Does my patient have central or peripheral vestibular disease?
The vestibular system is responsible for maintaining balance.1 It coordinates movement of the head, eyes, and body so that they work together to oppose gravity and maintain correct posture. The vestibular system is composed of a peripheral portion and a central portion.2 The peripheral portion is made up of the receptor organs and an afferent cranial nerve (CN VIII) that conveys information to the brain stem. The central portion is comprised of several brainstem nuclei and processing centers and vestibular portions of the cerebellum. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - May 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Heidi Barnes Hellerdvm Source Type: research

Serum sdma as a marker for masked chronic kidney disease in hyperthyroid cats
Hyperthyroidism can complicate (mask) the diagnosis of concurrent chronic kidney disease (CKD), because it increases glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreases body muscle mass, both of which lower serum creatinine concentrations. As a result, many hyperthyroid cats with concurrent CKD only develop azotemia after successful treatment when GFR and muscle mass return to euthyroid states. Currently, no clinical test can reliably predict which hyperthyroid cats have concurrent, masked CKD. Identifying these cats may influence the choice of treatment for hyperthyroidism, as well as the care taken to minimize post-treatment ...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - May 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Clinical Pathology Source Type: research

Detection of ige-reactive proteins in hydrolysed dog foods
Adverse food reactions (AFRs) in dogs include food allergy, which has an immunological mechanism, and food intolerance, which does not. In dogs, AFRs mainly result in dermatological signs including pruritus, erythema and urticaria, and/or gastrointestinal signs including diarrhea, soft stools, and vomiting. Food-induced pruritus can exacerbate or mimic canine atopic dermatitis. Canine food allergy is confirmed by feeding an elimination (or restriction) diet (ED). In this method, a period of food elimination is followed by a challenge with regular or suspected food. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - May 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Dermatology Source Type: research

Surgery followed by chop chemotherapy for cats with gastrointestinal lymphoma
Lymphoma is the most commonly diagnosed hematopoietic tumor in cats with varying forms. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the most frequent primary site. Interestingly, the incidence of feline GI lymphoma (LSA) is increasing, whereas the incidence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections are decreasing within the population. Histologic classification of GI LSA is categorized into low, intermediate, and high grades, with the clinical features of intermediate and high-grade being similar in biologic characterization. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - May 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Oncology Source Type: research

Canine intracorneal stromal hemorrhage associated with ocular and systemic disease
Hemorrhage into the cornea is an uncommon clinical finding in both human and veterinary medicine, with fewer than 100 cases reported in the physician-based literature and only one peer-reviewed veterinary medical journal article describing canine cases. This condition is reportedly associated with corneal vascularization which is a much more prevalent finding in both human beings and animals. The difference in prevalence between the conditions could be explained by special pathophysiologic circumstances. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - May 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Ophthalmology Source Type: research

Lack of effectiveness of tramadol for joint pain in dogs
Osteoarthritis is a common condition that affects>20% of the adult dog population, or approximately 14 million adult dogs in the United States. Tramadol, a weak μ-opioid receptor agonist that facilitates the descending serotonergic system, is commonly used in the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs, despite unfavorable pharmacological findings and a lack of supportive clinical data. Two major metabolites of tramadol, O-desmethytramadol and N,O-didesmethylt ramadol, are credited with its pharmacological effects. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - May 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Surgery (Orthopedics) Source Type: research

Outcome of limb fracture repair in rabbits
Bone fractures in rabbits can be serious; however, knowledge about the treatment of and prognosis for fractures in rabbits is extremely limited compared with that available for dogs and cats. To our knowledge, no published scientific reports have described the treatment and outcome of fractures in rabbits, likely because rabbits have a relatively short history as companion animals. Recently, the causes and characteristics of fractures in rabbits was reported. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - May 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Small Mammals Source Type: research

Lung lobe torsion in juvenile dogs
Seven juvenile ( (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - May 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Surgery (Soft Tissue) Source Type: research

Increased Intracranial Pressure Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Small Animal Patients
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results most commonly from motor vehicle accidents and crush injury in dogs and cats, respectively. The injury incurred at the time of impact, termed primary injury, cannot be altered by a practitioner. Examples of primary injuries include skull fractures and soft tissue lacerations. Secondary injury occurs minutes to days after the primary injury and is a dynamic process. Secondary injury affects intracranial soft tissues and results in edema, hemorrhage, and possible secondary neuronal injury. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Heidi Barnes Heller Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

Risk factors for development of chronic kidney disease in cats
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a high prevalence in both humans and domestic cats. In human patients across Europe, Asia, and North America, the prevalence is reported to be 2.5 to 11.2%. The figure is similar in cats with approximately 10% of cats>10 years of age reported to be affected, although the etiopathogenesis may have some differences. CKD is defined as a sustained decrease in renal function over at least 3 months. It is not a single entity but a heterogeneous syndrome resulting in loss of functioning renal mass. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Dentistry Source Type: research

High fat and cholesterol diet on gallbladder composition and motility in dogs
Gallbladder mucocele (GBM) represents one of the most common gallbladder diseases in dogs. However, the mechanisms for this pathological condition have not yet been fully clarified. A series of experiments revealed 2 pathological events in dogs with GBM, the first of which was a change in the composition of gallbladder bile acids. The second pathological event of GBM was a remarkable decrease in postprandial gallbladder motility. It recently has been reported that increases in serum leptin concentrations and over-expression of gallbladder leptin receptors are evident in dogs with GBM. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Analysis of the association between density of Helicobacter spp. and gastric lesions in dogs
Gastritis in dogs can be caused by several factors. The main triggers are systemic disease, diet, environmental influences, stress, and behavioral factors. Similar to the situation for humans, it has been proposed that Helicobacter spp. infections may play a role in gastritis and cancer in dogs. However, no clear association between Helicobacter spp. infections and gastric pathological conditions has been established. Most of the data implicating non-Helicobacter pylori as a cause of gastric pathological conditions in domestic animals has been obtained from experimentally infected mice or Mongolian gerbils. (Source: Advanc...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Patient benefit of dog-assisted interventions in health care
Interaction with animals has been a favorite human pursuit since the dawn of history. Numerous studies have reported that animals exert favorable effects on psychological, physiological, and social aspects of human well-being. The increasing use of animals in health and social care is therefore not surprising. Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAI) are more or less goal oriented and structured interventions that intentionally incorporate animals in health, education and human service for the purpose of therapeutic gains and improved health and wellness. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: General Practice Source Type: research

Acute-phase proteins and iron status in cats with chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 15 to 30% of geriatric cats. The role of inflammation in this disease is not well characterized. In human patients, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress play key roles in the development and progression of CKD. Increased concentrations of positive acute-phase proteins (APPs), such as C-reactive protein(CRP) and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, have been described in humans with CKD and are associated with poor outcome. Anemia also is considered a negative prognostic factor in humans with renal failure, and evidence suggests that the severity of anem...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Nephrology/Urology Source Type: research

Involuntary spinal locomotion (spinal walking) in dogs with thoracolumbar spinal cord lesion
Acute spinal cord injuries (ASCI) in dogs are common and mainly result from intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE) or traumatic injuries. Recovery rate from ASCI is variable and depends on the severity of the spinal cord damage, rate of onset of clinical signs, and type of treatment. Considering the difficulty of objectively establishing the extent of the spinal cord damage, it is generally accepted to use the absence of pain perception as the most important indirect sign to assess complete functional spinal cord transection. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Neurology Source Type: research

Detection of synchronous primary tumors and previously undetected metastases in dogs undergoing CT scans
In veterinary patients, because of the need for anesthesia and costs associated with computed tomography (CT) scans, a single scan is often used for multiple purposes, including diagnosing and staging neoplasia as well as radiation therapy (RT) and radiation treatment planning (RTP). If the attending clinician is focused on the primary tumor and the CT is not subsequently reviewed by a radiologist, it is possible that lesions unrelated to the tumor could be overlooked. Detection of comorbid conditions on CT scans could influence the need for additional testing (such as biopsy or fine-needle aspiration and cytology) and mod...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Oncology Source Type: research

The Importance of Positivity in Practice and Our Lives
Dear Colleagues, (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - March 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mark Stetter Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

Whole-blood taurine concentrations in cats with intestinal disease
Taurine is an essential amino acid in cats, because they lack the metabolic pathways to synthesize it from the precursors methionine and cysteine. In addition, cats conjugate bile acids solely with taurine, and these conjugated bile acids are absorbed from the terminal ileum. Therefore, clinically relevant ileal disease may impair the absorption of taurine-conjugated bile acids resulting in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. A significantly higher number of taurine-conjugated bile acids has been reported in the feces of mice with ileitis and colitis. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - March 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Owner adherence to flea and tick prevention recommendations
This study investigated United States veterinary hospital self-reported flea and tick prevention recommendations; dog owner recollection of these recommendations; dog owner opinion of flea/tick recommendations; and estimated owner flea and tick medication adherence based on veterinary hospital purchase records. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - March 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: General Practice Source Type: research

Acute-phase proteins and iron status in cats with chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 15 to 30% of geriatric cats. The role of inflammation in this disease is not well characterized. In human patients, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress play key roles in the development and progression of CKD. Increased concentrations of positive acute-phase proteins (APPs), such as C-reactive protein (CRP), and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, have been described in humans with CKD and are associated with poor outcome. Anemia also is considered a negative prognostic factor in humans with renal failure, and evidence suggests that the severity of an...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - March 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Nephrology/Urology Source Type: research

CSF levels of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy as a diagnostic marker of canine degenerative myelopathy
Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a late-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting many pure and mixed-breed dogs. The clinical spectrum of DM is homogeneous within and across breeds. Four stages of disease progression have been defined. Clinical signs are the result of multisystem neurodegeneration, resulting from progressive axonal degeneration of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) mutations are risk factors for DM, with most cases resulting from autosomal recessive inheritance. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - March 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Neurology Source Type: research

Brachycephaly – is it bad?
Mammals often must dissipate excess metabolic heat to maintain the desired body temperature, typically by use of conduction and evaporation to transfer heat to the surrounding environment. Some mammals, such as humans, horses, sheep, and goats, rely on evaporation of sweat for heat dissipation. Dogs lack extensive sweat glands and must rely on evaporation of water from moist mucous membranes of the respiratory tract for thermoregulation and dissipation of excess heat. Although respiratory evaporative cooling is just as effective as sweating on the basis of the amount of heat/mL of water evaporated, thermoregulation by resp...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - March 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ultrasonographic and CT evaluation of gastrointestinal obstruction in dogs
Gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction is one of the primary differential diagnoses for vomiting dogs. Plain radiography is a readily available screening test for the presence of mechanical obstruction. Radiographic features suggestive of mechanical obstruction include intestinal dilation, a visible foreign body, a so-called gravel sign, intestinal stacking, and 2 distinct groupings of bowel that differ in diameter. The limited accuracy of radiography in identification of mechanical obstruction coupled with the greater availability of ultrasonography to veterinary practitioners has resulted in increased use of abdominal ultraso...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - March 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Surgery (Soft Tissue) Source Type: research

Blood transfusion requirement and factors associated with transfusion following liver lobectomy
Liver lobectomies are performed in dogs to treat hepatic neoplasia, trauma, or torsion. Primary liver tumors constitute only 0.6% to 1.3% of neoplasms in dogs, with hepatocellular carcinoma representing the most common type, although bile duct carcinoma, carcinoids, and sarcoma have also been identified. Liver lobe torsion is uncommon and most frequently involves the left lateral liver lobe in dogs, with surgery indicated for repositioning or excision of the affected lobe. In cats, hepatic masses and liver lobe torsion are also indications for liver lobectomy. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - March 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Surgery (Soft Tissue) Source Type: research

Review of Canine Histiocytic Diseases
Canine histiocytic diseases have been reclassified several times to reflect developments in our understanding of the histiocytic cell subsets that form the lesions. Differential expression of cell surface molecules by histiocytic cells can be used to identify the origin of neoplastic histiocytes in canine patients. This review discusses key differences in histiocytic cell subtypes and summarizes the preferred classifications of histiocytic diseases in dogs. Prognoses and outcomes associated with different histiocytic diseases also are mentioned. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Amy L. Macneill Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

Immersion anesthesia with alfaxalone in a goldfish
Anesthesia of fish, ranging from sedation to narcosis, is a common procedure in biomedical research, zoo health management, and fish farming. It reduces stress in the animal, decreases handling trauma, minimizes movement, and allows diagnostic and treatment procedures to be humanely performed. In clinical practice, although anesthesia of fish is described, it is infrequently performed outside of specialty practices. With increased demand by fish owners for accurate clinical diagnosis and enhanced treatment, a simple anesthetic protocol will allow general practitioners to perform diagnostic testing and noncomplicated surgic...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Exotics Source Type: research

Quantification of canine dental plaque using Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence
Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs, with prevalence estimates ranging from 44% to 64%. Dental plaque is an important etiological factor in the development of the disease. If allowed to accumulate and mature, plaque leads to an inflammatory response (gingivitis) that can ultimately give rise to periodontitis and destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone that supports the tooth. This can be painful and ultimately lead to tooth loss. The earliest stage of the disease can be managed with early identification and intervention, which could be in the form of oral hygiene products. (Sou...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Dentistry Source Type: research

Quality assessment of compounded fluconazole capsules and oral suspensions
Compounding, as defined by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, is the preparation, mixing, assembling, packaging, or labeling of a drug or device as the result of a practitioner's order or initiative within the practitioner-patient-pharmacist relationship. The legitimate use of compounded veterinary medications is one in which no approved animal or human drug is available in the appropriate dosage form and concentration required to appropriately treat the diagnosed condition when used as labeled. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Dermatology Source Type: research

Gastric pH and gastrin levels in chronic renal disease in cats
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition, with an overall prevalence rate as high as 50% in older cats. The cause of CKD in cats is often unknown and, therefore, it is difficult to prevent. Thus, clinicians must focus their attention on pharmacologic and dietary management of CKD, which is aimed at slowing disease progression and improving quality of life. Advanced CKD in cats is commonly associated with hyporexia or anorexia, nausea, vomiting, or some combination of these. Gastric erosion and ulceration, typically attributed to direct injury to the gastric mucosa as a result of circulating uremic toxins and gast...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Urethral sphincter incompetence spayed dogs
Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) is the most common cause of acquired urinary incontinence in female neutered dogs. Historically referred to as “hormone-responsive urinary incontinence,” it is now understood that its origins and pathophysiology are more complex than loss of estrogen and likely involve changes in tissue structure, collagen content, vasculature, and estrogen receptors, as well as alterations in follicle-stimulating hormon e and luteinizing hormone concentrations. Conformation of the animal (e.g., pelvic bladder, recessed vulva), tail docking, and the position of the urogenital tra...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Nephrology/Urology Source Type: research

Treatment of feline oral squamous cell carcinoma with toceranib
Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) is the most common oral neoplasm in cats, representing>60% of oral tumors in cats. Many treatments have been described. Because of rapid local recurrence or progression, survival times have been poor. Owing to the advanced stage of disease in most cats at the time of diagnosis, surgical resection is rarely possible. Even when possible, mandibulectomy is associated with high morbidity, and local recurrence is seen in>50% of cats. Conventional radiation therapy has shown little benefit as a sole treatment modality, with a median survival time (MST) of 1.5 to 5.5 months. (Sour...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Oncology Source Type: research

Monitoring Oral Pain With Dental Disease in Pets
Oral, dental, and maxillofacial pathology is the most common problem in veterinary dentistry. As a matter of fact, recent studies suggest that up to 90% of patients have periodontal disease.1 In addition, 10% of dogs have fractured teeth with pulp exposure, and approximately 40% of cats have tooth resorption. Taken together, these statistics represent the fact that almost every patient has some form of oral and/or dental disease. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - January 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Brook A. Niemiec Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

Use of oral trazodone for sedation in Cats
The latest census on pets in the United States shows that only half of all owned cats receive annual veterinary care, a decrease of 13.5% since 2006. One of the major factors contributing to this decline is cats' resistance to transportation and examination. Many cats struggle against being placed in their carriers and may even become aggressive to their owners. After the combined stressors of confinement and transportation, cats can be in a state of high arousal or anxiety, increasing the possibility of resistance and aggression during their examination. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - January 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Behavior Source Type: research

Precursor immune-mediated anemia
Over 200 dogs have been described with nonregenerative anemia suspected to be caused by an immune-mediated mechanism and commonly suggested to involve targeting of erythroid precursors. Approximately 110 of these dogs had evidence of concurrent erythrocyte targeting and destruction, some with a positive Coombs' test, suggesting a relationship to immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) and leading to use of the term nonregenerative IMHA (NRIMHA), whether hemolysis was detected or not. Others have considered dogs with similar findings to have nonregenerative immune-mediated anemia (NIMA), a more general term consistent with...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - January 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Clinical Pathology Source Type: research

Recommendations for approaches to methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections in small animals
Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in staphylococci, including resistance to the semi-synthetic, penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as methicillin, is a problem of global proportions that presents serious challenges to the successful treatment of staphylococcal infections of companion animals. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - January 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Dermatology Source Type: research

Use of darbepoetin to stimulate erythropoiesis | of chronic kidney disease in Dogs
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a metabolic disorder of companion animals, estimated to occur in 0.4 to 1.5% of dogs and represented in a higher percentage of older dogs and those evaluated at tertiary care facilities. A progressive, normocytic, normochromic, hypoproliferative anemia develops as a feature of CKD, and although there are no published data on the prevalence of anemia in dogs with CKD, it is expected to occur in most dogs that progress to end-stage disease. Although the pathogenesis of the anemia of CKD is multifactorial, decreased production of erythropoietin by the diseased kidneys is an important factor. (S...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - January 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Nephrology/Urology Source Type: research

Predictors of clinical behavior for feline diffuse iris melanoma
The eye is the most common location for feline melanocytic neoplasia, with feline diffuse iris melanoma (FDIM) accounting for 26% of feline submissions to an ocular pathology laboratory, and 50% of feline neoplasms diagnosed by the lab. Feline diffuse iris melanomas typically begin as flat, hyperpigmented foci on the iris, but progress to affect larger portions of the iris, ciliary body, iridocorneal angle, and sclera often was in association with uveitis or glaucoma. Metastatic rates of 24 to 63% have been reported with metastasis typically occurring to distant organs, including liver, lung, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone....
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - January 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Ophthalmology Source Type: research

Oral administration of famciclovir for treatment of feline herpesvirus type 1 infections
Famciclovir, an oral prodrug of penciclovir, is an increasingly common treatment for FHV-1 –infected cats. Penciclovir is a nucleoside deoxyguanosine analog with potent antiviral activity against HSV-1, HSV-2, and varicella zoster virus, as well as variable in vitro activity against FHV-1. Penciclovir is consistently more potent than acyclovir, the only other drug used for the systemic treatment of cats infected with FHV-1. Penciclovir has low bioavailability in humans, and an oral prodrug, famciclovir, is used instead. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - January 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Use of poliglecaprone for perineal urethrostomy in Cats
Perineal urethrostomy (PU) is predominantly performed in male cats to bypass the distal portion of the urethra and create a permanent opening between the pelvic urethra and perineal skin. Primary indications for PU include recurrent distal urethral obstruction secondary to feline lower urinary tract disease or urolithiasis (especially when medical attempts to prevent recurrent obstruction have failed), trauma to the distal portion of the urethra, and idiopathic distal urethral obstruction. Closure of the urethrostomy site requires accurate apposition of mucosa to skin to reduce the risk of urine extravasation, inflammation...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - January 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Surgery (Soft Tissue) Source Type: research

Common Laboratory Abnormalities Caused by Paraneoplastic Syndrome
Paraneoplastic syndromes that cause abnormalities in hematologic and serum chemistry parameters often have a poor prognosis.1 Understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of paraneoplastic syndromes can help direct treatment strategies and improve outcome. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current knowledge of mechanisms by which paraneoplastic syndromes affect complete blood count and serum chemistry profiles. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - December 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Amy L. Macneill Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

Lung ultrasound B-lines in dogs with different stages of chronic valvular heart disease
Chronic valvular heart disease (CVHD) is the most common acquired cardiac disease in dogs. The disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the mitral valve, which leads to mitral regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation can lead to cardiac remodeling and development of congestive heart failure (CHF). Although most dogs with CVHD remain asymptomatic for years, approximately one-third develop CHF and die from their heart disease. Thus, both early recognition and prompt treatment of cardiac remodeling and CHF are of utmost clinical importance. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - December 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Cardiology Source Type: research

Mycophenolate mofetil treatment of immune-mediated skin disease in dogs
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosuppressive agent used in human and companion animal medicine for the treatment of immune-mediated disease. In humans, it was initially approved for prevention of renal allograft rejection and its use has since expanded to several other immune-mediated diseases. In companion animals it has been prescribed for the treatment of multiple immune-mediated conditions including, but not limited to, hemolytic anemia, acquired myasthenia gravis, and pemphigus vulgaris. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - December 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Dermatology Source Type: research

Histopathologic characteristics of intestinal biopsy samples from dogs with chronic enteropathy with and without hypoalbuminemia
Chronic enteropathy (CE) is a term used to describe various inflammatory conditions of the intestinal tract. It is characterized by the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) signs such as weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, and decreased appetite of at least several weeks duration and is associated with histologic evidence of inflammation in the small intestine. In dogs, the type of CE often is determined by response to treatment and can include antibiotic-responsive disease, food-responsive disease, and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, which may be steroid responsive. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - December 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Clinical features, imaging characteristics, and long-term outcome of dogs with cranial meningocele or meningoencephalocele
Malformations of the skull include incomplete closure of the calvaria. This opening of the cranium, termed cranioschisis, is a potential gap in the skull through which tissue can protrude. A meningoencephalocele (MEC) is a protrusion of cerebral tissue and meninges through a cranial defect, whereas a meningocele (MC) is a herniation of the meninges only. The prevalence of cranial MC and MEC in dogs currently is unknown, and there are only 4 case reports described. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - December 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Neurology Source Type: research

WHO histologic classification and clinical outcome in feline lymphoma
Lymphoma is the most frequent malignant tumor in cats. In the majority of cases, fine-needle aspiration of the suspicious tissue with subsequent cytology confirms the diagnosis. Quite often, this diagnosis is rendered adequate for starting an adjuvant therapy to treat “the lymphoma.” Valli et al. stated more than a decade ago that a simple lymphoma diagnosis is not sufficient for veterinary oncologists to provide optimal tumor management. Thus, to diagnose all possible lymphoma subtypes according to the established revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms/World Health Organization (REAL/WH...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - December 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Oncology Source Type: research

Safety of administering canine melanoma DNA vaccine to cats with malignant melanoma
Melanocytic tumors are relatively rare in cats. The primary sites affected most commonly are intraocular, periocular, and dermal sites, although other primary locations involving oral, nares, digit, and orbital lesions have been described. Malignant melanoma (MM) appears to have an aggressive local behavior and a high risk for dissemination in cats, regardless of the primary site of origin. Surgery and radiation therapy have been the primary modalities used for treatment of malignant melanoma in cats. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - December 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Oncology Source Type: research

Middle ear polyps: traction avulsion after a lateral approach to the ear canal
Middle ear polyps in cats are relatively common benign masses that arise from the mucosal lining of the middle ear, Eustachian tube, or the nasopharynx. Whereas many cats will not demonstrate any specific clinical signs associated with middle ear polyps, extension of the polyps beyond the boundaries of the middle ear leads to signs of otitis externa, otitis interna, or nasopharyngitis. Diagnosis of polyps is relatively straightforward when polyps have protruded into the ear canal or into the nasopharynx where they can easily be demonstrated using otoscopy and nasopharyngoscopy. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - December 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Surgery (Soft Tissue) Source Type: research

Tick-Borne Diseases of the Cat
Ticks on domestic cats are often overlooked as vectors of infectious disease. There is a belief that cats are fastidious groomers and remove ticks before attachment takes place, resulting in insufficient time for transmission of infectious agents. Many cats live mainly indoors, causing owners to believe that their cats are not exposed to ticks.1 Feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have emerged in recent years, showing a wider global prevalence. Besides their veterinary importance, domestic cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some FVBD agents as reservoirs and sentinels, an occurrence that requires a One ...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - November 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Remo Lobetti Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

Relationships between onychectomy or technique and house soiling in cats
House soiling by pet cats is a substantial and multifactorial problem, with adverse effects on the human-animal bond. The problem is defined as defecating, urinating, or spraying urine outside of the litter box. Many cats with house-soiling behaviors are relinquished to animal shelters by their owners, where they are at risk of euthanasia. Therefore, a decrease in the prevalence of these behaviors could lead to a decrease in the prevalence of relinquishment of cats to animal shelters and their subsequent euthanasia. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - November 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Behavior Source Type: research

The effect of heart disease on anesthetic complications during routine dental procedures in dogs
Heart disease is estimated to affect approximately 11% of the dog population, with 75 to 80% of canine heart disease classified as chronic valvular heart disease, also called endocardiosis. Periodontal disease is also common in dogs – potentially among the most common diseases of older dogs. The presence of heart disease in dogs requiring general anesthesia for dental treatment represents an important source of anxiety among both practicing veterinarians and pet owners. In some dogs afflicted with both heart and periodontal d isease, needed dental procedures are denied or delayed because of this fear. (Source: Advanc...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - November 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Cardiology Source Type: research