Effect of Treatment with Inactive Vitamin D on the Intracranial Blood Flow in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
AbstractThe goal of the work was to assess the dynamics of ultrasound parameters of renal blood flow in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the initial stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) upon treatment with inactive vitamin D. The study included 264 patients with COPD the second to fourth degrees of severity in combination with CKD of stages I –II: 135 patients in the main group and 129 patients in the control group. Each group was divided into four subgroups according to the FEV1 and vitamin D levels. Native vitamin D was prescribed according to a scheme allowing the maintenance of vit...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

First Results from the Analysis of the Activity of the Cancer Service of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation Based on Its Created Population Cancer Register
AbstractThe fully formed database of the Population Cancer Registry (PCR database) of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation in February 2019 has significantly expanded the ability to assess objectively the activities of the cancer service on the more reliable basis of analytical materials. In Russia, it was possible for the first time to conduct epidemiological studies of malignant tumors for rare tumor locations for all age groups and on calculations of patient survival rates. The PCR database has more than 1 million observations and includes all of the headings and subheadings of ICD-10 for class II...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Status and Prospects of Gerontology and Geriatrics in the Kyrgyz Republic
AbstractThe article analyzes the situation with the development of gerontology in the Kyrgyz Republic. The long-term process of setting up the gerontological service in the country and its achievements are described in detail. A positive fact is that international organizations and the state and society itself began to pay attention to the issue of older people. Despite the tangible success achieved in the development of the service, there are still pressing problems that require urgent measures, especially the development of the geriatric service, which today does not meet the modern challenges of aging. The important rol...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Characteristics of the Immunoresponse in Elderly People and Autoimmunity
AbstractAging is a highly complex process that results in the dysregulation of all systems in the human organism. The most important changes in the immune system, which are collectively known as immunosenescence, include lower levels of immunoresponse to infections, increased levels of proinflammatory mediators, and weakened control over self-reactive clones. In elderly people, immunoscenescence is usually observed along with low-grade, aseptic inflammation (inflammaging) which is considered to be associated with a higher incidence of chronic, noninfectious, age-related diseases. This paper discusses the main changes in th...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Participation of FAS- and TNF-Dependent Pathways in Apoptosis Mechanisms in Hypothalamus in Physiological and Pathological Aging
AbstractCellular resistance to apoptosis can be related to the activity of cytokine-dependent signaling. Thus, the goal of the work is to study the mechanisms of cytokine-dependent, FAS/TNF-mediated regulation of apoptosis of neurosecretory cells in physiological and pathological (overexpression of the oncogene HER-2/Neu) aging. Transgenic, accelerated-aged HER-2/Neu mice of different ages and wild-type FVB/N mice were examined. The apoptosis level of neurons in hypothalamic sections (supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei) (TUNEL) and the expression of caspase-8, CD178 (FASL), FAS, FADD, and TRADD (Western blotting) was de...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

An Older Woman in the Local Community in Russia: Neighbors, Nongovernmental Organizations, and the Housing and Communal System
AbstractThe article examines the development of the local self-organization of retired women who are actively involved in the resolution of housing issues at their place of residence in St. Petersburg. The socio-spatial approach to aging, which is also referred to as “aging in place/in a community,” serves as the theoretical framework. This type of aging requires an active approach to the customary environment of the elderly and their support. Groups of older women generate activists who have free time and the necessary competencies and who are ready to prom ote the interests of all of the residents of an apart...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Possibilities in the Prediction of Cardiac Arrhythmias and Conductivity Disorders in Former Athletes
AbstractA retrospective analysis of medical records of 39 former male athletes with cardiovascular complaints (mean age 61.6 ± 11.3 years, mean duration of career in sports 23.9 ± 17.3 years, mean duration of the postathletic period 20.1 ± 9.9 years) was carried out in order to analyze the relationship between the athletic qualifications and cardiac arrhythmias and conductivity disorders in former athletes. The patient s were screened for cardiac arrhythmias and conductivity disorders and underwent echocardiography. The overall prevalence of sustained paroxysms of atrial fibrillation was 42%; it increa...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Morbidity, Mortality, and Reliability of Accounting of Patients of Different Age Groups with Liver Cancer in Russia
AbstractLiver cancer is a severe oncopathology. Mortality exceeds the number of primary patients in Russia on average. Every year in Russia, more than 8000 (8810 in 2018) cases of liver cancer and more than 10  000 (10 018 in 2018) deaths from this cause are registered. Standard methods of medical statistics and all registered primary cases of liver cancer in Russia were used. The material was developed in depth based on the database of the Population cancer register of the Northwestern Federal Distri ct of the Russian Federation. The data of the whole complex of available information in Russia as a whole was...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Role of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in the Treatment of Cancer Patients of Elderly and Senile Age
AbstractModern approaches to the organization of the diagnosis and treatment of elderly and senile patients with malignant tumors make it possible to improve the quality of life and increase life expectancy. Assessment of the geriatric status in oncology allows the prediction of complications during complex treatment, including drug treatment; the modification of treatment to reduce risk factors for adverse outcomes; and the selection of patients for specialized treatment with standard schemes. Thus, the timely assessment of geriatric syndromes and their correction can expand the indications for specialized treatment of el...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Theory and Practice of Aging during the COVID-19 Pandemic
AbstractNever before in history has population aging been a driving factor in epidemics to the same extent as with the current COVID-19 pandemic, with its dramatic shift in mortality towards older age groups. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the COVID-19-related mortality data for Spain, Italy, and Sweden, which show that within the 30- to 90-year age range, the logarithms of mortality rate depend on age linearly, and all regression lines are strictly parallel to the lines corresponding to the dependencies of the general mortality on age in accordance with the Gompertz law. In all cases, irrespective of the...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Factor Structure of Coping Behavior in Elderly People Taking Geronto-Educational Programs
AbstractResearch aimed at increasing the social adaptation and productivity of retirees is of theoretical and practical significance due to the growing share of elderly people in Russia ’s total population. The relevance of this study is due to the contradiction between the theoretical and practical significance of the problem of coping behavior in elderly people and its insufficient development in gerontopsychology. The goal of this paper is a theoretical substantiation, identif ication, and discussion of the results of factor analysis of the structure of coping behavior in subjects of geronto-educational programs. ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Assessment of Drug Therapy in Psychiatric Elderly Patients Based on the Beers Criteria of the American Geriatrics Society
This study was carried out with the Beers criteria, an antipolypharmacy tool developed under the auspices of the American Geriatrics Society. The study indicates a high frequency of use of PIMs from the following pharmacological groups: benzodiazepine derivatives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (long-term use), and drugs with significant anticholinergic potential. The AGS Beers criteria can help optimize treatment for older psychiatric patients and increase the safety of pharmacotherapy. (Source: Advances in Gerontology)
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Cognitive Aging and Cognitive Reserve: Points of Contact
AbstractThe high risk of cognitive disorders in elderly and senile people necessitates the search, on the one hand, for their causes, and on the other, for the possibility of their prevention. Thus, the concept of cognitive reserve, which implies a set of quantitative parameters of the brain and its ability to maintain high functional activity during aging and against the background of the age-related brain pathology, has become widespread in recent years. The material presented in the article is based on a review of the scientific literature and highlights two main points concerning the possibility of the preservation of ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Aryl-Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in Human Skin with Aging
AbstractThe goal of this study was to examine the content of aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) in fibroblasts of human dermis from 20 weeks of pregnancy to the age of 85 years and to define the role of ARNT in age-dependent changes in the fibroblast number in the dermis. ARNT and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected with an indirect immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that the proportion of fibroblasts with positive staining for ARNT in the dermis gradually decreased from 20 weeks of pregnancy to the age of 40 years. There is a sharp increase in the percentage of ARNT-po...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Challenges in the Creation of Regional Geriatric Services
AbstractThe article describes the current state of geriatric care in the Russian Federation at the stage of the formation of a three-level model of geriatric-care management services. It highlights challenges in the organization of geriatric services at a regional level, including the problem of training personnel with appropriate skills and instances of a negative attitude in the young-old people towards geriatric departments and geriatrics in general. The study proposes measures to improve the work in this direction. (Source: Advances in Gerontology)
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Menopausal Therapy: Modern View of the Problem
AbstractThe persistent, modern trend of increasing average life expectancy dictates the need to implement an antiaging strategy, one of the components of which for women is menopausal therapy. The protective effect of menopausal therapy for the cardiovascular system upon its use before the age of 60 years has been proven. The low frequency of use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in Russia is mainly associated with the hormone-phobia of patients and doctors, especially with oncological risk. However, the data published in recent years have demonstrated a low risk of cancer of the breast, ovaries, cervix, and endometrium,...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Characteristics of Fibrosis and Collagen Metabolism Disorders in the Myocardial Interstitial Matrix of Patients with Arterial Hypertension and the Potential Use of Sartan Drugs for Their Treatment
AbstractThe chronic extension of heart and blood-vessel walls due to hypertension leads to metabolic disorders in their interstitial matrix. To assess involutive and hypertensive changes in the cardiac and vascular interstitial matrix and to assess the their potential correction with Valsartan and Veroshpiron, 30 normotensive elderly women and 30 patients of the same age with stage-II arterial hypertension (AH) have been examined. Echocardiography and Doppler cardiography were carried out, the volume fraction of interstitial collagen (VFIC) in the myocardium and cardiovascular conjugation (CVC) was measured, and the serum ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Diagnostic Criteria and Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Elderly
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in people over 65 years of age and to analyze the instrumental and functional methods of the examination of skeletal muscle in the elderly. We carried out a case-control study of 230 participants aged 65 years and older, with an average age of 74 ± 6.5 years. Patients were divided into three age groups: first, 65–74 years old; second, 75–84 years old; third, 85 years and older. The muscle mass was calculated according to the index of appendicular muscle mass (AMM/m2) adjusted for patient ’s height, which was determined v...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Heat-Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) in Age-Dependent Changes in the Fibroblast Number in Human Skin
AbstractThe goal of this work was to study the content of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in fibroblasts of the human dermis, from embryonic development to extreme age (from 20 weeks of gestation to 85 years old), and to determine the role of HSP90 in age-dependent changes in fibroblast number in the human dermis. HSP90 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected in skin sections with the indirect immunohistochemical method. The results showed that the proportion of dermal fibroblasts with the positive staining for HSP90 remains constant in human skin from 20 weeks of gestation to 20 years old. From the age o...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Immunohistochemistry Data on the Structural and Functional Changes in the Vascular Endothelium of the Heart of Old Rats
AbstractThe goal of the study was to investigate the morphofunctional changes of the vascular endothelium in different parts of the heart of aging rats with the immunohistochemical detection of von Willebrand factor (vWF). Reactive, dystrophic, and pathological changes in endotheliocytes (ECs) in different parts of the heart of old (18 –23 months) rats were identified for the first time with an immunohistochemical marker, vWF. They were most strongly expressed in the endothelium of the arterial vessels of the aortic root, the coronary arteries of the epicardium, and the sinusoidal and true capillaries of atrial and v...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Plasmalogens in the Pathophysiology and Therapy of Age-Specific Diseases
AbstractThe pathogenesis of age-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, Parkinson ’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease is associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Impairment of redox homeostasis is accompanied by the development of peroxisome dysfunction and impaired biosynthesis of plasmalogens, which may be associated with aging and the development of age-d ependent pathology. Plasmalogens, which reflect the functional activity of peroxisomes, can serve not only as potential biomarkers of diseases associated with oxidative stress and aging but also as an important therap...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

U-133, a Chaperone Inducer, Eliminates Sleep Disturbances in a Model of the Preclinical Stage of Parkinson ’s Disease in Aged Rats
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disease that is closely associated with aging. It is considered incurable due to its late diagnosis and the use of symptomatic treatment, which cannot alter the molecular mechanisms of sleep disruption nor the neurodegenerative processes that develop with aging and PD progression. The present study assesses the therapeutic potential of a novel chaperone inducer, U-133 (acetyl 2,3,7-tris-O-glucoside echinochrome), in the preclinical stage of PD modelled in aged rats via inhibition of the proteasomal system in the brain. U-133 is a derivative...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Stimulating Effect of the Water-Soluble Fraction from Brown Algae Fucus vesiculosus Extract on Cell Proliferation in the Tissue Culture of Young and Old Rats
AbstractThe influence of the F-55 water-soluble fraction of brown algae extractFucus vesiculosus on the development of organotypic tissue culture of various origins from three germ layers in young and old rats was studied. The F-55 preparation has a stimulating effect on the processes of cell proliferation in tissues of ecto-, ento- and mesodermal genesis (cerebral cortex, myocardium, spleen, and liver) by regulating the processes of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The revealed strengthening of regeneration processes in explants from both young and old rats under the influence of the F-55 preparation in ultra-low concent...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Initiation of Pharmacotherapy as a Risk Factor of Falling in Older Patients
AbstractThe paper presents literary and original data on the problems of falling for elderly patients. The relationship between the occurrence of a fall and the initiation of drug therapy with a known negative effect on the risk of falling is considered. Data on the frequency and structure of falls by patients with cardiovascular diseases over the age of 75 who received treatment at a multidisciplinary hospital are presented. The data analysis showed a tendency of fall prevalence: a fall was observed in 33.8% of patients in the first 5 days of the hospital stay. This may be associated with a high drug burden and the prescr...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

An Experiment on Age-Related Characteristics of the Reaction of Lung Tissue and Surfactant to Hypobaric Hypoxia and Hyperbaric Hyperoxia
AbstractA comparative analysis of morphometric changes in lung tissue was carried out in an experiment on white rats of different postnatal age (4 weeks, 2 months, and 24 months) with a simultaneous estimation of surfactant stability during exogenous hypoxia and hyperbaric oxygenation. The morphometric indices were studied and the total morphological pattern of lung tissue was described via light microscopy and systemic quantitative analysis, and the stability of the alveolar-lining complex was estimated with the Pattl method. The studies demonstrated that a complex of structural changes develops after a hypo- and hyperoxi...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Premature Aging in Sleep Apnea Comorbid Obesity Persons
AbstractThe goal of the work was to assess the role of pathological changes in cerebral hemodynamics in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and its comorbid association with obesity in premature aging. Concentric –eccentric remodeling of the common carotid artery wall, the hyperconstrictor variant of cerebral angiopathy, the depletion of compensatory mechanisms of cerebral blood flow autoregulation, the restriction of hemodynamic reserve with a narrowing “corridor” of admissible changes in cerebral per fusion was established in patients with comorbid respiratory disturbances and obesity. The...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Hormonal Characteristics of Androgen Status in Males of Different Age Groups
AbstractMales (n = 374) aged 20 –69 years were divided into five age groups and examined: first group was aged 20–29 years; the second, 30–39 years; the third, 40–49 years; the fourth, 50–59 years; and the fifth, 60–69 years. The average content of total testosterone in the blood serum in all males was 16.1 ± 7 nmol/L . Hormonal traits of androgen deficiency, the frequency of which increased with age, were detected in males of the second group as compared with those of the first group. The frequency of androgen deficiency (total testosterone level
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Strategic Objectives of Russia and Japan ’s Experience in the Creation of Jobs for Citizens of a New Age of Labor Capacity: Economic and Legal Research
AbstractAn increase in the duration of employment cannot but entail the consequences that objectively reflect the realities of the labor market for the category of workers of preretirement age. Analysis of the situation in the labor market in modern economic realities makes it possible to single out the global problem of the obtainment and preservation of a job for the category of workers aged 50+. The prospects of its growth by the end of the transition period of change in the retirement age are discussed by experts from different areas of industry. At the same time, there is currently an increase in the number of people ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age-Related Physiological and Pathophysiological Features of the Masticatory Apparatus in Adults
AbstractAge-related physiological and pathophysiological features of the masticatory apparatus were studied via electrodontometry, estesiometry, electrogustometry, and the determination of thresholds and functional mobility of taste receptors of the tongue. The study was based on an evaluation of the condition of organs and tissues of the masticatory apparatus in 275 (69 men and 206 women) individuals aged from 25 to 86 years, including 74 elderly and senile individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2, chronic nonspecific inflammatory bowel diseases, alcoholism, and chronic kidney disease. It was found that the thr...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age-Related Dynamics of the Indicators of Protein, Lipid, Carbohydrate, and Purin Metabolism and the Level of Pituitary Hormones in the Blood of Healthy, 22- to 55-Year-Old Men
AbstractThe levels of total protein, glucose, cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides, uric acid, and hormones of the anterior pituitary gland (prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone) were analyzed in the serum of 60 healthy men aged 22 –55 years. The blood pressure was measured, and the body-mass index (BMI) was calculated for each participant. To assess the age-related dynamics of the parameters, groups of young (up to 35 years old) and middle-aged (over 35 years old) participants were formed according to the classification ado pted at the ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Use of Geroprotective Agents (mTOR Inhibitors) in the Treatment of Cancer Patients
AbstractThe review discusses experimental and clinical data from recent decades on the use of geroprotective agents of the mTOR inhibitor group for the main and accompanying treatment of cancer patients. The mTOR protein kinase is an interesting therapeutic target for the treatment of multiple cancers with both mTOR inhibitors themselves (rapamycin and its derivatives) and in combination with inhibitors of other pathways (e.g., metformin). mTOR inhibitors, which are not classical cytostatic agents and do not possess carcinogenic activity, show great promise as independent antitumor agents and in combination with convention...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - June 30, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Psychophysiological Signs of Aging in F 1 (C57BL/6 × DBA/2) Mice
AbstractThe psychophysiological signs of aging were studied inF1 (C57BL/6 × DBA/2) mice at the age of 3, 7, and 14 months. It was found that cognitive abilities, memory, and spatial orientation in all animals did not depend on age; they were able to form a four-link, food-getting habit. The instability of behavior in the form of the periodic reproduction of mistaken and irrational decisions found in all mice at the stereotyping stage was determined by the characteristics of basic neural processes: increased excitability and weak inhibition. It was found that a consistent reduction of the excitation phase with aging c...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Identification of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Mitochondria-Associated Genes Capable of Affecting the Development of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Senescence-Accelerated OXYS Rats
AbstractHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is a heterogeneous myocardial disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations, and the risk of its development increases with age against the background of myocardial changes that are characteristic of aging. The contribution of the genetic component to the development of HC is obvious; however, the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease remain unclear in 50% of cases. The goal of the study was to search for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in mitochondria-associated genes, which can contribute to the development of myocardial hypertrophy in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats, ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Effects of Hyper- and Hypothermia on Hemodynamic Parameters in People of Different Age Groups: Meta-Analysis
AbstractAge-related changes in thermoregulation occur due to deterioration of the adaptive capacity of the cardiovascular system, which is caused by remodeling of the vascular wall and myocardium, reduced capillary density, changes in the synthesis and clearance of neurotransmitters and vasoactive substances, and the inhibition of the autonomic mechanisms of regulation of the hemodynamic parameters. A common method to simulate hyper- and hypothermal conditions is to use a suit with tubes filled with water at different temperatures. The goal of this work was to conduct a meta-analysis of the hemodynamic parameters shifts in...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Characteristics of Changes in Lipid Peroxidation and Na + /K + -ATPase Activity in the Cortex of Old Rats in Conditions of Two-Vessel Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion
AbstractThe success of studies on the neuroprotective properties of compounds depends on the used model of diseases of the central nervous system on animals. The approaches widely used to model cerebral ischemia/reperfusion were developed on young animals and may not be as efficient or may not be suitable at all for modeling on old animals, which are recommended for preclinical trials. The goal of the study was to detect age-related features of the effect of cerebral reperfusion of different duration (1 and 3 h) after two-vessel forebrain ischemia on the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products and the activity of Na+/K+...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Possibilities of Ultrasound Diagnosis of Sarcopenia in Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure
AbstractThis paper presents the results of a study of the possibility of ultrasonic diagnosis of sarcopenia in elderly and senile patients suffering from heart failure. All patients (63 individuals, average age 77.2 ± 7.7 years) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 31 patients (FNIH Sarcopenia Project, 2014). Areas of the shoulder muscle (m. biceps brachii), thigh muscle (m. rectus femoris), and three forearm muscles (m. brachioradialis,m. extensor carpi radialis longus, andm. extensor carpi radialis brevis) were assessed. Two ultrasonic models developed with the use of multiple li...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Experimental and Clinical Studies of Mechanisms of the Antiaging Effects of Chemical Compounds in Astragalus membranaceus (Review)
AbstractAstragalus membranaceus (webbed astragalus) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than two millennia to slow the aging process and increase the life span. The article analyzes data on experimental and clinical studies from recent years that reveal the possible mechanisms of the antiaging effects of this plant. It is noted that the extract or different groups of chemical compounds of this plant activate telomerase, inhibit the processes of replicative senescence, possess antioxidant activity, have a neuroprotective effect, and affect the processes of age-related macular degradation, skin photoaging,...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Pharmacological Correction of Alterations in Apoptosis of Neurons of the Hypothalamic Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Pinealocytes in Rats during Aging and under Stress
AbstractThe pineal gland is known to play an important role in adaptogenesis. The hypothalamus is one of the main links of the stress-reactive system; it participates in the regulation of the involution of the whole body. Thus, the study of changes in these organs under stress and during aging is of considerable interest. The goal of this work is to study the apoptosis mechanisms of pinealocytes and neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus in aging, under stress, and during pharmacological correction of involutional processes and stress response (antioxidant α-tocopherol acetate, immunomodulat...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Interrelation of Telomeres with Transposable Elements in Aging
AbstractThe nature of telomere functioning, which affects the aging of the body, reflects global processes in the genome conditioned by the regulatory influence of transposable elements that are sequentially activated during ontogenesis. This is determined by the fact that centromeres and centromere proteins, telomeres and telomerases, introns and spliceosome components, transcription factors and their binding sites, noncoding RNAs and their targets in protein-coding gene sequences evolutionarily originated from transposable elements. The interrelation of these structural and functional elements of the genome is dynamicall...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Longevity and Some Causes of Death in Musicians of the 20th Century
AbstractData on the lifespan and some causes of death in musicians of the 20th century are presented in this article. The mean age of death (MAD) in 20  218 male musicians was 67.8 years, whereas the MAD in 4363 female musicians was 71.5 years. Among both men and women, “classical” musicians lived longer than musicians performing jazz, pop, and variety music (6.3 and 9.7 years longer, respectively) and much longer than rock musicians (21.7 an d 30.7 years longer, respectively). Among interpreters of classical music, 10.8% of men and 21.5% of women survived to the age of 90 years old, these proportions am...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Clinical Features of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn ’s Disease) in Geriatric Practice in St. Petersburg
The objective of the study is to identify the clinical features of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in elderly and senile patients in St. Petersburg. A retrospective analysis of medical charts of 208 patients with IBD over 60 years old has been carried out. Sixty percent of the patients had ulcerative colitis (UC), and forty percent had Crohn ’s disease (CD). The control group consisted of 867 patients aged up to 60 years (524 patients with UC, 60.4%, and 343 patients with CD, 29.6%). Concomitant cardiovascular and broncho-pulmonary diseases, diseases of bones and joints, pathology of the kidneys and urinary tra...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mechanosensitive Protein of the Hippo Regulatory Pathway —Transcription Coactivator with PZD-Binding Motif (TAZ) in Human Skin during Aging
AbstractThe goal of this work was to examine the content of mechanosensitive transcription coactivator with PZD-binding motif (TAZ) in fibroblasts and microvessels of human dermis from embryonic development until senility (from 20 weeks of pregnancy until 85 years of age) and to determine the role of TAZ in age-dependent changes in the number of fibroblasts and blood vessels in human skin. TAZ, proliferating cells nuclear antigen (PCNA), and the CD31 endothelial cell marker were detected in skin sections via indirect immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the proportion of fibroblasts with positive staining for TAZ ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Blood Leukocyte Indices in Male Rats of Different Ages
AbstractBlood leukocyte indices were studied in outbred male rats of five age groups: 1.5; 6, 12, 18, and 24  months. Six-month-old rats served as the control. The increase in age was accompanied by an increase in the total leukocyte count (starting from 12 months) and the percentage of neutrophils (both banded and segmented), eosinophils, and monocytes. At the same time, the number of lymphocytes decreas ed. Polychromatophilic and immature cells occurred starting from the 18 months of age, and some leukocytes demonstrated cytoplasm plasmatization. In immature, 1.5-month-old rats (as in 12-month-old rats), only the pr...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Structural Changes in the Myocardium of Old Rats with Stress-Induced Arterial Hypertension
AbstractHistological changes in the myocardial structure in old rats are estimated against the background of persistent arterial hypertension in this work. The goal was to study the structural organization of myocardial tissues and vessels in animals on the 3rd, 7th, and 30th days after the development of stress-induced arterial hypertension. The experiments were carried out on 28 –30-month white outbred male rats. The pathological condition was modeled according to a patented method in a specialized cage with the combined effect of a number of stimuli (light, sound, electricity). The development of destructive and d...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical Study of Tubulovillous Colon Adenoma in the Elderly
AbstractThe incidence of tubulovillous adenoma is higher than that of colorectal cancer. Most adenomas are likely prone to malignancy. It is often impossible to identify the adenomas that are prone to neoplasia. However, an increased adenoma size and severe dysplasia contribute to malignancy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and β-catenin in tubulovillous colon adenoma with varying degrees of dysplasia. Biopsy specimens of tubulovillous adenoma from 50 patients who underwent surgical removal were used. After resection, the adenomas were cut to the largest size so that the entire ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Proliferative Activity of Cells of Paravasal Connective Tissue at Different Ages
AbstractThe goal of the work was to study the age-related variability in the fibroblast proliferative activity in the paravasal connective tissue of the hollow and parenchymal organs derived from male corpses of the first mature period, elderly age, and senile age. The proliferation index was based on the expression of the Ki-67 protein (MIB-1 clone). It was found that the proliferation index in the first mature period was similar in the paravasal tissue cells of the parenchymal and hollow organs of the digestive tract. At the same time, the fibroblasts of heart paravasal tissue had the lowest proliferation activity of all...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - March 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Expression of HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins under Oxidative Stress
AbstractThe development of oxidative stress inevitably causes damage to cell proteins in need of timely refolding. The synthesis of the proteins of the heat-shock group is the most ancient and effective mechanism of cell protection. The life-long cellular adaptation to a huge number of cytotoxic factors, both of xenobiotic and natural origin, have provided heat-shock proteins with polyfunctionality: in the processes of programmed death, they act as either anti- or pro-apoptogenic factors or as regulators of the activity of these factors. The important role of heat-shock proteins in adaptation, inflammation, and immune resp...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - December 31, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Copy Number of the Mitochondrial DNA of Leucocytes as an Aging Marker and Risk Factors for the Development of Age-Related Diseases in Humans
AbstractThe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was analyzed via quantitative real-time PCR. A  random subset of 996 people was studied (437 men with an average age of 67.3 ± 7.2 years and 559 women with an average age of 67.6 ± 7.1 years). They were selected from a population cohort of 9360 people who were initially examined in the international HAPIEE project (2003–2005, initial age of 45–69 years) in Novosibirsk. The participants were reexamined after 12 years in 2015–2017. The average relative mtDNA copy number in women was significantly higher than in men, regardless of age and s...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - December 31, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Plasma D-Dimer Level as a Subclinical Marker of Thrombotic Risk in Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
AbstractAged patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at high risk of both thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications of the disease and its treatment. A study was conducted to assess the role of the D-dimer plasma level as a marker of thrombosis in aged patients with AF having no clinical signs of active thrombosis with respect to the used treatment strategy and the quantitative thrombotic and hemorrhagic risk of AF. The results show that the D-dimer plasma levels correlate with the scores of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic risks in groups on antiplatelet agents but not anticoagulants, with the difference in D-dimer le...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - December 31, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Effect of Arterial Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia on the Remodeling of Articular Cartilage and the Development of Osteoarthritis (Experimental Study)
AbstractOsteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative inflammatory disease of the synovial joints associated with age, cardiovascular comorbidity, and other factors. It is based on articular cartilage (AC) and subchondral bone (SCB) damage. Recent studies have shown that age-related changes, cardiovascular diseases, and OA may have a few common molecular mechanisms. At the same time, the conditions and the degree of influence of arterial hypertension (AH) and hyperlipidemia (HL) on joint tissues remain unclear. The goal of the study is to analyze the effect of AH and HL on the processes of cellular stress, AC remodeling, and OA de...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - December 31, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research