Silicone-acyclovir controlled release devices suppress primary herpes simplex virus-2 and varicella zoster virus infections in vitro.
Authors: Berkower CL, Johnson NM, Longdo SB, McGusty-Robinson SO, Semenkow SL, Margulies BJ Abstract Following initial infection, herpesviruses retreat into a permanent latent state with periodic reactivation resulting in an enhanced likelihood of transmission and clinical disease. The nucleoside analogue acyclovir reduces clinical symptoms of the three human alpha herpesviruses, HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV. Long-term administration of acyclovir (ACV) can reduce the frequency and severity of reactivation, but its low bioavailability and short half-life require a daily drug regimen. Our lab is working to develop a subcuta...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of extended interval dosing aminoglycosides in the morbidly obese population.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the commonly recommended adjusted weight for weight-based dosing. There were 31 morbidly obese patients who received gentamicin or tobramycin 5-7 mg/kg every 24 hours using a 40% dosing weight correction factor. Our institution utilizes 16-hour postdose concentrations to monitor extended interval aminoglycosides. Twenty-two of the 31 patients (71%) achieved an appropriate serum drug concentration. Four patients (13%) were found to be supratherapeutic and 5 patients (16%) subtherapeutic. The only variable that correlated with supratherapeutic levels was olde...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum nocturnum Leaves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Authors: Kamboj A, Kumar S, Kumar V Abstract Objective. To investigate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cestrum nocturnum leaves in Wistar rats. Method. Cestrum nocturnum leaves extract in hydroalcoholic solution were prepared by Soxhletation method and stored in refrigerator at 4°C for two days before use. Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg i.p.). Hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Cestrum nocturnum was screened for antidiabetic activity and given to the STZ-induced diabetic rats at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of body...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antibiotic prescribing habits of dental surgeons in hyderabad city, India, for pulpal and periapical pathologies: a survey.
Authors: Kumar KP, Kaushik M, Kumar PU, Reddy MS, Prashar N Abstract Aim. To determine the antibiotic prescribing habits for pulpal and periapical pathology among dentists in Hyderabad city, India. Methodology. A total of 246 questionnaires were distributed to all the dentists registered with the local dental branch. Demographic details and questions regarding type and dosage of antibiotics prescribed for allergic and nonallergic patients were recorded. Inferential statistics were performed, and P
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antioxidative properties and inhibition of key enzymes relevant to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by essential oils from black pepper.
Authors: Oboh G, Ademosun AO, Odubanjo OV, Akinbola IA Abstract The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α -amylase, α -glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric r...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Spilanthes acmella: A Review.
Authors: Dubey S, Maity S, Singh M, Saraf SA, Saha S Abstract Spilanthes acmella is an important medicinal plant, found in tropical and subtropical countries mainly India and South America. Popularly, it is known as toothache plant which reduces the pain associated with toothaches and can induce saliva secretion. Various extracts and active metabolites from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. Literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions, which include antifungal, antipyretic, local anaesthetic, bioinsecticide, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, an...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.
Authors: Bounihi A, Hajjaj G, Alnamer R, Cherrah Y, Zellou A Abstract Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromato...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Extracts of Artemisia ciniformis Protect Cytotoxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in H9c2 Cardiac Muscle Cells through the Inhibition of Reactive Oxygen Species.
In this study we investigated whether different extracts of A. ciniformis and A. biennis have protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in rat cardiomyoblast cells (H9c2). Method. The dried and ground aerial parts of these two species were extracted successively using petroleum ether (40-60), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EA), ethanol (EtOH) and ethanol : water (1 : 1) by maceration method. To evaluate whether different extracts of A. ciniformis and A. biennis protect cardiomyoblast H9c2 cells from H2O2 cytotoxicity, we examined the direct cytotoxic effect of H2O2 on H9c...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Curcumin ameliorates methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
In conclusion, curcumin protected rats from methotrexate nephrotoxicity, at least in part, through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID: 24381587 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Dehydroepiandrosterone stimulates nerve growth factor and brain derived neurotrophic factor in cortical neurons.
In this study, we investigated the possible role of DHEA to modulate NGF and BDNF production. The in vivo level of neurotrophins expression was demonstrated by ELISA in rat harvested brain cortex. Also neurotrophins expression after DHEA treatment was revealed by the increased neurite extension, immunostaining, and BrdU labeling in rats. Anti-NGF and anti-BDNF antibodies were used as suppressive agents on neurogenesis. The results showed that NGF and BDNF are overproduced after DHEA treatment but there is not any overexpression for NT-3 and NT-4. Also DHEA increased neurite extension and neural cell proliferation significa...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Propolis: a wonder bees product and its pharmacological potentials.
Authors: Wagh VD Abstract Propolis is a natural resinous mixture produced by honey bees from substances collected from parts of plants, buds, and exudates. Due to its waxy nature and mechanical properties, bees use propolis in the construction and repair of their hives for sealing openings and cracks and smoothing out the internal walls and as a protective barrier against external invaders like snakes, lizards, and so forth, or against weathering threats like wind and rain. Bees gather propolis from different plants, in the temperate climate zone mainly from poplar. Current antimicrobial applications of propolis in...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Authors: Mohan Y, Jesuthankaraj GN, Ramasamy Thangavelu N Abstract The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in f...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The potential benefits and adverse effects of phytic Acid supplement in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We no...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The genus spilanthes ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties: a review.
Authors: Paulraj J, Govindarajan R, Palpu P Abstract Spilanthes spp. are popular, over-the-counter remedies; they are sold over the internet under various names and are widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures. This review will summarize the important reports on the ethnopharmacology, botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties as described in the literature from recent years (1920 to 2013). Spilanthes spp. are used for more than 60 types of disorders. They are reported to contain a number of biologically active phytochemicals, although a large number of ethnopharmacological uses have been...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.
Authors: Arrey Tarkang P, Nwachiban Atchan AP, Kuiate JR, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Agbor GA Abstract Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and,...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Comparative Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcuminoids, Turmerones, and Aqueous Extract of Curcuma longa.
Authors: Bagad AS, Joseph JA, Bhaskaran N, Agarwal A Abstract Curcuma longa is widely known for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional system of medicine for centuries and has been scientifically validated extensively. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids and oil-free aqueous extract (COFAE) of C. longa and compare it with that of curcuminoids and turmerones (volatile oil), the bioactive components of C. longa that are proven for the anti-inflammatory potential. The activity against inflammation was evaluated in xylene-induced ear edema, cotton pellet gra...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Adherence of surgeons to antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines in a tertiary general hospital in a rapidly developing country.
Conclusion. Lack of adherence to hospital protocols is not uncommon. This finding remains a challenge to encourage clinicians to follow hospital guidelines appropriately and to consistently apply the surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. The role of clinical pharmacist may facilitate this process across all surgical disciplines. PMID: 24454349 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Teratogenic effects of coadministration of fluoxetine and olanzapine on rat fetuses.
Authors: Bakhtiarian A, Takzare N, Sheykhi M, Sistany N, Jazaeri F, Giorgi M, Nikoui V Abstract Objective. Depression during pregnancy is a relatively common problem. Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of concomitant administration of fluoxetine and olanzapine during the organogenesis period, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of coadministration of fluoxetine and olanzapine on rat fetuses. Method. Forty-two pregnant rats were divided into seven groups, randomly. The first group received 0.5 mL of normal saline as the control. The second and third groups rec...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats.
Authors: Adaramoye OA, Akanni OO Abstract We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE) served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of norfloxacin in pregnant female albino rats.
This study was designed to investigate the possible developmental teratogenicity of norfloxacin in rats. Forty pregnant female rats were divided into four equal groups. Group A received norfloxacin in a dose of 500 mg/kg·b·wt/day orally from 6th to 15th day of gestation. Groups B and C received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg·b·wt/day orally for the same period, respectively; Group D behaved as control and received 0.5 mL distilled water orally for the same period. The dams were killed on 20th day of gestation and their fetuses were subjected to morphological, visceral, and skeletal exa...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.
This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects.
Authors: Adkar P, Dongare A, Ambavade S, Bhaskar VH Abstract Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. The...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Hemozoin inhibition and control of clinical malaria.
Authors: Ihekwereme CP, Esimone CO, Nwanegbo EC Abstract Malaria has a negative impact on health and social and economic life of residents of endemic countries. The ultimate goals of designing new treatment for malaria are to prevent clinical infection, reduce morbidity, and decrease mortality. There are great advances in the understanding of the parasite-host interaction through studies by various scientists. In some of these studies, attempts were made to evaluate the roles of malaria pigment or toxins in the pathogenesis of malaria. Hemozoin is a key metabolite associated with severe malaria anemia (SMA), immuno...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antisecretory Action of the Extract of the Aerial Parts of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) Occurs through Antihistaminic and Anticholinergic Pathways.
The objective of this study was to find out the possible antiulcer mechanism of action of Eremomastax speciosa. Method. Carbachol- and histamine-induced hypersecretion, associated with the pylorus ligation technique, were used in rats. Gastric mucosal ulceration, mucus production, pH, gastric volume, and acidity were measured. Results. Histamine and carbachol raised gastric acidity to 86.50 and 84.80 mEq/L, respectively, in the control rats, and the extracts (200 mg/kg) reduced gastric acidity to 34.60 and 39.00 mEq/L, respectively. Intraduodenal aqueous extract (400 mg/kg) in histamine- and car...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit) Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice.
Authors: Singh R, Sharma J, Goyal PK Abstract Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak) on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA-) induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection) and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks) liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it wa...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Effects of resveratrol and nebivolol on isolated vascular and cardiac tissues from young rats.
Authors: Pullen C, Coulson FR, Fenning A Abstract The mechanisms by which resveratrol and nebivolol induce vasodilation are not clearly understood. It has been postulated that both agents stimulate the production of nitric oxide; however, this remains to be conclusively established. The major aim of this study was to examine the vasodilatory and antiarrhythmic effects of both resveratrol and nebivolol and to provide further insight into possible mechanisms of action. Cardiac and vascular tissues were isolated from healthy male rodents. Results indicate that resveratrol and nebivolol decrease the action potential du...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Authors: Kumar M, Prasad SK, Krishnamurthy S, Hemalatha S Abstract Present study is an attempt to investigate plausible mechanism involved behind antidiabetic activity of standardized Houttuynia cordata Thunb. extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The plant is used as a medicinal salad for lowering blood sugar level in North-Eastern parts of India. Oral administration of extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level daily for 21 days showed a significant (P
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antifertility Effect of Artemisia kopetdaghensis.
This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. Kopetdaghensis on reproduction of female rats. The pregnant rats were treated (i.p.) with vehicle or 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. Kopetdaghensis hydroalcoholic extract from the 2nd to 8th day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Also, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929) and ovary (Cho) cell lines. The A. Kopetdaghensis had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Inhibitory Potential of Five Traditionally Used Native Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants on α -Amylase, α -Glucosidase, Glucose Entrapment, and Amylolysis Kinetics In Vitro.
Inhibitory Potential of Five Traditionally Used Native Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants on α -Amylase, α -Glucosidase, Glucose Entrapment, and Amylolysis Kinetics In Vitro. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2014;2014:739834 Authors: Picot CM, Subratty AH, Mahomoodally MF Abstract Five traditionally used antidiabetic native medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely, Stillingia lineata (SL), Faujasiopsis flexuosa (FF), Erythroxylum laurifolium (EL), Elaeodendron orientale (EO), and Antidesma madagascariensis (AM), were studied for possible α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory property, glucose entr...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of GABAergic Transmission Modulation as a Novel Functional Target for Management of Multiple Sclerosis: Exploring Inhibitory Effect of GABA on Glutamate-Mediated Excitotoxicity.
In this study, sodium valproate was found to show the best activity in the animal models whereas phenobarbitone sodium showed moderate activity. However, diazepam was found to be ineffective. PMID: 24778644 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Beneficial Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on Osteopenia Associated with Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Male Wistar Rats.
Authors: Rao Sirasanagandla S, Ranganath Pai Karkala S, Potu BK, Bhat KM Abstract Petroleum ether fraction of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) impact on the development of osteopenia in type 1 diabetic rat model has been evaluated. Diabetic rats were treated orally with two doses of PECQ. Another group of diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous injection of synthetic human insulin. The cortical and trabecular bone thickness and bone strength were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with two doses of PECQ significantly prevented these changes in diabetic rats. However, PECQ treatment (two doses) did...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans to Antibacterial Effect from Mammea americana.
Authors: Herrera Herrera A, Franco Ospina L, Fang L, Díaz Caballero A Abstract The development of periodontal disease and dental caries is influenced by several factors, such as microorganisms of bacterial biofilm or commensal bacteria in the mouth. These microorganisms trigger inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Currently, medicinal plants are treatment options for these oral diseases. Mammea americana extracts have reported antimicrobial effects against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, this effect is unknown against oral bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibac...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Simple and Robust Analysis of Cefuroxime in Human Plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to a Bioequivalence Study.
Authors: Hu X, Huang M, Liu J, Chen J, Shentu J Abstract A simple, robust LC-MS/MS assay for quantifying cefuroxime in human plasma was developed. Cefuroxime and tazobactam, as internal standard (IS), were extracted from human plasma by methanol to precipitate protein. Separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 × 250 mm, 5  μ m) column under isocratic conditions. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.0525-21.0  μ g/mL (r = 0.9998). The accuracy was higher than 90.92%, while the intra- and interday precision were less than 6.26%. The extraction procedur...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women.
Authors: Benarba B, Meddah B, Tir Touil A Abstract Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al) (n = 54) and non-A. longa group (non-Al) (n = 24). 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine) pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were determined by HPLC. Serum and urinary creatinine...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Influence of flunixin on the disposition kinetic of cefepime in goats.
Authors: El-Hewaity M Abstract The pharmacokinetic profile of cefepime (10 mg/kg b.w.) was studied following intravenous and intramuscular administration of cefepime alone and coadministered with flunixin (2.2 mg/kg b.w.) in goats. Cefepime concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Escherichia coli (MTCC 443) as test organism. Following intravenous injection of cefepime alone and in combination with flunixin, there are no significant changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters. Following intramuscular injection of cefepime alone and in combination with flunixin, th...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies).
Authors: Anwar Ibrahim D, Noman Albadani R Abstract Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus au...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Attenuation of Carcinogenesis and the Mechanism Underlying by the Influence of Indole-3-carbinol and Its Metabolite 3,3'-Diindolylmethane: A Therapeutic Marvel.
Authors: Maruthanila VL, Poornima J, Mirunalini S Abstract Rising evidence provides credible support towards the potential role of bioactive products derived from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, brussels sprouts, turnips, kohlrabi, bok choy, and radishes. Many epidemiological studies point out that Brassica vegetable protects humans against cancer since they are rich sources of glucosinolates in addition to possessing a high content of flavonoids, vitamins, and mineral nutrients. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) belongs to the class of compounds called indole glucosinolate, obtained from...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Development of an Antioxidant Phytoextract of Lantana grisebachii with Lymphoprotective Activity against In Vitro Arsenic Toxicity.
Authors: Soria EA, Quiroga PL, Albrecht C, Ramos Elizagaray SI, Cantero JJ, Bongiovanni GA Abstract Phytochemicals have been presumed to possess prophylactic and curative properties in several pathologies, such as arsenic- (As-) induced immunosuppression. Our aim was to discover a lymphoprotective extract from Lantana grisebachii Stuck. (Verbenaceae) (LG). We assessed its bioactivity and chemical composition using cell-based assays. Fractions produced from a hexane extract acutely induced nitrite formation in T-activated cell cultures (P
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Comparative Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Apoptogenic Effects of Several Coumarins on Human Cancer Cell Lines: Osthole Induces Apoptosis in p53-Deficient H1299 Cells.
In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of coumarins isolated from Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. in PC3, SKNMC, and H1299 (p53 null) human carcinoma cell lines. Osthole proved to be an outstanding potent cytotoxic agent especially against PC3 cells. Isoimperatorin exhibited moderate inhibitory effect against SKNMC and PC3 cell lines. Oxypeucedanin and braylin did not display any cytotoxic activity. In the next set of experiments, the apoptotic potentials of osthole and isoimperatorin were investigated. Induction of apoptosis by isoimperatorin was accompanied by an increase in activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research