Updated Palate Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
Authors: Li HY Abstract Initially described in 1981, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty was the first surgical procedure specially designed at the palatal level for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To date, palatal surgery remains the most commonly used surgery for OSA. The advancement of this surgery over the past 30 years has been a process of evolution in concepts, examination, and technique to increase safety and effectiveness in the treatment of OSA. Concept changes have emerged in the disease etiology, purpose of surgery, treatment priorities, staging of operations, integration therapy, and surgical endpoint...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 26, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.
Authors: London NR, Reh DD Abstract Nasal polyps are semi-translucent mucosal outgrowths of the paranasal sinuses which typically arise in the setting of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Nasal polyps are also associated with asthma, aspirin sensitivity, cystic fibrosis and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFS). The majority of nasal polyps are bilateral and characterized by tissue edema and eosinophil infiltration. Patients with nasal polyps often present with complaints including nasal obstruction, congestion, rhinorrhea or altered sense of smell. The differential diagnosis ranges from benign masses such as schneideri...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: The Latest in Diagnosis and Management.
Authors: Loftus PA, Wise SK Abstract Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is the most common form of fungal sinusitis in the United States. Its pathophysiological basis is associated with a predisposed person's type I IgE-mediated allergic response to inhaled mold spores that are ubiquitous in the environment. AFRS is a well-recognized type of chronic, recurrent, and non-invasive hypertrophic sinus disease that affects immunocompetent hosts, most commonly young African American males. There are 5 main criteria used for the diagnosis of AFRS, one being the presence of nasal polyposis. A review of the current litera...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.
This article summarizes the current knowledge about the pathophysiology, focuses on modern diagnostic approaches of AERD and discusses various aspirin desensitization protocols with respect to efficacy as well as to undesirable side effects. PMID: 27466843 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology)
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Cystic Fibrosis Sinusitis.
Authors: Le C, McCrary HC, Chang E Abstract Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene(CFTR) resulting in impaired ion transport. Nearly all people with CF will develop chronic rhino-sinusitis (CRS) and present with the characteristic viscous mucus, impaired mucociliary clearance and chronic inflammation/infection of the sinonasal cavity. While some individuals with CF can appear relatively asymptomatic in terms of their sinus disease, commonly reported symptoms include anosmia, headache, facial pain, nasal obstruction, chro...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Influence of P-Glycoprotein Function on Chronic Rhinosinusitis/Nasal Polyps Pathophysiology.
Authors: Cheng YS, Bleier BS Abstract Permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) is an active efflux membrane transporter that has been researched extensively due to its ability to confer multidrug resistance in a wide range of cancers. P-gp has an impressively broad substrate specificity and is known to interact with hundreds of compounds, including drugs and toxins. This substrate promiscuity is the key to its physiological role, and P-gp is thought to be responsible for extruding xenobiotics and cellular metabolites, as well as maintaining tissue barriers at the blood-brain interface and gastrointestinal epithelium. In ad...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

B-Cells and Antibody-Mediated Pathogenesis in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.
Authors: Min JY, Hulse KE, Tan BK Abstract The sinonasal mucosa forms a dynamic immune barrier where epithelial cells and the immune system interact with the inhaled environment and nasal microbiome. Recent studies suggest that B-cells, plasma cells and antibody production are highly activated locally within the nasal mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Findings additionally suggest that polyp tissue contains elevated levels of cytokines, chemokines and complement that may drive this profound B-cell response. Currently, the data are conflicting on whether the B-cell response f...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Innate Lymphoid Cells: The Innate Counterpart to T Helper Cells.
Authors: Padro Dietz C, Luong A Abstract Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently discovered subset of innate immune cells that are capable of secreting great amounts of cytokines that have been found to influence effector cell activity. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in the absence (CRSsNP) or presence (CRSwNP) of nasal polyps has been characterized as type 1- and type 2-skewed, respectively, based on the presence of cytokines characteristic of type 1 and 2 immune responses. Based on the ability of type 1 ILCs to secrete interferon-x03B3;, a type 1 cytokine found elevated in CRSsNP and type 2 ILCs to secrete IL-5...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

The Role of Innate Immunity and Aeroallergens in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.
Authors: London NR, Tharakan A, Ramanathan M Abstract Allergy has been inferred to contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) although this role is controversial and the mechanism is debated. Furthermore, the role of aeroallergens in CRS is poorly defined and has been postulated to contribute to CRS through direct penetration in the sinuses or downstream systemic consequences. Common aeroallergens implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis include air pollution/second hand smoke, dust mite and pollen [1,2,3]. One emerging potential mechanism whereby aeroallergens contribute to CRS is through sinona...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Acquired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Deficiency.
Authors: Cho DY, Woodworth BA Abstract In the genetic airway disease cystic fibrosis (CF), deficiency or dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) alters anion transport in respiratory epithelium and consequently disrupts mucociliary clearance. An enriched understanding of the role of CFTR in the maintenance of normal epithelial function has revealed that mild and variable CFTR mutations play a causative role in a number of diseases not classically associated with CF. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that acquired defects in wild-type CFTR protein processing, endocytic recycling...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Role of Vitamin D in Pathogenesis of Chronic Sinusitis with Nasal Polyposis.
Authors: Shahangian A, Schlosser RJ Abstract Vitamin D3 (VD3) is a potent immunomodulatory steroid hormone involved in the regulation of numerous host immune cells. Additionally, it may have an important role in host immunity against chronic bacterial infections, as well as in chronic rhinosinusitis. Many factors modulate expression of various enzymes important for production of VD3, local concentration of which may be important for its complex and diverse functions. Here, we explore some of the contributions of VD3 to chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and its role as a disease-modifying agent. PMID: ...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Taste Receptors in Upper Airway Immunity.
Authors: Carey RM, Lee RJ, Cohen NA Abstract Taste receptors are well known for their role in communicating information from the tongue to the brain about nutritional value or potential toxicity of ingested substances. More recently, it has been shown that taste receptors are expressed in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, brain and pancreas. The roles of some 'extraoral' taste receptors are largely unknown, but emerging research suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are capable of sensing bacteria and modulating innate immunity. This chapter fo...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Immunomodulators in the Treatment of Nasal Polyposis.
Authors: Halderman AA, Lane AP Abstract The inflammatory mechanisms that contribute to chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) are complex. In the past, medical options for treating CRSwNP have been limited. Emerging classes of immunomodulators such as omalizumab, anti-leukotrienes, anti-IL-4, anti-IL-5, and recognition of the modulating effects of macrolides have shown promising results in the treatment of CRSwNP. Ultimately, large randomized controlled trials are necessary to establish the efficacy of these medications but for now, the area of medical immunomodulators remains an exciting frontier. P...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Delivery of Topical Therapies.
The objective of this review article is to describe the evidence for the most common topical sinonasal delivery techniques. Evidence supports that high-volume irrigations provide the most reliable delivery of medical therapy to the paranasal sinuses. Low-volume nasal sprays and drops provide reliable delivery to the nasal cavity and a degree of penetration into the middle meatus and olfactory cleft; however, they do not reliably penetrate the paranasal sinuses. Sinus surgery and the head down-forward position optimize the delivery of high-volume irrigations into the paranasal sinuses. Additionally, high-volume irrigations ...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Topical Steroids.
Authors: Oakley GM, Harvey RJ Abstract Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology. A cornerstone of the management of this condition is the use of anti-inflammatory agents. Corticosteroids are very effective and the most commonly used, but other drugs with immunodulatory activity such as anti-IL5, doxycycline (Th2), and macrolides (anti-neutrophilic/IL8) have been shown to have efficacy. Although systemic corticosteroids have shown benefit in managing this condition, the frequency of use often required in this condition is associated with signif...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Implantable Devices/Drugs in the Management of Nasal Polyps.
Authors: Santarelli GD, Han JK Abstract The use of biomaterials, which include nasal packing and sinus stents, has an evolving role in the postoperative management of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps. Some of these biomaterials include drug-eluting properties. The usage of biomaterials postoperatively is both surgeon and patient specific. The published literature supports the use of these products and demonstrates the ability to limit swelling, lateralization and reduce polyp regrowth postoperatively. However, there are heterogeneity in both available materials and results that the otolaryngologist ...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Oral Therapeutics for Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis.
Authors: Thomas AJ, Alt JA Abstract Oral therapeutics for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) include oral corticosteroids (OCS), antibiotics, antifungals and anti-leukotrienes. Of these treatments, the strongest evidence exists to support the use of a short course of OCS for treatment of CRSwNP, and OCS are the most consistently recommended oral therapy in practice guidelines. Antibiotics have demonstrated some utility, which appears more likely related to an anti-inflammatory rather than antimicrobial effect. The non-macrolide antibiotics lack sufficient evidence to support their use, though among t...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Advances in Surgery: Extended Procedures for Sinonasal Polyp Disease.
Authors: Southwood JE, Loehrl TA, Poetker DM Abstract In the standard functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) procedure, the amount of dissection is often determined by the extent of disease with the goal to preserve as much normal mucosa as possible while restoring ventilation and reestablishing mucociliary clearance. A subset of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP), however, may continue to have persistent mucosal inflammatory and aggressive polyp regrowth despite standard FESS and maximal pharmacology therapy, leading to recurrent and recalcitrant disease. Advanced endoscopic sur...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Outcomes in Medical and Surgical Treatment of Nasal Polyps.
Authors: Jafari A, DeConde AS Abstract Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of medical and surgical options available to the patient and provider. Consensus statements and recent trends in outcomes research advocate that treatment be driven by patient-reported outcome measures. To this end, there has been increasing sophistication and nuance in both the outcome instruments themselves, as well as the method in which they are collected and interpreted. This is reflected in concepts such as the minimally clinically important difference and domain stratification, which have...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 29, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

A Clinical Study of Maxillary Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
We report a retrospective study of 26 patients with maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma who were treated at the Sapporo Medical University between January 2002 and December 2008. The 5-year local control rate was 85.7% in patients with stage T2-3 disease and 61.0% in patients with stage T4a disease. The overall 5-year survival rate was 71.3% and the 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 79.9%. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 100% in patients with T2-3 disease and 44.4% in patients with T4 disease. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 76.3% in patients with N0 disease and 87.5% in patients wit...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Cochlear Implantation in Children with Cochlear Malformation.
Authors: Saikawa E, Takano K, Ogasawara N, Tsubomatsu C, Takahashi N, Shirasaki H, Himi T Abstract Cochlear implantation (CI) has proven to be an effective treatment for severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Inner ear malformation is a rare anomaly and occurs in approximately 20% of cases with congenital SNHL. In cases with cochlear malformation, CI can be successfully performed in nearly all patients, the exceptions being those with complete labyrinthine and cochlear aplasia. It is important to evaluate the severity of inner ear deformity and other associated anomalies during the preimplantation radi...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Congenital Microtia Treated at Sapporo Medical University Hospital: Clinical Characteristics and Associated Anomalies.
Authors: Ogasawara N, Jitsukawa S, Takahashi N, Takano K, Himi T Abstract Seventy-three children who underwent plastic surgery for their external ear malformations between December 2010 and May 2013 at the Sapporo Medical University Hospital were evaluated. The predominance of right-sided malformation (62%) in males (71%) was similar to that reported previously, but the number of bilateral cases (9.3%) was lower than that in previous reports. We classified patients' ears using Marx's classification. The pure-tone average (average air conduction thresholds measured at 500, 1,000 and 2,000 Hz) was used as the represe...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

A Clinical Review of Thyroid Cancer at Sapporo Medical University Hospital.
Authors: Koizumi J, Takano K, Obata K, Yamamoto K, Murayama K, Himi T Abstract Thyroid cancer is a disease that affects 8,000 new individuals a year, a number that has increased approximately 3-fold in the past 30 years. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer can be related to various factors. The evolution of diagnostic technology has distinctly occurred in the fields of diagnostic imaging, cytology and immunochemistry. For example, liquid-based cytology, developed to assess gynecological lesions, has improved diagnostic accuracy over conventional smear cytology. This technique can also be positively appl...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Influence of Age on Caloric Response.
In conclusion, patients with canal paralysis tend to complain of dizziness at the first medical examination, and the percentage of patients without vertigo during a caloric test increased with age. PMID: 27115493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology)
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Authors: Kurose M, Kakuki T, Takano K, Kondo A, Obata K, Nomura K, Miyata R, Kaneko Y, Konno T, Kohno T, Kojima T, Himi T Abstract Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A), which belongs to the IgG superfamily, is one of the tight junction molecules. JAM-A is dysregulated in various cancers and is closely associated with the invasion and metastasis of cancers such as breast cancer, lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we found a high expression of JAM-A in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) as well as β-catenin in immunohistochemistry. The expression of JAM-A and β-catenin was...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Pneumolabyrinth with Labyrinthitis as the Suspected Cause.
We report a case of pneumolabyrinth without trauma that was suspected to be caused by labyrinthitis. A 65-year-old man presented with vertigo and hearing loss in the left ear after catching a cold. Computed tomography performed after there had been no improvement in the patient's symptoms showed the presence of air bubbles in the vestibule, semicircular canals and cochlea. The patient was transferred to our hospital with suspected perilymphatic fistula. Bacterial infection was suspected after the laboratory tests had indicated a severe inflammatory response, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. However, no bacteri...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Expression of Inflammasome-Associated Proteins in Human Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Authors: Takano K, Kondo A, Kurose M, Yamashita K, Nomura K, Obata K, Murayama K, Ito F, Himi T Abstract Inflammasomes, large protein complexes typically consisting of a Nod-like receptor (NLR), adapter protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1, are postulated to be activated in response to danger signals arising from tumors. Inflammasomes are thought to have critical but contrasting roles through facilitating antitumor immunity and inducing oncogenic factors. However, the role and function of inflammasomes in oropharyngeal carcinoma remain unclear. We analyzed nine specime...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Behavior of Primary Cilia and Tricellular Tight Junction Proteins during Differentiation in Temperature-Sensitive Mouse Cochlear Precursor Hair Cells.
Authors: Kakuki T, Kaneko Y, Takano K, Ninomiya T, Kohno T, Kojima T, Himi T Abstract In the sensory hair cells of the mammalian cochlea, the primary cilia in the planar cell polarity as well as the tight junctions in the epithelial cell polarity and the barrier are important to maintain normal hearing. Temperature-sensitive mouse cochlear precursor hair cells were used to investigate the behavior of primary cilia and tricellular tight junction proteins during the differentiation of sensory hair cells. In undifferentiated cells (incubated at 33°C), many acetylated tubulin-positive primary cilia were observed, a...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children.
Authors: Tsubomatsu C, Shintani T, Abe A, Yajima R, Takahashi N, Ito F, Takano K, Himi T Abstract Sleep is important for children pertaining to their physical and mental growth. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children has been shown to have different effects as compared to OSAS in adults, including deficits in cognition and neuropsychological functions, hyperactivity, ADHD, behavior problems, aggressive behavior, learning problems and nocturnal enuresis. Hypertrophy of the adenoids and tonsils is a major cause of OSAS in children; therefore, adenotonsillectomy may decrease the effects of OSAS pertaining...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Relationship between Otitis Media and Epithelial Function in the Lymphoepithelium of Pediatric Adenoids.
In this report, we provide evidence suggesting that adenoid tissue as a component of NALT in children may play an important role in inducing innate immunity following viral infection. PMID: 27115876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology)
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Expression and Localization of Human Defensins in Palatine Tonsils.
Authors: Kamekura R, Imai R, Takano K, Yamashita K, Jitsukawa S, Nagaya T, Ito F, Hirao M, Tsubota H, Himi T Abstract Defensins are small antimicrobial peptides and effector components of innate immune responses. Recent studies have shed light on their beneficial functions for the prevention of infection and potential for development of new drugs. Here, we showed the expression profiles of human defensins in palatine tonsils with 3 different diseases: tonsillar hypertrophy, recurrent tonsillitis and focal infection of the tonsil. RT-PCR analysis and immunofluorescence revealed that the expression of human α-d...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Role of Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in Allergic Rhinitis.
Authors: Shirasaki H, Himi T Abstract Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are lipid mediators that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Pharmacological studies using CysLTs indicate that two classes of receptor exist: CysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R) and CysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R). The CysLT1R is a high-affinity leukotriene D4 receptor with lower affinity for leukotriene C4 that is sensitive to the CysLT1R antagonist currently used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. Our previous immunohistochemical and autoradiographic studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-CysLT1R antibodies labeled in eo...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Studies of Tonsils in Basic and Clinical Perspectives: From the Past to the Future.
Authors: Yamashita K, Ichimiya S, Kamekura R, Nagaya T, Jitsukawa S, Matsumiya H, Takano K, Himi T Abstract The tonsils are located at the entrance of the pharynx as a cardinal constituent of Waldeyer's ring, taking part not only in local immune responses, but also in systemic immunity. Functional deficits of tonsils primarily underlie the pathogenesis of various characteristic disorders, including tonsillar focal infections such as palmoplantar pustulosis and IgA nephropathy, in addition to the highly prevalent sleep disorder called obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the mechanisms underlying these disorde...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Radiological Assessment of the Anatomy of Frontal Recess Cells and the Anterior Ethmoidal Artery.
Authors: Okuni T, Takano K, Nomura K, Yamashita K, Abe A, Ito F, Murayama K, Shirasaki H, Himi T Abstract It is necessary for the surgeon to be familiar with frontal recess anatomy during an endoscopic approach to the frontal sinuses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of frontal recess cells in Japanese adults as well as the association between the frontal recess and the location of the anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA). The frontal recess cells and the AEAs were retrospectively evaluated in CT scans of the nasal and paranasal sinuses for 89 patients. The prevalence of agger nasi cells was 90.7%. T...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

A Case Study of Anisakiasis in the Palatine Tonsils.
Authors: Takano K, Okuni T, Murayama K, Himi T Abstract Anisakidosis is a nematode infection caused by the ingestion of larvae-infected raw or undercooked fish. Although gastric anisakiasis is a common disease in Japan due to the popularity of eating raw and undercooked fish, reports of anisakiasis in the tonsils are extremely rare. A 68-year-old man presenting with clinical features of peritonsillitis was admitted for examination. The right peritonsillar region exhibited slight edematous swelling and rash, and a white foreign body was observed. This foreign body was removed, and pathological examination revealed A...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Nasal Mucosal Expression of the Receptors for Inflammatory Chemical Mediators.
Authors: Shirasaki H, Saikawa E, Seki N, Kikuchi M, Himi T Abstract The nasal allergic response is a complex process involving interactions between many chemical mediators such as histamine, bradykinin, cysteinyl leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor, prostaglandin D2 and thromboxane A2. The actions of these chemical mediators are facilitated by specific cell surface receptors that are coupled to G-proteins. Current therapeutic strategies against nasal allergic responses are mainly based on drugs that target these chemical mediators. To understand the role of these chemical mediators in allergic rhinitis, determ...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Adenovirus-Mediated ICOSIg Gene Therapy in a Presensitized Murine Model of Allergic Rhinitis.
In this study, adenovirus vectors containing ICOSIg (Adex1CAICOSIg) were administered to effectively inhibit the ICOS/ICOSL interaction, and the effects of Adex1CAICOSIg on allergic rhinitis were examined. Intranasal administration of Adex1CAICOSIg attenuated airway inflammation, as demonstrated by a decrease in nasal symptoms and infiltration of eosinophils into the nasal mucosa, as well as by a decrease in local IL-5 expression. Therefore, the ICOS/ICOSL pathway significantly contributes to the progression of allergic rhinitis. PMID: 27116360 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology)
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

A Novel Drug Delivery System for the Human Nasal Epithelium.
Authors: Takano K, Kojima T, Keira T, Miyata R, Nomura K, Kakuki T, Kaneko Y, Yajima R, Kakiuchi A, Himi T Abstract The epithelium of upper respiratory tissues such as the human nasal mucosa forms a continuous barrier via tight junctions (TJs). The development of a drug delivery system for use across the nasal mucosa is being reconsidered. In intranasal administration across the nasal mucosa, the paracellular pathway regulated by TJs is extremely important. It is known that the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) binds the TJ protein claudin and disrupts the tight junctional barrier w...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Clinical Review of Cochlear Implantation Performed at Sapporo Medical University Hospital.
This report presents typical cases of CI, such as an adult case, a bilateral case, a case where both hearing and vision were impaired, a pediatric case, a case with multiple handicaps, a case with a genetic mutation leading to severe hearing loss, and a complicated case. In addition, complications with CI cases experienced during extended follow-up periods are also summarized. PMID: 27116559 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology)
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Role of Crosstalk between Epithelial and Immune Cells, the Epimmunome, in Allergic Rhinitis Pathogenesis.
Authors: Kamekura R, Yamashita K, Jitsukawa S, Nagaya T, Ito F, Ichimiya S, Himi T Abstract Recently, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis has been dramatically increasing worldwide. As conventional therapies for allergic rhinitis, such as antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, nasal sprays and allergen immunotherapy, have limitations, the development of new drugs is required. Recent studies have revealed that epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, are able to control immune cells, such as dendritic cells and T cells, thereby acting as 'ma...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 28, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Metastatic Cancer to the Parotid.
Authors: Clark J, Wang S Abstract In many regions of the world, the most common type of parotid malignancy is metastatic malignancy. Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic melanoma are the most common pathologies that metastasize to the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. Other more rare metastatic malignancies from cutaneous primary sites include Merkel cell carcinoma, pleomorphic sarcoma (previously called malignant fibrous histiocytoma) and metastatic basal cell carcinoma. Systemic metastases can also occur from tumors such as renal cell carcinoma. This review will focus on the managemen...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 21, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Distant Metastases and Palliative Care.
Authors: Glazer TA, Shuman AG Abstract Salivary gland neoplasms are rare and diverse tumors with variable disease courses, making it difficult to concisely summarize the management of distant metastases (DM). Nonetheless, there are trends of DM in salivary gland cancer that can be contextualized and reviewed. In general, the primary tumor characteristics that predict DM include the primary tumor site, tumor stage and grade, perineural spread, cervical nodal status, and genomic signatures. The most common site of DM is the lung, followed by the bone, liver, and brain. Depending on the clinical presentation, DM can b...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 21, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.
Authors: Bradley PJ Abstract Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remai...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 21, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Quality of Life after Salivary Gland Surgery.
Authors: Wax MK, Talmi YP Abstract Quality of life (QoL) has been recognized as an important endpoint in addition to disease-related and global survival. It is particularly important for patients with salivary gland neoplastic disease. For patients who are undergoing benign salivary gland tumor surgery, cosmetic and functional outcomes are extremely important, as these patients' psychological well-being and ability to function in society can be severely impacted. The following issues related to surgical treatment are discussed: incision, loss of local tissue sensation, development of Frey's syndrome, facial nerve f...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 21, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Surgery for Malignant Submandibular Gland Neoplasms.
Authors: Silver NL, Chinn SB, Bradley PJ, Weber RS Abstract For many decades, surgery has been the primary treatment for malignant submandibular gland neoplasms. Nonetheless, due to the heterogeneity and rarity of submandibular gland malignant tumors and the high frequency of chronic benign processes in this region, management can be complex. Preoperative investigations, such as fine-needle aspiration and imaging, are critical to achieve the correct diagnosis so that appropriate surgery can be planned. In general, for malignant submandibular gland neoplasms, the minimal treatment necessary is excision of the subman...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 21, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Frequency and Histopathology by Site, Major Pathologies, Symptoms and Signs of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.
Authors: Bradley PJ Abstract The frequency distribution of salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) is, in decreasing order, parotid neoplasms, submandibular gland neoplasms, minor SGNs, and sublingual gland neoplasms. The larger the salivary gland (e.g. parotid), the more likely a neoplasm is benign, and the smaller the gland (e.g. minor salivary gland), the more likely the neoplasm is malignant. The majority of SGNs, benign and/or malignant, irrespective of site, present as a painless swelling or mass. Definitive symptoms and signs of salivary gland malignancy are the presence of named nerve palsy in anatomical proximity ...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 21, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Future Perspectives.
Authors: Eisele DW, Bradley PJ PMID: 27092948 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology)
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 21, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Surgery for Malignant Sublingual and Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms.
Authors: Bradley PJ, Ferris RL Abstract Malignant sublingual gland neoplasms are rare, early-stage neoplasms presenting as painless non-ulcerated masses in the antero-lateral floor of the mouth. The majority of patients present with advanced disease, with symptoms of pain or anaesthesia of the tongue. Malignant minor salivary gland neoplasms are more common, the majority (>80%) of which present in the oral cavity, most frequently in the palatal area, as painless masses or as obstructive symptoms in the head and neck region. The most frequent pathologies are adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 21, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology and Biomarkers.
Authors: Ha PK, Stenman G Abstract The field of salivary gland tumor biology is quite broad, given the numerous subtypes of both benign and malignant tumors originating from the major and minor salivary glands. Knowledge about the molecular pathology of these lesions is still limited, and there are few clinically useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, recent discoveries of certain key genomic alterations, such as chromosome translocations, copy number alterations, and mutations, provide new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of these lesions and may help to better define them. It is also hoped ...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 21, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Facial Reconstruction and Rehabilitation.
Authors: Guntinas-Lichius O, Genther DJ, Byrne PJ Abstract Extracranial infiltration of the facial nerve by salivary gland tumors is the most frequent cause of facial palsy secondary to malignancy. Nevertheless, facial palsy related to salivary gland cancer is uncommon. Therefore, reconstructive facial reanimation surgery is not a routine undertaking for most head and neck surgeons. The primary aims of facial reanimation are to restore tone, symmetry, and movement to the paralyzed face. Such restoration should improve the patient's objective motor function and subjective quality of life. The surgical procedures for...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - April 21, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research