Renal diseases and the role of complement: Linking complement to immune effector pathways and therapeutics
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:1-81. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.001. Epub 2021 Nov 19.ABSTRACTThe complement system is an ancient and phylogenetically conserved key danger sensing system that is critical for host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system is a vital component of innate immunity required for the detection and removal of pathogens. It is also a central orchestrator of adaptive immune responses and a constituent of normal tissue homeostasis. Once complement activation occurs, this system deposits indiscriminately on any cell surface in the vicinity and has the potential to cause unwanted and excess...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tilo Freiwald Behdad Afzali Source Type: research

Complement as a powerful "influencer" in the brain during development, adulthood and neurological disorders
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:157-222. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.003. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTThe complement system was long considered as only a powerful effector arm of the immune system that, while critically protective, could lead to inflammation and cell death if overactivated, even in the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the past decade it has been recognized as playing critical roles in key physiological processes in the CNS, including neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling in the developing and adult brain. Inherent in these processes are the interactions with cells in the brain, and the cascade of interactions an...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tiffany J Petrisko Angela Gomez-Arboledas Andrea J Tenner Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric disorders: An immunological perspective
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:83-155. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.002. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTNeuropsychiatric diseases have traditionally been studied from brain, and mind-centric perspectives. However, mounting epidemiological and clinical evidence shows a strong correlation of neuropsychiatric manifestations with immune system activation, suggesting a likely mechanistic interaction between the immune and nervous systems in mediating neuropsychiatric disease. Indeed, immune mediators such as cytokines, antibodies, and complement proteins have been shown to affect various cellular members of the central nervous system in multitu...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ernest Aw Yingying Zhang Esra Yalcin Uli S Herrmann Michael C Carroll Source Type: research

Renal diseases and the role of complement: Linking complement to immune effector pathways and therapeutics
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:1-81. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.001. Epub 2021 Nov 19.ABSTRACTThe complement system is an ancient and phylogenetically conserved key danger sensing system that is critical for host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system is a vital component of innate immunity required for the detection and removal of pathogens. It is also a central orchestrator of adaptive immune responses and a constituent of normal tissue homeostasis. Once complement activation occurs, this system deposits indiscriminately on any cell surface in the vicinity and has the potential to cause unwanted and excess...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tilo Freiwald Behdad Afzali Source Type: research

Complement as a powerful "influencer" in the brain during development, adulthood and neurological disorders
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:157-222. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.003. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTThe complement system was long considered as only a powerful effector arm of the immune system that, while critically protective, could lead to inflammation and cell death if overactivated, even in the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the past decade it has been recognized as playing critical roles in key physiological processes in the CNS, including neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling in the developing and adult brain. Inherent in these processes are the interactions with cells in the brain, and the cascade of interactions an...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tiffany J Petrisko Angela Gomez-Arboledas Andrea J Tenner Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric disorders: An immunological perspective
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:83-155. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.002. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTNeuropsychiatric diseases have traditionally been studied from brain, and mind-centric perspectives. However, mounting epidemiological and clinical evidence shows a strong correlation of neuropsychiatric manifestations with immune system activation, suggesting a likely mechanistic interaction between the immune and nervous systems in mediating neuropsychiatric disease. Indeed, immune mediators such as cytokines, antibodies, and complement proteins have been shown to affect various cellular members of the central nervous system in multitu...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ernest Aw Yingying Zhang Esra Yalcin Uli S Herrmann Michael C Carroll Source Type: research

Renal diseases and the role of complement: Linking complement to immune effector pathways and therapeutics
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:1-81. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.001. Epub 2021 Nov 19.ABSTRACTThe complement system is an ancient and phylogenetically conserved key danger sensing system that is critical for host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system is a vital component of innate immunity required for the detection and removal of pathogens. It is also a central orchestrator of adaptive immune responses and a constituent of normal tissue homeostasis. Once complement activation occurs, this system deposits indiscriminately on any cell surface in the vicinity and has the potential to cause unwanted and excess...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tilo Freiwald Behdad Afzali Source Type: research

Complement as a powerful "influencer" in the brain during development, adulthood and neurological disorders
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:157-222. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.003. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTThe complement system was long considered as only a powerful effector arm of the immune system that, while critically protective, could lead to inflammation and cell death if overactivated, even in the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the past decade it has been recognized as playing critical roles in key physiological processes in the CNS, including neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling in the developing and adult brain. Inherent in these processes are the interactions with cells in the brain, and the cascade of interactions an...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tiffany J Petrisko Angela Gomez-Arboledas Andrea J Tenner Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric disorders: An immunological perspective
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:83-155. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.002. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTNeuropsychiatric diseases have traditionally been studied from brain, and mind-centric perspectives. However, mounting epidemiological and clinical evidence shows a strong correlation of neuropsychiatric manifestations with immune system activation, suggesting a likely mechanistic interaction between the immune and nervous systems in mediating neuropsychiatric disease. Indeed, immune mediators such as cytokines, antibodies, and complement proteins have been shown to affect various cellular members of the central nervous system in multitu...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ernest Aw Yingying Zhang Esra Yalcin Uli S Herrmann Michael C Carroll Source Type: research

Renal diseases and the role of complement: Linking complement to immune effector pathways and therapeutics
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:1-81. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.001. Epub 2021 Nov 19.ABSTRACTThe complement system is an ancient and phylogenetically conserved key danger sensing system that is critical for host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system is a vital component of innate immunity required for the detection and removal of pathogens. It is also a central orchestrator of adaptive immune responses and a constituent of normal tissue homeostasis. Once complement activation occurs, this system deposits indiscriminately on any cell surface in the vicinity and has the potential to cause unwanted and excess...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tilo Freiwald Behdad Afzali Source Type: research

Complement as a powerful "influencer" in the brain during development, adulthood and neurological disorders
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:157-222. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.003. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTThe complement system was long considered as only a powerful effector arm of the immune system that, while critically protective, could lead to inflammation and cell death if overactivated, even in the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the past decade it has been recognized as playing critical roles in key physiological processes in the CNS, including neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling in the developing and adult brain. Inherent in these processes are the interactions with cells in the brain, and the cascade of interactions an...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tiffany J Petrisko Angela Gomez-Arboledas Andrea J Tenner Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric disorders: An immunological perspective
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:83-155. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.002. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTNeuropsychiatric diseases have traditionally been studied from brain, and mind-centric perspectives. However, mounting epidemiological and clinical evidence shows a strong correlation of neuropsychiatric manifestations with immune system activation, suggesting a likely mechanistic interaction between the immune and nervous systems in mediating neuropsychiatric disease. Indeed, immune mediators such as cytokines, antibodies, and complement proteins have been shown to affect various cellular members of the central nervous system in multitu...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ernest Aw Yingying Zhang Esra Yalcin Uli S Herrmann Michael C Carroll Source Type: research

Renal diseases and the role of complement: Linking complement to immune effector pathways and therapeutics
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:1-81. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.001. Epub 2021 Nov 19.ABSTRACTThe complement system is an ancient and phylogenetically conserved key danger sensing system that is critical for host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system is a vital component of innate immunity required for the detection and removal of pathogens. It is also a central orchestrator of adaptive immune responses and a constituent of normal tissue homeostasis. Once complement activation occurs, this system deposits indiscriminately on any cell surface in the vicinity and has the potential to cause unwanted and excess...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tilo Freiwald Behdad Afzali Source Type: research

Complement as a powerful "influencer" in the brain during development, adulthood and neurological disorders
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:157-222. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.003. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTThe complement system was long considered as only a powerful effector arm of the immune system that, while critically protective, could lead to inflammation and cell death if overactivated, even in the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the past decade it has been recognized as playing critical roles in key physiological processes in the CNS, including neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling in the developing and adult brain. Inherent in these processes are the interactions with cells in the brain, and the cascade of interactions an...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tiffany J Petrisko Angela Gomez-Arboledas Andrea J Tenner Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric disorders: An immunological perspective
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:83-155. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.002. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTNeuropsychiatric diseases have traditionally been studied from brain, and mind-centric perspectives. However, mounting epidemiological and clinical evidence shows a strong correlation of neuropsychiatric manifestations with immune system activation, suggesting a likely mechanistic interaction between the immune and nervous systems in mediating neuropsychiatric disease. Indeed, immune mediators such as cytokines, antibodies, and complement proteins have been shown to affect various cellular members of the central nervous system in multitu...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ernest Aw Yingying Zhang Esra Yalcin Uli S Herrmann Michael C Carroll Source Type: research

Renal diseases and the role of complement: Linking complement to immune effector pathways and therapeutics
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:1-81. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.001. Epub 2021 Nov 19.ABSTRACTThe complement system is an ancient and phylogenetically conserved key danger sensing system that is critical for host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system is a vital component of innate immunity required for the detection and removal of pathogens. It is also a central orchestrator of adaptive immune responses and a constituent of normal tissue homeostasis. Once complement activation occurs, this system deposits indiscriminately on any cell surface in the vicinity and has the potential to cause unwanted and excess...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tilo Freiwald Behdad Afzali Source Type: research

Complement as a powerful "influencer" in the brain during development, adulthood and neurological disorders
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:157-222. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.003. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTThe complement system was long considered as only a powerful effector arm of the immune system that, while critically protective, could lead to inflammation and cell death if overactivated, even in the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the past decade it has been recognized as playing critical roles in key physiological processes in the CNS, including neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling in the developing and adult brain. Inherent in these processes are the interactions with cells in the brain, and the cascade of interactions an...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tiffany J Petrisko Angela Gomez-Arboledas Andrea J Tenner Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric disorders: An immunological perspective
Adv Immunol. 2021;152:83-155. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.09.002. Epub 2021 Nov 18.ABSTRACTNeuropsychiatric diseases have traditionally been studied from brain, and mind-centric perspectives. However, mounting epidemiological and clinical evidence shows a strong correlation of neuropsychiatric manifestations with immune system activation, suggesting a likely mechanistic interaction between the immune and nervous systems in mediating neuropsychiatric disease. Indeed, immune mediators such as cytokines, antibodies, and complement proteins have been shown to affect various cellular members of the central nervous system in multitu...
Source: Advances in Immunology - November 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ernest Aw Yingying Zhang Esra Yalcin Uli S Herrmann Michael C Carroll Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development
This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.PMID:34656289 | PMC:PMC8438590 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.003 (Source: Advances in Immunology)
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lele Xu Zhiqian Ma Yang Li Zhaoxia Pang Shuqi Xiao Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development
This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.PMID:34656289 | PMC:PMC8438590 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.003 (Source: Advances in Immunology)
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lele Xu Zhiqian Ma Yang Li Zhaoxia Pang Shuqi Xiao Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development
This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.PMID:34656289 | PMC:PMC8438590 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.003 (Source: Advances in Immunology)
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lele Xu Zhiqian Ma Yang Li Zhaoxia Pang Shuqi Xiao Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development
This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.PMID:34656289 | PMC:PMC8438590 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.003 (Source: Advances in Immunology)
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lele Xu Zhiqian Ma Yang Li Zhaoxia Pang Shuqi Xiao Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development
This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.PMID:34656289 | PMC:PMC8438590 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.003 (Source: Advances in Immunology)
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lele Xu Zhiqian Ma Yang Li Zhaoxia Pang Shuqi Xiao Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development
This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.PMID:34656289 | PMC:PMC8438590 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.003 (Source: Advances in Immunology)
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lele Xu Zhiqian Ma Yang Li Zhaoxia Pang Shuqi Xiao Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development
This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.PMID:34656289 | PMC:PMC8438590 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.003 (Source: Advances in Immunology)
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lele Xu Zhiqian Ma Yang Li Zhaoxia Pang Shuqi Xiao Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development
This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.PMID:34656289 | PMC:PMC8438590 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.003 (Source: Advances in Immunology)
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lele Xu Zhiqian Ma Yang Li Zhaoxia Pang Shuqi Xiao Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development
This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.PMID:34656289 | PMC:PMC8438590 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.003 (Source: Advances in Immunology)
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lele Xu Zhiqian Ma Yang Li Zhaoxia Pang Shuqi Xiao Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development
This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.PMID:34656289 | PMC:PMC8438590 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.003 (Source: Advances in Immunology)
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lele Xu Zhiqian Ma Yang Li Zhaoxia Pang Shuqi Xiao Source Type: research

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:1-47. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Oct 4.ABSTRACTIn the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the development of brain-resid...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nelli Blank Marina Mayer Elvira Mass Source Type: research

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines
Adv Immunol. 2021;151:49-97. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 10.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Each of these steps is cons...
Source: Advances in Immunology - October 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dominik Schenten Deepta Bhattacharya Source Type: research