Granins and catecholamines: functional interaction in chromaffin cells and adipose tissue.
In conclusion, the knowledge gathered from recent findings on the role played by proteins/peptides in the sympathetic/target cell synapses, discussed in this chapter, would contribute to and provide novel mechanistic support for an increased appreciation of the physiological role of CA in human pathophysiology. PMID: 24054141 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Pharmacology)
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Borges R, Dominguez N, Smith CB, Bandyopadhyay GK, O'Connor DT, Mahata SK, Bartolomucci A Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Interactions of neuropeptide y, catecholamines, and Angiotensin at the vascular neuroeffector junction.
Abstract Work from our laboratory has established that angiotensin II (Ang II) produces a greater enhancement of the nerve stimulation (NS)-induced release (overflow) of both norepinephrine (NE) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and a greater increase in perfusion pressure of the mesenteric arterial bed obtained from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) compared to age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) or Sprague-Dawley rats. The enhancement of NS-induced NPY release was blocked by the AT1 receptor antagonist EMD 66684 and the AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123319. Both captopril and EMD 66684 decreased NPY and NE overflow from S...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Westfall TC, Macarthur H, Byku M, Yang CL, Murray J Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Neural circuit mechanism for learning dependent on dopamine transmission: roles of striatal direct and indirect pathways in sensory discrimination.
Abstract The dorsal striatum in basal ganglia circuit mediates learning processes contributing to instrumental motor actions. The striatum receives excitatory inputs from many cortical areas and the thalamic nuclei and dopaminergic inputs from the ventral midbrain and projects to the output nuclei through direct and indirect pathways. The neural mechanism remains unclear as to how these striatofugal pathways control the learning processes of instrumental actions. Here, we addressed the behavioral roles of the two striatofugal pathways in the performance of sensory discrimination by using immunotoxin (IT)-mediated ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kobayashi K, Fukabori R, Nishizawa K Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Selective Ablation of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Neurons in the Brain by Immunotoxin-Mediated Neuronal Targeting: New Insights into Brain Catecholaminergic Circuitry and Catecholamine-Related Diseases.
Selective Ablation of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Neurons in the Brain by Immunotoxin-Mediated Neuronal Targeting: New Insights into Brain Catecholaminergic Circuitry and Catecholamine-Related Diseases. Adv Pharmacol. 2013;68:155-66 Authors: Itoi K, Ohara S, Kobayashi K Abstract The locus coeruleus (LC) has been implicated in a variety of physiological functions including sleep/wakefulness, cognition/memory, stress/emotion, and pain. Marked loss of LC-noradrenergic (NAergic) neurons is observed in autopsy specimens of patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD), and part of the clinical ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Itoi K, Ohara S, Kobayashi K Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Catecholamine/Serotonin interactions: systems thinking for brain function and disease.
oek W Abstract This chapter brings together the work of several leading laboratories, each an outstanding example of integrative approaches to complex diseases of the central nervous system. Cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia are believed to result from hypofunction of the mesocortical dopaminergic projections to prefrontal cortex (PFC). Noradrenergic targets for the augmentation of dopaminergic function in PFC show promise to improve cognitive deficits as well as negative symptoms. Serotonergic targets for the modulation of mesocortical dopaminergic neurotransmission include...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hensler JG, Artigas F, Bortolozzi A, Daws LC, De Deurwaerdère P, Milan L, Navailles S, Koek W Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

The enduring centrality of dopamine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia: in vivo evidence from the prodrome to the first psychotic episode.
Abstract Dopamine has been thought to be central to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia for the last four decades. However, the last decade or so has seen a considerable advance in understanding of dopamine's role in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. This has been informed by advances in neuroimaging, preclinical models, and the study of the prodrome to schizophrenia. Studies using these approaches have identified that the major locus of dopaminergic dysfunction is presynaptic, characterized by elevated dopamine synthesis and release capacity. Moreover, this is seen in the prodrome to the illness, is linked to t...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bonoldi I, Howes OD Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Catecholamine Metabolites Affected by the Copper-Dependent Enzyme Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase Provide Sensitive Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Menkes Disease and Viral-Mediated ATP7A Gene Therapy.
Abstract Menkes disease is a lethal X-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in ATP7A, a copper-transporting ATPase with diverse and important biological functions. Partial deficiency of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase is a biochemical hallmark of this illness due to the normal role of ATP7A in delivery of copper as an enzymatic cofactor. We exploited this fact to develop a diagnostic test for Menkes disease, which proved highly sensitive and specific. The assay has enabled early identification of affected patients, leading to enhanced survival and improved neurodevelopment after early copper...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kaler SG, Holmes CS Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Biomarkers, mechanisms, and potential prevention of catecholamine neuron loss in Parkinson disease.
Abstract This chapter is on biomarkers, mechanisms, and potential treatment of catecholamine neuron loss in Parkinson disease (PD). PD is characterized by a movement disorder from loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. An intense search is going on for biomarkers of the disease process. Theoretically, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the deaminated DA metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), should be superior to other neurochemical indices of loss of central dopamine. CSF DOPAC is low in PD-even in patients with recent onset of Parkinsonism. Cardiac norepinephrine depletion is as severe as the loss...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Goldstein DS Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

AADC Deficiency: Occurring in Humans, Modeled in Rodents.
Abstract Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is a homodimeric pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme responsible for the syntheses of dopamine and serotonin. Defects in the AADC gene result in neurotransmitter deficiencies. Patients with AADC deficiency have severe motor and autonomic dysfunctions. A mouse model of AADC deficiency was recently established. These mice grow poorly and move awkwardly during infancy. They also show high anxiety when they grow up. Because drug therapy provides little or no benefit for many patients with AADC deficiency, a gene therapy has been attempted. The gene therapy employed ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hwu WL, Lee NC, Chien YH, Muramatsu S, Ichinose H Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Role of Hypoxia and HIF2α in Development of the Sympathoadrenal Cell Lineage and Chromaffin Cell Tumors with Distinct Catecholamine Phenotypic Features.
Role of Hypoxia and HIF2α in Development of the Sympathoadrenal Cell Lineage and Chromaffin Cell Tumors with Distinct Catecholamine Phenotypic Features. Adv Pharmacol. 2013;68:285-317 Authors: Richter S, Qin N, Pacak K, Eisenhofer G Abstract Hypoxia has wide-ranging impact in normal physiology and disease processes. This stimulus evokes changes in gene expression mediated by transcription factors termed hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that affect numerous processes: angiogenesis, cell survival, cellular metabolism, stem cell self-renewal and multipotency, migration, invasiveness, and metastatic prog...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Richter S, Qin N, Pacak K, Eisenhofer G Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Localization and Expression of VMAT2 Aross Mammalian Species: A Translational Guide for Its Visualization and Targeting in Health and Disease.
Abstract VMAT2 is the vesicular monoamine transporter that allows DA, NE, Epi, His, and 5-HT uptake into neurons and endocrine cells. A second isoform, VMAT1, has similar structure and function, but does not recognize histamine as a substrate. VMAT1 is absent from neurons, and its major function appears to be in endocrine cells, that is, enterochromaffin cells, which scavenge 5-HT, but not histamine, from dietary sources. This chapter provides an update on the neuroanatomical distribution of VMAT2 across various mammalian species, including human, primate, pig, rat, and mouse. When necessary, VMAT1 expression is p...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Schafer MK, Weihe E, Eiden LE Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Catecholamine Receptors: Prototypes for GPCR-Based Drug Discovery.
Abstract Drugs acting at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute ~40% of those in current clinical use. GPCR-based drug discovery remains at the forefront of drug development, especially for new treatments for psychiatric illness and neurological disease. Here, the basic framework of GPCR signaling learned through the elucidation of catecholamine receptor signaling through G proteins and β-arrestins, and X-ray crystallographic structure determination is reviewed. In silico docking studies developed in tandem with confirmatory empirical data gathering from binding and signaling experiments have allowed ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Emery AC Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Stress-triggered changes in peripheral catecholaminergic systems.
Abstract The sympathetic nervous system not only regulates cardiovascular and metabolic responses to stress but also is altered by stress. The sympathoneural and sympathoadrenomedullary systems are modified by different metabolic pathways and have different responses to short- and to long-term stressors. Stress also induces nonneuronal catecholamine enzymes, primarily through corticosteroids. Catecholamine synthetic enzymes are induced by different pathways in response to short- and long-term acting stressors, like cold exposure or immobilization, and differently in the sympathetic ganglia and the adrenal medulla....
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kvetnansky R, Lu X, Ziegler MG Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Neuropeptide-catecholamine interactions in stress.
Abstract Neuropeptides and catecholamines act as neurotransmitters within circuits of the central and peripheral nervous systems that mediate both systemic and psychological stress responses, as well as long-term adaptation and maladaptation to stress recognizable clinically as survival with resilience, or survival with cost, as manifested in anxiety, depression, PTSD, and other human behavioral disorders. The interactions between catecholamines and neuropeptides within some of these circuits are summarized in this chapter and described in detail in the three chapters following. PMID: 24054154 [PubMed - in pr...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Eiden LE Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Neuropeptide regulation of the locus coeruleus and opiate-induced plasticity of stress responses.
Abstract Stress has been implicated as a risk factor in vulnerability to the initiation and maintenance of opiate abuse and is thought to play an important role in relapse in subjects with a history of abuse. Conversely, chronic opiate use and withdrawal are stressors and can potentially predispose individuals to stress-related psychiatric disorders. Because the interaction of opiates with stress response systems has potentially widespread clinical consequences, it is important to delineate how specific substrates of the stress response and endogenous opioid systems interact and the specific points at which stress...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Van Bockstaele EJ, Valentino RJ Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Identifying links in the chain: the dynamic coupling of catecholamines, Peptide synthesis, and Peptide release in hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons.
Abstract Compared to neurons that communicate using synapses, some neuroendocrine neurons release relatively large quantities of peptide into the vasculature to control neuroendocrine function. Maintaining adequate amounts of peptide for release through controlled biosynthesis is therefore critical for their function. But how neuroendocrine-or in fact, any neuropeptide-neurons link appropriate levels of peptide biosynthesis with the action potentials that drive peptide release is unknown. Here, we review possible mechanisms in paraventricular hypothalamic CRH neuroendocrine neurons to coordinate these processes in...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Watts AG, Khan AM Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP): A Master Regulator in Central and Peripheral Stress Responses.
Abstract The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a master regulator of central and peripheral stress responses required to restore and maintain homeostasis. PACAP modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to acute psychogenic but not systemic stressors, through activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) release to drive adrenal corticosterone (CORT) output. During direct high-frequency stimulation of the splanchnic nerve that is designed to mimic stress, PACAP regulates adrenomedullary catecholamine secretion. In addition to transmission, PA...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mustafa T Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 24054158 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Pharmacology)
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Eiden LE Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antiviral agents for herpes simplex virus.
Abstract This review starts with a brief description of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), the clinical diseases they cause, and the continuing clinical need for antiviral chemotherapy. A historical overview describes the progress from the early, rather toxic antivirals to acyclovir (ACV) which led the way for its prodrug, valacyclovir, to penciclovir and its prodrug, famciclovir (FCV). These compounds have been the mainstay of HSV therapy for two decades and have established a remarkable safety record. This review focuses on these compounds, the preclinical studies which reveal potentially impo...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - July 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vere Hodge RA, Field HJ Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Nucleotide prodrugs for the treatment of HCV infection.
Abstract The HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is an essential enzyme in HCV viral replication and has been a prominent target in the search for therapies to treat individuals infected with HCV. The development of both nucleoside and nucleotide HCV inhibitors has been pursued because of their potential for showing pangenotypic activity and because of their high barrier to resistance. Even though nucleoside inhibitors were shown to be effective in a clinical setting, their potency limited their effectiveness. The exploitation of prodrug strategies to deliver nucleoside 5'-monophosphates has resulted in the developme...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - July 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sofia MJ Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

HIV Integrase Inhibitors: 20-Year Landmark and Challenges.
ier Y Abstract Since the discovery of HIV as the cause for AIDS 30 years ago, major progress has been made, including the discovery of drugs that now control the disease. Here, we review the integrase (IN) inhibitors from the discovery of the first compounds 20 years ago to the approval of two highly effective IN strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), raltegravir (Isentress) and elvitegravir (Stribild), and the promising clinical activity of dolutegravir. After summarizing the molecular mechanism of action of the INSTIs as interfacial inhibitors, we discuss the remaining challenges. Those include: overcoming resista...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - July 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Métifiot M, Marchand C, Pommier Y Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Advances in the treatment of varicella-zoster virus infections.
Abstract Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes two distinct diseases, varicella (chickenpox) and shingles (herpes zoster). Chickenpox occurs subsequent to primary infection, while herpes zoster (usually associated with aging and immunosuppression) appears as a consequence of reactivation of latent virus. The major complication of shingles is postherpetic neuralgia. Vaccination strategies to prevent varicella or shingles and the current status of antivirals against VZV will be discussed in this chapter. Varivax®, a live-attenuated vaccine, is available for pediatric varicella. Zostavax® is used to boost VZV-s...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - July 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Andrei G, Snoeck R Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Hepatitis C Virus: Standard-of-Care Treatment.
Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is curable by therapy. The antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis C has been based for decades on the use of interferon (IFN)-α, combined with ribavirin. More recently, new therapeutic approaches that target essential components of the HCV life cycle have been developed, including direct-acting antiviral (DAA) and host-targeted agents (HTA). A new standard-of-care treatment has been approved in 2011 for patients infected with HCV genotype 1, based on a triple combination of pegylated IFN-α, ribavirin, and either telaprevir or boceprevir, two inhibitors of th...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - July 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pawlotsky JM Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Influenza virus resistance to antiviral therapy.
Abstract Antiviral drugs for influenza therapy and prophylaxis are either of the adamantane or neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) class. However, the NAIs are mainly prescribed nowadays, because of widespread adamantane resistance among influenza A viruses and ineffectiveness of adamantanes against influenza B. Emergence and spread of NAI resistance would further limit our therapeutic options. Taking into account the previous spread of oseltamivir-resistant viruses during the 2007/2008 season preceding the last pandemic, emergence of yet another naturally NAI-resistant influenza virus may not be an unlikely event. This...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - July 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: van der Vries E, Schutten M, Fraaij P, Boucher C, Osterhaus A Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

The natural course of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and its management.
Abstract Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) runs a long natural course during which underlying changes in liver histology can progress to cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation, as well as to hepatocellular carcinoma. Therapeutic intervention is currently aiming at suppression of HBV replication by applying a number of pharmacological agents. For an optimum use of available therapies, good knowledge of the natural course of chronic infection, as well as of the role played by several viral, host, and environmental factors, is mandatory. The larger part of this chapter deals with how to treat the vario...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - July 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hadziyannis SJ, Vassilopoulos D, Hadziyannis E Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

The holý trinity: the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates.
The holý trinity: the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. Adv Pharmacol. 2013;67:293-316 Authors: De Clercq E Abstract The Holý Trinity was named after Dr Antonín Holý (the Holý Trinity being an Unesco recognized monument in Olomouc, Czech Republic), who together with Dr John C. Martin (Gilead Sciences) and myself pioneered a new class of antiviral agents, the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. These compounds have revolutionized the antiviral drug field with several drugs that have been approved for the treatment of various DNA virus infections (cidofovir), hepatitis B (adefo...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - July 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: De Clercq E Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, and Protease Inhibitors in the Treatment of HIV Infections (AIDS).
Abstract The majority of the drugs currently used for the treatment of HIV infections (AIDS) belong to either of the following three classes: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs). At present, there are 7 NRTIs, 5 NNRTIs, and 10 PIs approved for clinical use. They are discussed from the following viewpoints: (i) chemical formulae; (ii) mechanism of action; (iii) drug combinations; (iv) clinical aspects; (v) preexposure prophylaxis; (vi) prevention of mother-to-child transmission; (vii) their use in children; (viii...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - July 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: De Clercq E Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 23886006 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Pharmacology)
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - July 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: De Clercq E Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Redefining approaches to asthma: developing targeted biologic therapies.
Abstract Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder canonically associated with type 2 airway inflammation as characterized by elevated levels of eosinophils, immunoglobulin E, and cytokines including interleukin (IL) 4, IL5, IL9, and IL13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. However, mounting evidence has shown that considerable heterogeneity exists in human asthma in terms of the nature and intensity of airway inflammation. While many asthma patients achieve acceptable control of symptoms with standard-of-care therapies such as β(2)-adrenergic agonists and inhaled corticosteroids, a minority remains sympt...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - February 28, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Arron JR, Scheerens H, Matthews JG Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Protein Therapeutics Targeted at the TNF Superfamily.
Abstract Protein-based drugs with their unequivocal specificity achieved the long sought milestone of selectively disrupting cytokine pathways to alleviate ongoing inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a member of the superfamily of cytokines involved in regulating immune and inflammatory processes, provides an exemplary model of protein therapeutics. Antibody and receptor-based inhibitors of TNF modify inflammation leading to dramatic improvement in patients with certain autoimmune diseases. Collectively, the structure, specificity and valence of these protein-based drugs provide direct evidence that the ess...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - February 28, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ware CF Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Immunopharmacology of lipid a mimetics.
Abstract The structural core of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, lipid A, has played a role in medicine since the 1890s when William Coley sought to harness its immunostimulatory properties in the form of a crude bacterial extract. Recent decades have brought remarkable clarity to the structure of lipid A and the multicomponent endotoxin receptor system that evolved to detect it. A range of therapeutically useful versions of lipid A now exists, including preparations of detoxified lipid A, synthetic copies of naturally occurring biological intermediates such as lipid IVa, and synthetic mimetics. These agents are find...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - February 28, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bowen WS, Gandhapudi SK, Kolb JP, Mitchell TC Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Biology of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP).
Abstract Originally shown to promote the growth and activation of B cells, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is now known to have wide-ranging impacts on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell lineages, including dendritic cells, basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, CD4(+), CD8(+) and natural killer T cells, B cells and epithelial cells. While TSLP's role in the promotion of TH2 responses has been extensively studied in the context of lung- and skin-specific allergic disorders, it is becoming increasingly clear that TSLP may impact multiple disease states within multiple organ systems, including the blockad...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - February 28, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ziegler SF, Roan F, Bell BD, Stoklasek TA, Kitajima M, Han H Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Eicosanoids in metabolic syndrome.
Abstract Chronic persistent inflammation plays a significant role in disease pathology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is a constellation of diseases that include obesity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with many of the MetS diseases. These metabolic derangements trigger a persistent inflammatory cascade, which includes production of lipid autacoids (eicosanoids) that recruit immune cells to the site of injury and subsequent expression of cytokines and chemokines that...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - February 28, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hardwick JP, Eckman K, Lee YK, Abdelmegeed MA, Esterle A, Chilian WM, Chiang JY, Song BJ Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Yin and Yang of Protein Kinase C-theta (PKCθ): A Novel Drug Target for Selective Immunosuppression.
The Yin and Yang of Protein Kinase C-theta (PKCθ): A Novel Drug Target for Selective Immunosuppression. Adv Pharmacol. 2013;66:267-312 Authors: Zhang EY, Kong KF, Altman A Abstract Protein kinase C-theta (PKCθ) is a protein kinase C (PKC) family member expressed predominantly in T lymphocytes, and extensive studies addressing its function have been conducted. PKCθ is the only T cell-expressed PKC that localizes selectively to the center of the immunological synapse (IS) following conventional T cell antigen stimulation, and this unique localization is essential for PKCθ-mediated dow...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - February 28, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhang EY, Kong KF, Altman A Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 23433460 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Pharmacology)
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - February 28, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Webb DR Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research