretreatment inhibits HIV-1 infection by suppressing an HIV-reverse transcription product formation/uncoating step by suppressing the acetylation of YB-1 in primary CD4+ T cells. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of increased HIV testing among MSM in The Netherlands
Conclusion: Increased HIV testing can prevent considerable numbers of new HIV infections among MSM, but may be cost-effective only if targeted at high-risk individuals, such as those with many partners. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Antiretroviral therapy-induced negative HIV antibody test following diagnosis of HIV infection
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

A case of dolutegravir-induced cutaneous small vessel vasculitis
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Successful treatment for Kaposi sarcoma inflammatory cytokine syndrome in a severe CD4+ lymphocytopenic HIV patient
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Increasing levels of pretreatment HIV drug resistance and safety concerns for dolutegravir use in women of reproductive age
Use of dolutegravir-based first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in response to rising levels of pretreatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) may be limited, given safety concerns for birth defects in women of child-bearing potential. Pooled data from 11 nationally representative surveys show that NNRTI PDR in women is nearly twice that in men, exceeding 10% in 8 of 11 countries monitored, suggesting the urgent need for a non-NNRTI-based ART regimen in this population. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, extracellular vesicles and gender: vive la difference?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Comment Source Type: research