Factors Affecting Psychological Distress among People Living with HIV/AIDS at Selected Hospitals of North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.
Conclusion: The prevalence of psychological distress was low as compared to other studies conducted in Ethiopia. This may affect the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Being female, illiteracy, alcohol use, and having lower CD4 count and perceived stigma increased the odds of psychological distress. Thus, concerned stakeholders should collaborate on the integration of HIV/AIDs treatment and mental health services. PMID: 31428472 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Facilitators to Accessibility of HIV/AIDS-Related Health Services among Transgender Women Living with HIV in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Authors: Fauk NK, Merry MS, Siri TA, Tazir FT, Sigilipoe MA, Tarigan KO, Mwanri L Abstract The study aimed to explore facilitators or enabling factors that enhance accessibility (defined as the opportunity to be able to use) to HIV/AIDS-related health services among HIV positive transgender women, also known as Waria in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative study employing one-on-one in-depth interviews was conducted from December 2017 to February 2018. Participants were HIV positive Waria recruited using purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Data were analysed using the framework analysis for qualitative rese...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - July 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

High Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Viral Load and Coinfection with Viral Hepatitis Are Associated with Liver Enzyme Abnormalities among HIV Seropositive Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in the Lake Victoria Zone, Tanzania.
This study investigated factors associated with liver enzymes abnormalities among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals on ART from the Lake Victoria zone, Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a total of 230 sera from HIV seropositive patients from different regions of the Lake Victoria zone was carried out in July 2017. All samples with required variables/parameters such as age, sex, ART regimen, and residence were serially included in the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) detection and liver enzymes assays (alanine transaminase (ALAT) and aspartate transamina...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - July 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

The Incremental Cost of Delivering PrEP as a Bridge to ART for HIV Serodiscordant Couples in Public HIV Care Clinics in Kenya.
Conclusions: Time-limited provision of PrEP to the HIV uninfected partner within HIV serodiscordant couples can be an affordable delivery model implemented in HIV care programs in Kenya and similar settings. These costs can be used for budgetary planning and cost effectiveness analyses. PMID: 31186955 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - June 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Initiation among Hospitalized Adults in a Resource-Limited Settings: A Challenge to the Global Target of ART for 90% of HIV-Infected Individuals.
Conclusion: Up to 75% of hospitalized HIV-infected, cART-naïve, cART-eligible patients did not initiate cART and had a 33% pre-ART mortality rate within two weeks of eligibility for cART. Hospital based strategies to hasten cART initiation during hospitalization and electronic patient tracking systems could promote active linkage to HIV treatment programs, to prevent HIV/AIDS-associated mortality in resource-limited settings. PMID: 31057959 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - May 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Consistent Condom Use and Associated Factors among HIV-Positive Clients on Antiretroviral Therapy in North West Ethiopian Health Center, 2016 GC.
Conclusion and Recommendations: Consistent condom utilization among HIV clients on ART was low (55.8%). Place of residence and condom use initiation during sexual contact were significantly associated with consistent condom use. It is better to give more emphasis on health education and counseling service about consistent condom use for PLWHA who are on ART during follow-up especially for those who came from rural areas. PMID: 31007955 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - April 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "A Critical Review of the Evidence Concerning the HIV Latency Reversing Effect of Disulfiram, the Possible Explanations for Its Inability to Reduce the Size of the Latent Reservoir In Vivo, and the Caveats Associated with Its Use in Practice".
Corrigendum to "A Critical Review of the Evidence Concerning the HIV Latency Reversing Effect of Disulfiram, the Possible Explanations for Its Inability to Reduce the Size of the Latent Reservoir In Vivo, and the Caveats Associated with Its Use in Practice". AIDS Res Treat. 2019;2019:4942573 Authors: Knights HDJ Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/8239428.]. PMID: 31001433 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - April 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Healthcare Workers' Perspectives on the Barriers to Providing HIV Services to Children in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Conclusion: Training, mentoring, and providing healthcare workers with guidelines on how to provide child-focused HIV care have the potential to address the majority of the barriers to the provision of child-friendly HIV services to children. However, the need to educate primary caregivers on the importance of testing children and disclosing to them is equally important. PMID: 30941210 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Primary HIV Drug Resistance among Recently Infected Cases of HIV in North-West India.
Conclusion: Resistance to either NRTI or NNRTI among the recently is a new challenge that needs to be addressed. The fact that both Y181C isolates are IDUs is important and represents 2/21 (~10%) NNRTI drug resistance. Surveillance for primary drug resistance (PDR) needs to be integrated into next generation of HIV surveillance as access to ART is increasing due to introduction of test and treat policy. PMID: 30937190 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - April 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Postexposure Prophylaxis against HIV Infection among Healthcare Workers in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia.
Conclusion: In all, most of the health care workers had adequate knowledge about postexposure prophylaxis against HIV/AIDS. The result shows that a significant number of individuals had a negative attitude and poor practice with regard to postexposure prophylaxis. Therefore, formal training that aims to improve attitudes and support to improve postexposure prophylaxis implementation and completion are needed. We would recommend the establishment of appropriate guidelines and the supply chain to ensure the availability of postexposure prophylaxis drugs for the protection of healthcare workers with potential high risk exposu...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - March 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors among HIV-Positive Youth Attending ART Follow-Up in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among youth living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) attending Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) follow-up at public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Objective. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among youth living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) attending Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) follow-up at public hospitals Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016. Method. In a cross sectional study, 507 HIV-positive young people from public health hospitals were recruited by systematic random sampling technique...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - February 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Coping Strategies for Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy among Adult HIV Patients Attending University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Authors: Gelaw YK, Adugna B, Tsegaye AT, Melaku T, Kefale B Abstract Background: Adverse effects from antiretroviral therapy (ART) have an impact on quality of life and medication adherence. There is no clear understanding of how people manage the adverse effects of ART. The individual taking medications which cause serious adverse effects may choose to stop or reduce the medications to relieve the adverse effects. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing coping strategies for adverse effects of ART among adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at HIV cl...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - January 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Sexual Behavior of Perinatally Infected Youth in Northwest Ethiopia: Implication for HIV Prevention Strategy.
Conclusions: More children who acquired HIV from their mothers are joining the youth population. Their sexual behavior is similar to those youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. There is significant risky sexual behavior among both groups. There is great urgency to effectively address the HIV the prevention strategy to break the cycle of "transgenerational" infection. PMID: 30515324 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - December 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Pediatric HIV Disclosure in Northern India: Evaluation of Its Prevalence, Perceptions amongst Caregivers, and Its Impact on CLHIV.
Conclusions: There is a need to develop region specific pediatric HIV disclosure guidelines keeping in mind the caregivers' perceptions. The guidelines must be age appropriate, systematic, and socioculturally acceptable. The most suitable age for disclosure appears to be 10-12 years. Involvement of caregivers and health care providers in the process is a must. PMID: 30473886 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - November 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

The Impact of Perceived Stigma, Quality of Life, and Spiritual Beliefs on Suicidal Ideations among HIV-Positive Patients.
Conclusions: Having religious beliefs due to accelerating psychological adaptation can motivate HIV patients to survive and have also been considered effective in preventing women from suicide. Perceived stigma and quality of life are other factors that should be taken into consideration as key elements in suicide preventive programs. PMID: 30356375 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - October 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Early Infant Diagnosis Sample Management in Mashonaland West Province, Zimbabwe, 2017.
Conclusion: Sample rejections could have been averted through SOP adherence. Ineffective supervision, exacerbated by delayed communication of rejections, extended EID delay, disadvantaging potential ART beneficiaries. Following this study, enhanced quality control through perstage evaluations was recommended to enhance DBS sample quality. PMID: 30147951 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - August 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Trauma and Growth: Impact of AIDS Activism.
Conclusions: Twenty-eight years later, ACT UP study participants recall their activist days during the AIDS epidemic as the peak experience of their lives. While some continue to have symptoms of stress and depression, most found that their activism has enriched their subsequent lives. PMID: 29992054 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - July 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Status and Vulnerability to HIV Infection in Uganda: Evidence from Multilevel Modelling of AIDS Indicator Survey Data.
Conclusion: Household wealth increases vulnerability but education reduces it. The social environment influences vulnerability to HIV infection independent of individual-level factors. HIV/AIDS awareness targeting sexual practices of wealthy individuals and those with primary-level educational attainment together with improving educational attainment and addressing contextual factors influencing vulnerability to HIV infection are necessary strategies to reduce HIV infections in Uganda. PMID: 29983999 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - July 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Messaging Circumstances and Economic Pressures as Influences on Linkage to Medical Male Circumcision following Community-Based HIV Testing for Men in Rural Southwest Uganda: A Qualitative Study.
Authors: Gilbert HN, Wyatt MA, Asiimwe S, Turyamureeba B, Tumwesigye E, Van Rooyen H, Barnabas RV, Celum CL, Ware NC Abstract Voluntary medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces risk of HIV infection, but uptake remains suboptimal among certain age groups and locations in sub-Saharan Africa. We analysed qualitative data as part of the Linkages Study, a randomized controlled trial to evaluate community-based HIV testing and follow-up as interventions promoting linkage to HIV treatment and prevention in Uganda and South Africa. Fifty-two HIV-negative uncircumcised men participated in the qualitative study. They partici...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - June 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Reproduction and Fertility Beliefs, Perceptions, and Attitudes in People Living with HIV.
Authors: Mujumdar V, Berman D, Schafer KR Abstract People living with HIV (PLWH) have distinct needs when it comes to reproductive health, specifically regarding fertility, family planning, and pregnancy, and these needs are often complicated by HIV status. While there is ample research that focuses on reproductive health in PLWH through a quantitative lens, there is a lack of research using qualitative methods, namely, the narrative interview model. We searched PubMed and relevant abstracts to identify 72 articles published from 1997 to 2016 that described a qualitative framework for exploring the behaviors and pe...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - May 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Childhood Adversities and Physical and Mental Health Outcomes in Adults Living with HIV: Findings from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.
Authors: Bekele T, Collins EJ, Maunder RG, Gardner S, Rueda S, Globerman J, Le TL, Hunter J, Benoit A, Rourke SB, Ohtn Cohort Study Team T Abstract We sought to estimate the prevalence of childhood adversity and examine its relationship with health outcomes among people living with HIV. Study participants included 1409 adults living with HIV and receiving care in Toronto, Canada. Data on childhood adversity, health behaviors, HIV outcome measures, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were collected through face-to-face interviews and medical records. Statistical analyses included multivariable lin...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depression among PLHIV in Ethiopia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, 2017.
Conclusions and Recommendation: The pooled estimate prevalence of depression among PLWHIV was higher than that in the general population. It is better to offer special attention to these populations. PMID: 29682344 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - April 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

The Palatability of Lopinavir and Ritonavir Delivered by an Innovative Freeze-Dried Fast-Dissolving Tablet Formulation.
This study examines the palatability of an innovative delivery mechanism utilizing a freeze-drying-in-blister approach to create fast-dissolving tablets (FDTs) containing a fixed-dose combination of lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r). Consumption patterns of solutions during brief-access and long-term testing and baby foodstuff consumption were analyzed to evaluate the orosensory detection and avoidance of placebo FDTs containing no LPV/r (FDT-) and FDTs containing LPV/r (FDT+). Rats showed no change in consumption patterns for the placebo FDT- compared with control solutions. Rats can detect but do not avoid FDT+ at body-wei...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - March 30, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Nasal Nitric Oxide Levels in HIV Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Conclusion: Healthy individuals, HIV patients on ART, and viremic individuals off ART display similar nasal NO levels. However, rhinosinusitis symptoms remain prominent despite ART-treatment. PMID: 29552357 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - March 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

HIV-Stigma in Nigeria: Review of Research Studies, Policies, and Programmes.
Authors: Odimegwu CO, Akinyemi JO, Alabi OO Abstract Nigeria has about 3.8 million people living with HIV, the second largest globally. Stigma and discrimination are major barriers to testing, treatment uptake, and adherence. In this review, we synthesized information on research studies, policies, and programmes related to HIV-stigma in Nigeria. This was with a view to identify critical areas that research and programmes must address in order to accelerate the progress towards zero (new infections, discrimination, and death) target by year 2030. Existing studies were mostly devoted to stigma assessment using varie...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - February 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Assessing Very Early Infant Diagnosis Turnaround Times: Findings from a Birth Testing Pilot in Lesotho.
Authors: Gill MM, Hoffman HJ, Mokone M, Tukei VJ, Nchephe M, Phalatse M, Tiam A, Guay L, Mofenson L Abstract Very early infant diagnosis (VEID) (testing within two weeks of life), combined with rapid treatment initiation, could reduce early infant mortality. Our study evaluated turnaround time (TAT) to receipt of infants' HIV test results and ART initiation if HIV-infected, with and without birth testing availability. Data from facility records and national databases were collected for 12 facilities offering VEID, as part of an observational prospective cohort study, and 10 noncohort facilities. HIV-exposed infants...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - February 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Challenges in Assessing Outcomes among Infants of Pregnant HIV-Positive Women Receiving ART in Uganda.
We report very low documented HIV transmission comparable with those reported in clinical trials settings; however, demonstrating the efficacy of Option B-plus in terms of averted transmission in routine settings is challenging since high proportion of infants do not have documented HIV tests. PMID: 29362673 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - January 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

HIV among Female Sex Workers in Five Cities in Burkina Faso: A Cross-Sectional Baseline Survey to Inform HIV/AIDS Programs.
Conclusion: These results highlight the need to strengthen HIV prevention among FSWs, through behavior change strategies, and improve access to sexual and reproductive health services. PMID: 29270318 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - December 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Conceptualising the Factors Affecting Retention in Care of Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in Kabwe District, Zambia, Using the Ecological Framework.
Conclusion: The ecological framework conceptualises the complex and dynamic factors affecting retention in ART care and highlights the need for multifaceted interventions that combine health education, disease management, and opportunities for income generation in a socially responsive and accountable environment. PMID: 29250442 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - December 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Mortality and Its Predictors among HIV Infected Patients Taking Antiretroviral Treatment in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review.
Conclusion: 5-40.8% of HIV patients in Ethiopia die in 2-5 years of initiating antiretroviral treatment. Most of the deaths in HIV patients occur early in the course of treatment. Special emphasis should be given for patients with advanced stage disease, nonworking functional status, low baseline CD4 count, low baseline hemoglobin level, TB coinfection, lower baseline weight, and poor treatment adherence. PMID: 29214077 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - December 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Disclosure of Parental HIV Status to Children: Experiences of Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment at an Urban Clinic in Kampala, Uganda.
Authors: Osingada CP, Okuga M, Nabirye RC, Sew.ambo NK, Nakanjako D Abstract Limited data are available on the experiences of parental HIV disclosure to children in Uganda. We conducted a qualitative study comprising sixteen in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with parents receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Analysis was done using Atlas.ti qualitative research software. Back-and-forth triangulation was done between transcripts of the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, and themes and subthemes were developed. Barriers to parents' disclosure included perceptions that childr...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - December 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Early Diagnosis of HIV among Infants Born to HIV-Positive Mothers on Option-B Plus in Kampala, Uganda.
Conclusion: Timely EID testing was low. Improving maternal knowledge of EID during ANC visits and positive living empowerment is critical. PMID: 29201460 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - December 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in the Ho Municipality, Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.
This study was aimed at evaluating the QoL of PLHIV attending the antiretroviral clinics in the Ho municipality. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2017 to April 2017 involving 158 purposively selected HIV-positive patients who were attending the antiretroviral clinics both in the Volta Regional Hospital and Ho Municipal Hospital. An Interviewer administered standard questionnaire (WHOQOL-HIV Bref) was used to collect information on sociodemography, medical history, and the quality of life (QoL) of the respondents. Among these 158 HIV-positive respondents, 126 (79.75) and 14 (8.86) presented with excellent ...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - December 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Lipodystrophy among HIV-Infected Patients Attending Care and Treatment Clinics in Dar es Salaam.
Authors: Njelekela M, Mpembeni R, Muhihi A, Ulenga N, Aris E, Kakoko D Abstract Background: HIV infection and long-term HAART use are associated with metabolic and morphological changes. We assessed prevalence, types, and risk factors associated with lipodystrophy among HIV-infected adults attending CTC in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: Analysis included 466 HIV-infected patients. Study protocol involved administration of structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic and clinical information. Diagnosis of lipodystrophy was based on physician clinical assessment. Results: Lipodystrophy was present ...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

HIV Case Management Support Service Is Associated with Improved CD4 Counts of Patients Receiving Care at the Antiretroviral Clinic of Pantang Hospital, Ghana.
CONCLUSION: Case management support service for HIV patients receiving ART improves their CD4 counts above 350 cells/mm(3). Incorporating HIV case management services in ART regimen should be a priority in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID: 29085677 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - November 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Ritonavir-Boosted Darunavir Plus Two Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors versus Other Regimens for Initial Antiretroviral Therapy for People with HIV Infection: A Systematic Review.
We report findings in terms of risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). FINDINGS: Three RCTs met inclusion criteria. In plasma viral load suppression, DRV/r outperformed ritonavir-boosted lopinavir at 48 weeks (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.25), 96 weeks (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21), and 192 weeks (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.35). DRV/r was similar to dolutegravir at 48 weeks (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.06) but less effective at 96 weeks (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.93). At 96 weeks, DRV/r underperformed raltegravir (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-0.99) but was similar to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.09). Overall bi...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - November 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

HIV Epidemic in Tanzania: The Possible Role of the Key Populations.
Authors: Mpondo BCT, Gunda DW, Kilonzo SB Abstract HIV remains a public health concern in Tanzania and other Eastern and Southern African countries. Estimates show that there were about 1.4 million people living with HIV in Tanzania in the year 2013. HIV is a generalized epidemic in Tanzania with heterosexual transmission being the main route of transmission. Recently, however, there has been growing concern on the potential role of the key populations in HIV epidemic in the country. Studies done have shown significantly higher HIV prevalence in these populations compared to the general population. These studies ha...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - September 29, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Effect of Efavirenz on Endogenous Progesterone Concentrations and Contraceptive Outcomes among Ugandan HIV Infected Women Coadministering Ethinylestradiol/Levonorgestrel.
This study assessed the effect of efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among 49 HIV infected women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel, including 34 HIV positive women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and 15 HAART naïve HIV infected women, purposively selected from Mulago Hospital, Uganda. A blood sample was collected once between days 20 and 22 of each woman's menstrual cycle for measuring endogenous progesterone and efavirenz concentrations by electrochemiluminescence technology and High Performance Liquid ...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Missed Testing Opportunities for HIV Screening and Early Diagnosis in an Urban Tertiary Care Center.
This study demonstrates that, even in a high prevalence institution with HIV counseling, testing, and referral service, HIV screening is lacking at multiple points of care and patients are missing opportunities for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID: 28744377 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - July 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Prevalence and Clinical Spectrum of Liver Disease in Nepalese HIV-Sero-Positive Patients Undergoing Antiretroviral Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Hospital Based Study.
Authors: Jha RK, Sah SK Abstract INTRODUCTION: Liver enzyme abnormalities are common in HIV patients, and the prevalence varies across the nations. In Nepal, however, prevalence of liver enzyme disorder and the spectrum of these populations are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The present study sheds light on prevalence and clinical spectrum of liver disease in Nepalese HIV-sero-positive patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at OPD/ART, Clinic of Bir Hospital, NAMS. One hundred and forty-four HIV positive patients were enrolled consecutively and their clinical profiles of liver injury were investig...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - July 12, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Incidence and Predictors of Pregnancy among Women on ART in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Five-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.
This study was aimed to assess incidence and predictors of pregnancy among women on ART in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data recorded from September 2011 to August 2015. Data was extracted from February to March, 2016, from 1,239 records and analyzed using SPSS version 16. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the probabilities of being pregnant. The Cox proportional hazards model was done and results were expressed using hazard ratios with 95% CI. A total of 1,239 women on ART were included in the study. The incidence of pregnancy was ...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - June 29, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Efficacy and Tolerability of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Based Regimen as Compared to Zidovudine Based Regimens: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Authors: Dadi TL, Kefale AT, Mega TA, Kedir MS, Addo HA, Biru TT Abstract BACKGROUND: Although tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)/efavirenz (EFV) and zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC)/efavirenz (EFV) are used as preferred first line regimen, their head-to-head comparison in terms of their efficacy and tolerability was limited. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on the comparative efficacy and tolerability of the two regimens. METHODS: Seven sites and databases in addition to Google search until August 20, 2016, were searched. Only randomized clinical trials conducted on adult populatio...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - June 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Factors Affecting Utilization of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Services among Teachers in Awi Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.
Authors: Desta WG, Sinishaw MA, Bizuneh KD Abstract HIV/AIDS affects the basic educational sector which is the most productive segment of the population and vital to the creation of human capital. The loss of skilled and experienced teachers due to the problem is increasingly compromising the provision of quality education in most African countries. The study was proposed to determine the magnitude of VCT utilization and assess contributing factors that affect VCT service utilization among secondary school teachers in Awi Zone. A cross-sectional study design was conducted among 588 participants in 2014. Self-admini...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - May 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Describing Point of Entry into Care and Being Lost to Program in a Cohort of HIV Positive Pregnant Women in a Large Urban Centre in Uganda.
Conclusion. Our results suggest the need for interventions to enhance prompt linkage of HIV positive women to HIV services for ART initiation and for increased retention particularly in young and ART naive women. PMID: 28469942 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - May 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

A Critical Review of the Evidence Concerning the HIV Latency Reversing Effect of Disulfiram, the Possible Explanations for Its Inability to Reduce the Size of the Latent Reservoir In Vivo, and the Caveats Associated with Its Use in Practice.
Authors: Knights HDJ Abstract Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively suppresses the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), improves immune function, and decreases the morbidity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, it is unable to eradicate the virus because it does not eliminate latently infected cells. The latent reservoir poses the major barrier to an HIV-1 cure. The "shock and kill" strategy aims to reactivate the virus and destroy latently infected cells. Many latency reversing agents (LRAs) reactivate HIV in vitro, but the absence of damaging sid...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - May 5, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence: Knowledge and Experiences among Adolescents and Young Adults in Soweto, South Africa.
Authors: Hornschuh S, Dietrich JJ, Tshabalala C, Laher F Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is particularly pertinent to sub-Saharan Africa, where the pediatric HIV burden is marked. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence is a major challenge for AYAs. This qualitative study explored knowledge and experiences of adherence amongst AYAs attending treatment at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit (PHRU), Soweto, South Africa. Four focus group discussions (FGDs) and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with HIV-infected 15-25-year-old ART recipients. Tr...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - April 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Male Partners Involvement in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Services in Southern Central Ethiopia: In Case of Lemo District, Hadiya Zone.
Authors: Belato DT, Mekiso AB, Begashaw B Abstract Male partners' involvement is a vital issue to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from mother to child; because it is much expectable that women were more vulnerable and high risk group of population portion. Therefore, to save lives of mothers and their newborn from acquiring HIV, male partners should do their maximum endeavor regardless of any determinant factors as our results revealed its status in our study context and elsewhere at past time too. PMID: 28409027 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - April 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Patient Experiences of Decentralized HIV Treatment and Care in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria: A Qualitative Study.
Conclusion. Difficulty and cost of travel remain a fundamental barrier to accessing HIV care outside urban centers, suggesting increased availability of community-based services will be enthusiastically received. PMID: 28331636 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - March 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Evaluating Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Using Pharmacy Refill Records in a Rural Treatment Site in South Africa.
Authors: Gachara G, Mavhandu LG, Rogawski ET, Manhaeve C, Bessong PO Abstract Optimal adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is critical to maintain virologic suppression, thereby ensuring the global success of HIV treatment. We evaluated adherence to cART using pharmacy refill records and determined the adherence threshold resulting in>90% virologic suppression in a community run treatment site in South Africa. Additionally, we analysed factors associated with adherence using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Logistic regression was also performed to determine the relatio...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - March 5, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research

Cluster-Randomized Controlled Study of SMS Text Messages for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Rural Kenya.
Authors: Kassaye SG, Ong'ech J, Sirengo M, Kose J, Matu L, McOdida P, Simiyu R, Syengo T, Muthama D, Machekano R Abstract Background. Antiretroviral medications are key for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, and transmission mitigation is affected by service delivery, adherence, and retention. Methods. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled study in 26 facilities in Nyanza, Kenya, to determine the efficacy of SMS text messages on PMTCT outcomes. The relative risk and confidence intervals were estimated at the facility level using STATA. Results. 550 women were enrolled, from June 2012 ...
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - January 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research