Series Page
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): (Source: Advances in Virus Research)
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): (Source: Advances in Virus Research)
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Preface
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): Félix A. Rey (Source: Advances in Virus Research)
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter One - The viral replication organelles within cells studied by electron microscopy
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): Martin Sachse, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Raquel Tenorio, Cristina RiscoAbstractTransmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been crucial to study viral infections. As a result of recent advances in light and electron microscopy, we are starting to be aware of the variety of structures that viruses assemble inside cells. Viruses often remodel cellular compartments to build their replication factories. Remarkably, viruses are also able to induce new membranes and new organelles. Here we revise the most relevant imaging technologies to study...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Two - Structures of enveloped virions determined by cryogenic electron microscopy and tomography
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): Robert Stass, Weng M. Ng, Young Chan Kim, Juha T. HuiskonenAbstractEnveloped viruses enclose their genomes inside a lipid bilayer which is decorated by membrane proteins that mediate virus entry. These viruses display a wide range of sizes, morphologies and symmetries. Spherical viruses are often isometric and their envelope proteins follow icosahedral symmetry. Filamentous and pleomorphic viruses lack such global symmetry but their surface proteins may display locally ordered assemblies. Determining the structures of enveloped viruses, includin...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Three - CryoEM reconstruction approaches to resolve asymmetric features
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): Daniel J. Goetschius, Hyunwook Lee, Susan HafensteinAbstractAlthough icosahedral viruses have highly symmetrical capsid features, asymmetric structural elements are also present since the genome and minor structural proteins are usually incorporated without adhering to icosahedral symmetry. Besides this inherent asymmetry, interactions with the host during the virus life cycle are also asymmetric. However, until recently it was impossible to resolve high resolution asymmetric features during single-particle cryoEM image processing. This review s...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Four - Structural insights into coronavirus entry
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): M. Alejandra Tortorici, David VeeslerAbstractCoronaviruses (CoVs) have caused outbreaks of deadly pneumonia in humans since the beginning of the 21st century. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 and was responsible for an epidemic that spread to five continents with a fatality rate of 10% before being contained in 2003 (with additional cases reported in 2004). The Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in the Arabian Peninsula in 2012 and has caused recurrent outbreaks in humans w...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Five - Structural analysis of pleomorphic and asymmetric viruses using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): Martin Obr, Florian K.M. SchurAbstractDescribing the protein interactions that form pleomorphic and asymmetric viruses represents a considerable challenge to most structural biology techniques, including X-ray crystallography and single particle cryo-electron microscopy. Obtaining a detailed understanding of these interactions is nevertheless important, considering the number of relevant human pathogens that do not follow strict icosahedral or helical symmetry. Cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging methods provide structural insight...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Six - The application of atomic force microscopy for viruses and protein shells: Imaging and spectroscopy
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): Pedro J. de PabloAbstractAtomic force microscopy (AFM) probes surface-adsorbed samples at the nanoscale by using a sharp stylus of nanometric size located at the end of a micro-cantilever. This technique can also work in a liquid environment and offers unique possibilities to study individual protein assemblies, such as viruses, under conditions that resemble their natural liquid milieu. Here, I show how AFM can be used to explore the topography of viruses and protein cages, including that of structures lacking a well-defined symmetry. AFM is no...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Seven - Structural mass spectrometry goes viral
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): Jasmin Dülfer, Alan Kadek, Janine-Denise Kopicki, Boris Krichel, Charlotte UetrechtAbstractOver the last 20 years, mass spectrometry (MS), with its ability to analyze small sample amounts with high speed and sensitivity, has more and more entered the field of structural virology, aiming to investigate the structure and dynamics of viral proteins as close to their native environment as possible. The use of non-perturbing labels in hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS allows for the analysis of interactions between viral proteins and host cell fact...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Eight - Illuminating the virus life cycle with single-molecule FRET imaging
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): Maolin Lu, Xiaochu Ma, Walther MothesAbstractSingle-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) imaging has emerged as a powerful tool to probe conformational dynamics of viral proteins, identify novel structural intermediates that are hiding in averaging population-based measurements, permit access to the energetics of transitions and as such to the precise molecular mechanisms of viral replication. One strength of smFRET is the capability of characterizing biological molecules in their fully hydrated/native state, which are not ne...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Nine - Polyhedra, spindles, phage nucleus and pyramids: Structural biology of viral superstructures
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 105Author(s): Fasséli CoulibalyAbstractViral infection causes comprehensive rearrangements of the cell that reflect as much host defense mechanisms as virus-induced structures assembled to facilitate infection. Regardless of their pro- or antiviral role, large intracellular structures are readily detectable by microscopy and often provide a signature characteristic of a specific viral infection. The structural features and localization of these assemblies have thus been commonly used for the diagnostic and classification of viruses since the early days...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Polyhedra, spindles, phage nucleus and pyramids: Structural biology of viral superstructures
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Fasséli CoulibalyAbstractViral infection causes comprehensive rearrangements of the cell that reflect as much host defense mechanisms as virus-induced structures assembled to facilitate infection. Regardless of their pro- or antiviral role, large intracellular structures are readily detectable by microscopy and often provide a signature characteristic of a specific viral infection. The structural features and localization of these assemblies have thus been commonly used for the diagnostic and classification of viruses sin...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Structural analysis of pleomorphic and asymmetric viruses using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Martin Obr, Florian K.M. SchurAbstractDescribing the protein interactions that form pleomorphic and asymmetric viruses represents a considerable challenge to most structural biology techniques, including X-ray crystallography and single particle cryo-electron microscopy. Obtaining a detailed understanding of these interactions is nevertheless important, considering the number of relevant human pathogens that do not follow strict icosahedral or helical symmetry. Cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging methods provide str...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Structural mass spectrometry goes viral
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Jasmin Dülfer, Alan Kadek, Janine-Denise Kopicki, Boris Krichel, Charlotte UetrechtAbstractOver the last 20 years, mass spectrometry (MS), with its ability to analyze small sample amounts with high speed and sensitivity, has more and more entered the field of structural virology, aiming to investigate the structure and dynamics of viral proteins as close to their native environment as possible. The use of non-perturbing labels in hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS allows for the analysis of interactions between viral proteins and...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Structural insights into coronavirus entry
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): M. Alejandra Tortorici, David VeeslerAbstractCoronaviruses (CoVs) have caused outbreaks of deadly pneumonia in humans since the beginning of the 21st century. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 and was responsible for an epidemic that spread to five continents with a fatality rate of 10% before being contained in 2003 (with additional cases reported in 2004). The Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in the Arabian Peninsula in 2012 and has caused recurrent outbre...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 23, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The application of atomic force microscopy for viruses and protein shells: Imaging and spectroscopy
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Pedro J. de PabloAbstractAtomic force microscopy (AFM) probes surface-adsorbed samples at the nanoscale by using a sharp stylus of nanometric size located at the end of a micro-cantilever. This technique can also work in a liquid environment and offers unique possibilities to study individual protein assemblies, such as viruses, under conditions that resemble their natural liquid milieu. Here, I show how AFM can be used to explore the topography of viruses and protein cages, including that of structures lacking a well-defined symm...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Illuminating the virus life cycle with single-molecule FRET imaging
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Maolin Lu, Xiaochu Ma, Walther MothesAbstractSingle-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) imaging has emerged as a powerful tool to probe conformational dynamics of viral proteins, identify novel structural intermediates that are hiding in averaging population-based measurements, permit access to the energetics of transitions and as such to the precise molecular mechanisms of viral replication. One strength of smFRET is the capability of characterizing biological molecules in their fully hydrated/native state, w...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Structures of enveloped virions determined by cryogenic electron microscopy and tomography
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Robert Stass, Weng M. Ng, Young Chan Kim, Juha T. HuiskonenAbstractEnveloped viruses enclose their genomes inside a lipid bilayer which is decorated by membrane proteins that mediate virus entry. These viruses display a wide range of sizes, morphologies and symmetries. Spherical viruses are often isometric and their envelope proteins follow icosahedral symmetry. Filamentous and pleomorphic viruses lack such global symmetry but their surface proteins may display locally ordered assemblies. Determining the structures of enveloped vi...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 104Author(s): (Source: Advances in Virus Research)
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Eight - Entry of betaherpesviruses
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 104Author(s): Mitsuhiro Nishimura, Yasuko MoriAbstractIn this chapter, we present an overview on betaherpesvirus entry, with a focus on human cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6A and human herpesvirus 6B. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a complex human pathogen with a genome of 235 kb encoding more than 200 genes. It infects a broad range of cell types by switching its viral ligand on the virion, using the trimer gH/gL/gO for infection of fibroblasts and the pentamer gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131 for infection of other cells such as epithelial and endothelial...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter One - Key checkpoints in the movement of plant viruses through the host
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 104Author(s): Jose A. Navarro, Jesus A. Sanchez-Navarro, Vicente PallasAbstractPlant viruses cannot exploit any of the membrane fusion-based routes of entry described for animal viruses. In addition, one of the distinctive structures of plant cells, the cell wall, acts as the first barrier against the invasion of pathogens. To overcome the rigidity of the cell wall, plant viruses normally take advantage of the way of life of different biological vectors. Alternatively, the physical damage caused by environmental stresses can facilitate virus entry. Once insid...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Two - Entry of bunyaviruses into plants and vectors
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 104Author(s): Yuting Chen, Moshe Dessau, Dorith Rotenberg, David A. Rasmussen, Anna E. WhitfieldAbstractThe majority of plant-infecting viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors that deliver them directly into a living plant cell. There are diverse mechanisms of transmission ranging from direct binding to the insect stylet (non-persistent transmission) to persistent-propagative transmission in which the virus replicates in the insect vector. Despite this diversity in interactions, most arthropods that serve as efficient vectors have feeding strategies that...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Three - How non-enveloped viruses hijack host machineries to cause infection
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 104Author(s): Chelsey C. Spriggs, Mara C. Harwood, Billy TsaiAbstractViruses must navigate the complex endomembranous network of the host cell to cause infection. In the case of a non-enveloped virus that lacks a surrounding lipid bilayer, endocytic uptake from the plasma membrane is not sufficient to cause infection. Instead, the virus must travel within organelle membranes to reach a specific cellular destination that supports exposure or arrival of the virus to the cytosol. This is achieved by viral penetration across a host endomembrane, ultimately enabli...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Four - Developments in single-molecule and single-particle fluorescence-based approaches for studying viral envelope glycoprotein dynamics and membrane fusion
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 104Author(s): Angela R. Howard, James B. MunroAbstractFusion of viral and cellular membranes is an essential step in the entry pathway of all enveloped viruses. This is a dynamic and multistep process, which has been extensively studied, resulting in the endpoints of the reaction being firmly established, and many essential cellular factors identified. What remains is to elucidate the dynamic events that underlie this process, including the order and timing of glycoprotein conformational changes, receptor-binding events, and movement of the glycoprotein on th...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Five - Structural and cellular biology of rhabdovirus entry
We present structural and cellular aspects of Rhabdovirus entry into their host cell with a focus on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus (RABV) for which the early events of the viral cycle have been extensively studied. Recent data have shown that the only VSV receptors are the members of the LDL-R family. This is in contrast with RABV for which multiple receptors belonging to unrelated families have been identified. Despite having different receptors, after attachment, rhabdovirus internalization occurs through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in an actin-dependent manner. There are still debates about t...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Six - Hantavirus entry: Perspectives and recent advances
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 104Author(s): Eva Mittler, Maria Eugenia Dieterle, Lara M. Kleinfelter, Megan M. Slough, Kartik Chandran, Rohit K. JangraAbstractHantaviruses are important zoonotic pathogens of public health importance that are found on all continents except Antarctica and are associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Despite the significant disease burden they cause, no FDA-approved specific therapeutics or vaccines exist against these lethal viruses. The lack of available interven...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Seven - Common characteristics and unique features: A comparison of the fusion machinery of the alphaherpesviruses Pseudorabies virus and Herpes simplex virus
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 104Author(s): Melina Vallbracht, Marija Backovic, Barbara G. Klupp, Felix A. Rey, Thomas C. MettenleiterAbstractMembrane fusion is a fundamental biological process that allows different cellular compartments delimited by a lipid membrane to release or exchange their respective contents. Similarly, enveloped viruses such as alphaherpesviruses exploit membrane fusion to enter and infect their host cells. For infectious entry the prototypic human Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2, collectively termed HSVs) and the porcine Pseudorabies virus (PrV) util...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Nine - Gammaherpesvirus entry and fusion: A tale how two human pathogenic viruses enter their host cells
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 104Author(s): Britta S. Möhl, Jia Chen, Richard LongneckerAbstractThe prototypical human γ-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are involved in the development of malignancies. Like all herpesviruses, they share the establishment of latency, the typical architecture, and the conserved fusion machinery to initiate infection. The fusion machinery reflects virus-specific adaptations due to the requirements of the respective herpesvirus. For example, EBV evolved a tropism switch involving either the B-...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The viral replication organelles within cells studied by electron microscopy
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Martin Sachse, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Raquel Tenorio, Cristina RiscoAbstractTransmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been crucial to study viral infections. As a result of recent advances in light and electron microscopy, we are starting to be aware of the variety of structures that viruses assemble inside cells. Viruses often remodel cellular compartments to build their replication factories. Remarkably, viruses are also able to induce new membranes and new organelles. Here we revise the most relevant imaging techno...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Entry of bunyaviruses into plants and vectors
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Yuting Chen, Moshe Dessau, Dorith Rotenberg, David A. Rasmussen, Anna E. WhitfieldAbstractThe majority of plant-infecting viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors that deliver them directly into a living plant cell. There are diverse mechanisms of transmission ranging from direct binding to the insect stylet (non-persistent transmission) to persistent-propagative transmission in which the virus replicates in the insect vector. Despite this diversity in interactions, most arthropods that serve as efficient vectors have feeding s...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Hantavirus entry: Perspectives and recent advances
Publication date: Available online 7 August 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Eva Mittler, M. Eugenia Dieterle, Lara M. Kleinfelter, Megan M. Slough, Kartik Chandran, Rohit K. JangraAbstractHantaviruses are important zoonotic pathogens of public health importance that are found on all continents except Antarctica and are associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Despite the significant disease burden they cause, no FDA-approved specific therapeutics or vaccines exist against these lethal viruses. The lack of availab...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Key checkpoints in the movement of plant viruses through the host
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Jose A. Navarro, Jesus A. Sanchez-Navarro, Vicente PallasAbstractPlant viruses cannot exploit any of the membrane fusion-based routes of entry described for animal viruses. In addition, one of the distinctive structures of plant cells, the cell wall, acts as the first barrier against the invasion of pathogens. To overcome the rigidity of the cell wall, plant viruses normally take advantage of the way of life of different biological vectors. Alternatively, the physical damage caused by environmental stresses can facilitate virus entr...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Gammaherpesvirus entry and fusion: A tale how two human pathogenic viruses enter their host cells
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Britta S. Möhl, Jia Chen, Richard LongneckerAbstractThe prototypical human γ-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are involved in the development of malignancies. Like all herpesviruses, they share the establishment of latency, the typical architecture, and the conserved fusion machinery to initiate infection. The fusion machinery reflects virus-specific adaptations due to the requirements of the respective herpesvirus. For example, EBV evolved a tropism switch involving ...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - July 18, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Common characteristics and unique features: A comparison of the fusion machinery of the alphaherpesviruses Pseudorabies virus and Herpes simplex virus
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Melina Vallbracht, Marija Backovic, Barbara G. Klupp, Felix A. Rey, Thomas C. MettenleiterAbstractMembrane fusion is a fundamental biological process that allows different cellular compartments delimited by a lipid membrane to release or exchange their respective contents. Similarly, enveloped viruses such as alphaherpesviruses exploit membrane fusion to enter and infect their host cells. For infectious entry the prototypic human Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2, collectively termed HSVs) and the porcine Pseudorabies viru...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - July 5, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

How non-enveloped viruses hijack host machineries to cause infection
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Chelsey C. Spriggs, Mara C. Harwood, Billy TsaiAbstractViruses must navigate the complex endomembranous network of the host cell to cause infection. In the case of a non-enveloped virus that lacks a surrounding lipid bilayer, endocytic uptake from the plasma membrane is not sufficient to cause infection. Instead, the virus must travel within organelle membranes to reach a specific cellular destination that supports exposure or arrival of the virus to the cytosol. This is achieved by viral penetration across a host endomembrane, ultim...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - July 2, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Developments in single-molecule and single-particle fluorescence-based approaches for studying viral envelope glycoprotein dynamics and membrane fusion
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Angela R. Howard, James B. MunroAbstractFusion of viral and cellular membranes is an essential step in the entry pathway of all enveloped viruses. This is a dynamic and multistep process, which has been extensively studied, resulting in the endpoints of the reaction being firmly established, and many essential cellular factors identified. What remains is to elucidate the dynamic events that underlie this process, including the order and timing of glycoprotein conformational changes, receptor-binding events, and movement of the glyco...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Entry of betaherpesviruses
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Mitsuhiro Nishimura, Yasuko MoriAbstractIn this chapter, we present an overview on betaherpesvirus entry, with a focus on human cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6A and human herpesvirus 6B. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a complex human pathogen with a genome of 235 kb encoding more than 200 genes. It infects a broad range of cell types by switching its viral ligand on the virion, using the trimer gH/gL/gO for infection of fibroblasts and the pentamer gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131 for infection of other cells such as epithelial an...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - June 23, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Structural and cellular biology of rhabdovirus entry
We present structural and cellular aspects of Rhabdovirus entry into their host cell with a focus on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus (RABV) for which the early events of the viral cycle have been extensively studied. Recent data have shown that the only VSV receptors are the members of the LDL-R family. This is in contrast with RABV for which multiple receptors belonging to unrelated families have been identified. Despite having different receptors, after attachment, rhabdovirus internalization occurs through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in an actin-dependent manner. There are still debates about t...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - June 23, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Series Page
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 103Author(s): (Source: Advances in Virus Research)
Source: Advances in Virus Research - January 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 103Author(s): (Source: Advances in Virus Research)
Source: Advances in Virus Research - January 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter One - The Diverse Impacts of Phage Morons on Bacterial Fitness and Virulence
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 103Author(s): Véronique L. Taylor, Alexa D. Fitzpatrick, Zafrin Islam, Karen L. MaxwellAbstractThe viruses that infect bacteria, known as phages, are the most abundant biological entity on earth. They play critical roles in controlling bacterial populations through phage-mediated killing, as well as through formation of bacterial lysogens. In this form, the survival of the phage depends on the survival of the bacterial host in which it resides. Thus, it is advantageous for phages to encode genes that contribute to bacterial fitness and expand the envir...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - January 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Two - Phage Lysis: Multiple Genes for Multiple Barriers
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 103Author(s): Jesse Cahill, Ry YoungAbstractThe first steps in phage lysis involve a temporally controlled permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane followed by enzymatic degradation of the peptidoglycan. For Caudovirales of Gram-negative hosts, there are two different systems: the holin-endolysin and pinholin-SAR endolysin pathways. In the former, lysis is initiated when the holin forms micron-scale holes in the inner membrane, releasing active endolysin into the periplasm to degrade the peptidoglycan. In the latter, lysis begins when the pinholin causes ...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - January 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Three - Eukaryotic Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA (CRESS DNA) Viruses: Ubiquitous Viruses With Small Genomes and a Diverse Host Range
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 103Author(s): Lele Zhao, Karyna Rosario, Mya Breitbart, Siobain DuffyAbstractWhile single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was once thought to be a relatively rare genomic architecture for viruses, modern metagenomics sequencing has revealed circular ssDNA viruses in most environments and in association with diverse hosts. In particular, circular ssDNA viruses encoding a homologous replication-associated protein (Rep) have been identified in the majority of eukaryotic supergroups, generating interest in the ecological effects and evolutionary history of circular Rep-enco...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - January 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Four - The Complex Nature of Tupanviruses
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 103Author(s): Rodrigo Araújo Lima Rodrigues, Thalita Souza Arantes, Graziele Pereira Oliveira, Ludmila Karen dos Santos Silva, Jônatas Santos AbrahãoAbstractThe discovery of giant viruses revealed a new level of complexity in the virosphere, raising important questions about the diversity, ecology, and evolution of these viruses. The family Mimiviridae was the first group of amoebal giant viruses to be discovered (by Bernard La Scola and Didier Raoult team), containing viruses with structural and genetic features that challenged many conce...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - January 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter Five - Evolution of the Large Nucleocytoplasmic DNA Viruses of Eukaryotes and Convergent Origins of Viral Gigantism
Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 103Author(s): Eugene V. Koonin, Natalya YutinAbstractThe Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) of eukaryotes (proposed order “Megavirales”) comprise an expansive group of eukaryotic viruses that consists of the families Poxviridae, Asfarviridae, Iridoviridae, Ascoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Marseilleviridae, Pithoviridae, and Mimiviridae, as well as Pandoraviruses, Molliviruses, and Faustoviruses that so far remain unaccounted by the official virus taxonomy. All these viruses have double-stranded DNA genomes that range in size from about 100 k...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - January 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Eukaryotic Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA (CRESS DNA) Viruses: Ubiquitous Viruses With Small Genomes and a Diverse Host Range
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Lele Zhao, Karyna Rosario, Mya Breitbart, Siobain DuffyAbstractWhile single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was once thought to be a relatively rare genomic architecture for viruses, modern metagenomics sequencing has revealed circular ssDNA viruses in most environments and in association with diverse hosts. In particular, circular ssDNA viruses encoding a homologous replication-associated protein (Rep) have been identified in the majority of eukaryotic supergroups, generating interest in the ecological effects and evolutionary history of c...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - December 5, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Phage Lysis: Multiple Genes for Multiple Barriers
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Jesse Cahill, Ry YoungAbstractThe first steps in phage lysis involve a temporally controlled permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane followed by enzymatic degradation of the peptidoglycan. For Caudovirales of Gram-negative hosts, there are two different systems: the holin-endolysin and pinholin-SAR endolysin pathways. In the former, lysis is initiated when the holin forms micron-scale holes in the inner membrane, releasing active endolysin into the periplasm to degrade the peptidoglycan. In the latter, lysis begins when the...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - November 29, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Complex Nature of Tupanviruses
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Rodrigo Araújo Lima Rodrigues, Thalita Souza Arantes, Graziele Pereira Oliveira, Ludmila Karen dos Santos Silva, Jônatas Santos AbrahãoAbstractThe discovery of giant viruses revealed a new level of complexity in the virosphere, raising important questions about the diversity, ecology, and evolution of these viruses. The family Mimiviridae was the first group of amoebal giant viruses to be discovered (by Bernard La Scola and Didier Raoult team), containing viruses with structural and genetic features that chal...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - November 11, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evolution of the Large Nucleocytoplasmic DNA Viruses of Eukaryotes and Convergent Origins of Viral Gigantism
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Advances in Virus ResearchAuthor(s): Eugene V. Koonin, Natalya YutinAbstractThe Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) of eukaryotes (proposed order “Megavirales”) comprise an expansive group of eukaryotic viruses that consists of the families Poxviridae, Asfarviridae, Iridoviridae, Ascoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Marseilleviridae, Pithoviridae, and Mimiviridae, as well as Pandoraviruses, Molliviruses, and Faustoviruses that so far remain unaccounted by the official virus taxonomy. All these viruses have double-stranded DNA genomes that range in size...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - November 11, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research