Expression of HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins under Oxidative Stress
AbstractThe development of oxidative stress inevitably causes damage to cell proteins in need of timely refolding. The synthesis of the proteins of the heat-shock group is the most ancient and effective mechanism of cell protection. The life-long cellular adaptation to a huge number of cytotoxic factors, both of xenobiotic and natural origin, have provided heat-shock proteins with polyfunctionality: in the processes of programmed death, they act as either anti- or pro-apoptogenic factors or as regulators of the activity of these factors. The important role of heat-shock proteins in adaptation, inflammation, and immune resp...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Copy Number of the Mitochondrial DNA of Leucocytes as an Aging Marker and Risk Factors for the Development of Age-Related Diseases in Humans
AbstractThe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was analyzed via quantitative real-time PCR. A  random subset of 996 people was studied (437 men with an average age of 67.3 ± 7.2 years and 559 women with an average age of 67.6 ± 7.1 years). They were selected from a population cohort of 9360 people who were initially examined in the international HAPIEE project (2003–2005, initial age of 45–69 years) in Novosibirsk. The participants were reexamined after 12 years in 2015–2017. The average relative mtDNA copy number in women was significantly higher than in men, regardless of age and s...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Plasma D-Dimer Level as a Subclinical Marker of Thrombotic Risk in Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
AbstractAged patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at high risk of both thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications of the disease and its treatment. A study was conducted to assess the role of the D-dimer plasma level as a marker of thrombosis in aged patients with AF having no clinical signs of active thrombosis with respect to the used treatment strategy and the quantitative thrombotic and hemorrhagic risk of AF. The results show that the D-dimer plasma levels correlate with the scores of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic risks in groups on antiplatelet agents but not anticoagulants, with the difference in D-dimer le...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Effect of Arterial Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia on the Remodeling of Articular Cartilage and the Development of Osteoarthritis (Experimental Study)
AbstractOsteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative inflammatory disease of the synovial joints associated with age, cardiovascular comorbidity, and other factors. It is based on articular cartilage (AC) and subchondral bone (SCB) damage. Recent studies have shown that age-related changes, cardiovascular diseases, and OA may have a few common molecular mechanisms. At the same time, the conditions and the degree of influence of arterial hypertension (AH) and hyperlipidemia (HL) on joint tissues remain unclear. The goal of the study is to analyze the effect of AH and HL on the processes of cellular stress, AC remodeling, and OA de...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Perimenopausal Melatonin Deficiency Syndrome in a System of Personalized Management for the Quality of Life of Women with Climacteric Syndrome
AbstractThe goal of our study is to search for diagnostic tools for the early detection of prenosological melatonin deficiency in postmenopausal women and women in menopausal transition with climacteric syndrome to establish effective personalized prevention and treatment programs. The study involved 221 women. They were divided into four groups: group 1 included 39 women in menopausal transition with climacteric syndrome, group 2 had 104 menopausal women with climacteric syndrome, group 3 included 41 women with physiological menopause, and group 4 consisted of 37 healthy women of reproductive age. The study was conducted ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Effect of High-Dose Metformin on the Metabolic Parameters and Functional State of the Liver of Agouti Mice with Melanocortin Obesity
AbstractThe effectiveness of high-dose metformin (MF) for the treatment of endocrine and oncological diseases has been shown in recent years. However, the use of high-dose MF may be associated with lactic acidosis and liver dysfunctions. The goal of the work was to study the effect of long-term (10-day) oral administration of a relatively high dose of MF (600 mg/kg per day) to yellowC57Bl/6J (Ay/a)Agouti line mice with melanocortin-type obesity on liver function, which was evaluated based on the hepatocyte morphology and steatosis severity, the expression of inflammatory and apoptotic factors, and the aminotransferase acti...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mechanosensitive Yes-Associated Protein in Human Skin during Aging
AbstractThe goal of this work was to examine the level of Yes-associated protein (YAP) in the fibroblasts and blood microvessels of human dermis from development until deep aging (from 20 weeks of pregnancy until 85 years old) and to define the role of YAP in age-dependent changes in the number of fibroblasts and blood microvessels in the dermis. YAP, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), endothelial-cell marker CD31 were detected with an indirect immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that the proportion of dermal fibroblasts positively stained for YAP steadily decreased from 20 weeks of pregnancy to 40 ye...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Melatonin Effects in Young and Aging Mice with the Toxic Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination
AbstractThe following indices were assessed in 3 –5-month old and 15–17-month old 129/Sv mice treated with cuprizone and melatonin: the number of activated T-lymphocytes, macrophages, neural stem cells (determined by CD3, Mac1, and nestin markers), structurally unchanged neurons, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidant enzyme activities in the brain, the blood level of the thymic hormone thymulin, and the behavioral indices. The animals were fed with cuprizone for 3 weeks. From the eighth day of cuprizone treatment, mice were injected with melatonin (1 mg/kg, at 6 p.m. daily). The results demonstrated an inc...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Stress-Induced Pathology and Accelerated Aging
AbstractA study involving 317 former combatants aged 24 to 69 years was carried out. The goal of the study was to identify patterns of the age dynamics of stress-induced pathology in combatants to develop a concept of their accelerated aging as a final component of the consequences of combat stress. It turned out that, with respect to the period of impact of combat stress factors and the age, the first manifestations concerned the pathology of the musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal tract, and arterial hypertension, followed by cardiovascular diseases associated with atherosclerosis. Posttraumatic stress disorder was ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Immunophysiological Indicators in Elderly Teachers in the School-Year Dynamics
AbstractThe preservation of the health of participants in the educational process and the performance of comprehensive diagnostic measures with laboratory and instrumental methods occupy a significant place in a number of biomedical studies. The goal of the present work was to study the state of cellular factors of innate and adaptive immunity, IL-1 β, 1α, IFN-γ cytokines, hormones, and autonomic regulation of the heart rhythm in elderly teachers in the school-year dynamics. The indices of spectral analysis of the heart rhythm (n = 50) at the beginning of the school year (background level) and after 5 and ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Laboratory Diagnostics of Ovarian Cancer among the Elderly Based on the Parameters of Immunoglobulins and Phagocytic Activity of Blood
AbstractNew diagnostic methods are being sought for ovarian cancer due to its higher prevalence, which is the result of an increase in the share of elderly women. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content and sensitivity of immunoglobulins and the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood in order to improve the diagnostics of ovarian cancer among elderly women. The phagocytic activity and the immunoglobulin level in the peripheral blood were assessed with immunological and spectrophotometric methods in 78 patients with ovarian cancer aged 65 –70 years. The control group comprised 42 women of the same age wi...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Study of Energy-Metabolism Enzymes and the State of the Cardiovascular System in Elderly and Senile-Aged Patients
AbstractThe present work presents data on the activity of pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the state of the cardiovascular system in elderly and senile people who applied to the Health Zone polyclinic in Baku. Sixty people were examined for enzymopathy, and 87 people were examined with respect to the state of the cardiovascular system. The examined persons were found to have decreased myocardial blood flow and ischemic heart disease (IHD) against a background of increased PK and LDH. Statistically significant differences in enzyme activity with respect to gender and age were established, and changes i...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Asymptomatic Kidney Tumors in Elderly Patients: Review of Treatment Approaches in Russia and Western Countries
AbstractThis paper analyzes and evaluates the results of recent research on active observation strategies in North America and Europe. There are enough grounds for a more active implementation and use of this approach, which is permissible in a strictly selected category of patients, namely, in elderly patients. In Russia at the moment, the personalized approach to treatment is underdeveloped. Patients over 60 –65 years old are a significant group of patients with kidney tumors. In the determination of the tactics of the care of these patients, it is important to understand that this contingent has a greater risk of ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Homing of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Different Administration Routes in Old Laboratory Animals after Liver Resection
AbstractThe purpose of this research was to study the migration of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) in old laboratory animals under physiological conditions and after liver resection. In this case, different administration routes were used: in the tail vein; intraperitoneally; in the hepatic artery; and in the portal vein. Studies indicate an old body is able to respond with changes in the directed migration of MMSCs to the tissues subjected to the greatest damage. This may result from the production of a chemoattractant by the connective tissue of the damaged organ. In contrast to intraperitoneal injection, o...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Contribution of Hormones and Other Bioregulators to Tumor Ontopathogeny
AbstractThis minireview presents the contribution of estrogens and other hormones to the etiopathogenesis of tumors, as well as to the phenomena of perinatal programming/imprinting for various types of cancer. In addition, the importance of endocrine disruptors is discussed in the ontopathogeny of some oncologic diseases. The important role of stress and glucocorticoids, as referred to neoplastic growth, is highlighted. It is proposed that greater attention should be paid to the maintenance of the balance between cellular proliferation, the survival capacity of cells, and apoptosis as the basis for the bioregulation of nor...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - January 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment of Alzheimer ’s Disease in Elderly and Senile Age
AbstractThe article deals with the important issue of the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer ’s disease in the elderly and senile-aged. The disease is viewed as an aging-associated pathological state and the main cause of senile dementia. Notwithstanding, it is not particularly commonly diagnosed in Russia as compared with dementia, for example, of vascular origin. The reason for this app ears to be not only the difficulties of in-vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease but, above all, the multiplicity of pathological processes characteristic of the elderly and senile-aged. A large number of these pathologic pr...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Absence of Photoperiodism and Digestive Enzymes in Rats: The Role of Age and the Endogenous Melatonin Level
AbstractThe effect of the prolonged absence of a photoperiodic signal (constant lighting and constant darkness) on changes in the activity of digestive enzymes in the late postnatal ontogenesis of rats is studied. Age-related alterations were characterized by a change in enzyme activity, as well as a redistribution of the functional activity between the amylo- and lipolytic links and the upper (pancreas) and lower (small intestine) divisions of the gastrointestinal tract. It was shown that, with age, the enzyme activity was affected both by an absence of photoperiodism and by a melatonin level associated with the light reg...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Current Issues of the Rehabilitation of Disabled Elderly and Senile Persons with Limb Loss due to Obliterative Arterial Disease
AbstractThe use of prosthetic and orthotic care services among patients with limb stumps due to obliterative diseases of peripheral arteries is analyzed based on the population register of limb amputations. It is established that not more than 34% of patients apply for primary prosthesis after lower limb amputation. This rate decreases among patients older than 60 years and significantly decreases among patients older than 70 years —down to 16.2%. Particularly low indicators of the use of prosthetics are revealed among women older than 70 years. In order to improve the mobility level and quality of life among this po...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms of Aging: The Role of Oxidative Stress and Epigenetic Modifications
AbstractAging is a multifactorial process characterized by a gradual loss of physiological functions, which leads to increased vulnerability of the organism to age-related diseases and, finally, to death. Several theories have been proposed to explain the nature of aging, one of which relates aging to the damage to cell structures and DNA caused by free radicals. However, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that the molecular mechanisms of aging are also associated with epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, noncoding RNA and histone changes. In this review, we will analyze the significance of the results...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Hearing Loss in Adults in Older Age Groups
AbstractThere has been a steady increase in the prevalence of hearing loss among people in many countries around the world. One of the main reasons for this negative trend is the growing life expectancy and increasing proportion of the elderly people, which leads to an increase in the number of people with age-related changes in the auditory system (presbycusis). Aging is accompanied primarily by damage to the structures of the inner ear, but it can also affect the central parts of the auditory analyzer, causing disorders at all levels of the auditory neural pathway. Presbycusis is accompanied by impaired hearing and speec...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Comparative Analysis of Experimental Data on the Effects of Different Polyphenols on Lifespan and Aging
AbstractSurvival curves were approximated and analyzed based on experimental data on the effect of different polyphenolic compounds on mouse lifespan with the Gompertz model in its minimal variant, which excludes the parameters of sample heterogeneity and age-independent mortality. Vectors from the control data towards the experimental data were plotted on graphs with coordinates [log μ0 (the logarithm of initial mortality) and γ (the rate of aging)] and compared with a series of control points. The deviations were considered real when the tilt angles of the corresponding vectors differed from those of the logμ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Adaptation to Dosed Hypoxia-Hyperoxia as a Factor in the Improvement of Quality of Life for Elderly Patients with Cardiac Pathology
AbstractThe effectiveness and safety of technology based on the principles of adaptive medicine —the interval hypoxic–hyperoxic training (IHHT) method—was studied in order to substantiate new approaches to maintain the quality of life of elderly patients with cardiac pathology. It has been proven that the use of IHHT technology for elderly people with chronic coronary artery disease in t he prescribed regime leads to a substantial increase in the subjective perception of the quality of life and psycho-emotional status and a decrease in the number of attacks of angina pectoris. This was accompanied by an i...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Senior Tourism: Understanding the Essence and Practice of Organization
AbstractThe paper considers the problem of population aging and the impact of this multifaceted process on the developing tourism industry. The authors focus on the influence of population aging on the methods of the creation and the essential content of a new tourist product. The decisive role of the senior tourists ’ needs is considered separately. In addition, certain gender preferences of third-age people are noted, since it is they who create consumer demands that are becoming mandatory for the tourism industry. The new social and economic roles of senior-age people are a serious problem that urgently nee ds to ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Combination with Renal Dysfunction
AbstractThe goal of the study was to analyze factors associated with vitamin D levels in patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in combination with the early stages of renal dysfunction. The study covered 338 patients with first- and second-degree COPD (including 66.9% men with a mean age of 69.4 ± 6.1 years and an average COPD duration of 18.5 ± 4.1 years and 33.1% women with a mean age of 64.8 ± 7.3 years and an average COPD duration of 12.1 ± 5.1 years). All patients were diagnosed with first- and second-degree chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to general...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Role of Myeloperoxidase, Paraoxonase, and Nitric Oxide System in the Blood and Pericardial Fluid of Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease after Direct Myocardial Revascularization
AbstractTo study the role of paraoxonase, myeloperoxidase, arginase, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and nitric oxide in the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPCS), 76 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting were examined. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1, IHD patients who were not diagnosed with PPCS as a result of clinical studies, and Group 2, IHD patients who were diagnosed with PPCS. The results indicate that the postoperative period after coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with the inhibition of paraoxonase, the activ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Role of the Mechanosensitive Protein Piezo1 in Age-Dependent Changes in the Number of Fibroblasts and Blood Vessels in Human Skin
AbstractThe goal of the work is to study the content of the mechanosensitive protein Piezo1 in fibroblasts and blood vessels of the human dermis from embryonic development to very old age (from 20 weeks of pregnancy to 85 years) and to define the value of Piezo1 for age-related changes in the number of fibroblasts and blood vessels in the human dermis. Piezo1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and CD31, a marker of endothelial cells, were detected in skin sections by an indirect immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that the proportion of fibroblasts with positive staining for Piezo1 in human dermis de...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Regularities in the Dynamics of Age-Specific Indicators of Mortality from Malignant Neoplasms in Russian Population
AbstractEvery year, more than 600  000 (617 177 in 2017) new cases of malignant neoplasms (MNPs) are registered in Russia, and annual cancer mortality exceeds 290 000 (290 622 in 2017). Malignant tumors rank second (15.9% in 2017) after cardiovascular mortality (48.8% in 2017), while success in their treatment elevated MNPs to first place in some economically developed countries. In many administrative territories of Russia, the proportion of MNP in the total mortality is 20–25%. MNPs are mass noncommunicable diseases that are most strongly associated with the age structure of the populati...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Phytopharmacological Correction of Functional State, Hormonal Status, and Memory Performance in Patients of Different Ages with Organic Changes in Brain Vasculature
AbstractA course of medication with the Kardisten dietary supplement normalizes an elevated blood cortisol level and optimizes the activity of brain vasculature to improve the functional state and enhance short- and long-term memory performance, especially in subjects younger than 50. Kardisten evokes a more pronounced decrease of cortisol level and improves memory performance more efficiently in the case of initial organic changes in the brain vasculature as compared to advanced atherosclerosis. Kardisten activates the natural mechanisms of enhanced functional capacity in the human organism, exerts a favorable effect on m...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Biopsychosocial Model of Activating Care for Elderly and Senile Individuals at Home
AbstractDue to the introduction of new medical technologies, there is an increase in the number of people, including those of elderly and senile age, who have extended their lives but need constant care at home from medical and social services. Research on age differences in biological needs with home care found for middle-aged people, when compared with elderly and senile-aged individuals, that the greatest difficulties and the greatest contribution to a reduction of the quality of life were made by insufficient nutrition, limited independence in the performance of household manipulations due to joint damage, pain, and ot...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Problems in the Diagnostics and Treatment of Transtiretinum Amyloidosis with Heart Disease in the Elderly: Clinical Experience
AbstractThe article presents a modern understanding of the treatment of cardiac amyloidosis and provides data on the frequency of occurrence, classification, and variants of clinical manifestations of transthyretin amyloidosis. This pathology is a slowly progressive disease, the symptoms of which usually appear in elderly and senile age. This diagnosis may become more common in the future as the population ages and diagnostic methods improve. A description of the clinical case of transtritin amyloidosis of the heart in a 77-year-old patient, which occurred with a primary lesion of the heart and symptoms of chronic heart fa...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Features of Endocrine Function of the Pancreas with Aging in Nonhuman Primates with Various Types of Adaptive Behavior
AbstractAn increasing number of works study the relationship of mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there are practically no publications on the study of the relationship of the features of higher nervous activity, particularly adaptive behavior, in healthy individuals with the risk of developing age-related dysfunction of the pancreatic islet apparatus (PIA). The purpose of this study was to investigate features of the functioning of the PIA during aging in individuals with normal standard behavior (SB), as well as anxiety- and depressive-like be...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - October 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Transforming Growth Factor- β (TGF-β) in Human Skin during Aging
AbstractThe goal of the present study is to examine the level of transforming growth factor- β (TGF-β) in fibroblasts and blood microvessels of the human dermis from the development until deep aging (from 20 weeks’ gestation to 85 years of age), and to determine the role of TGF-β in age-dependent changes in the number of fibroblasts and blood microvessels in the dermis. The contents o f TGF-β, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and endothelial cell marker CD31 are assessed with the indirect immunohistochemical technique. The results show an increase in the of the proportion of the fib...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Motivational Inductors of Behavior as Reserves of Successful Aging
AbstractAge-related characteristics of motivational inductors of behavior and internal control, which contribute to “successful” aging, are studied. University students and elderly women (20 ± 1.1 and 65.1 ± 5.8 years, respectively) are involved in the study. The dominance of cognitive activity in the profile of motivational inductors regardless of the age and time period of self-appraisal is established. A ge differences are found for the “future” situation: increased importance of physical activity for the elderly and significantly greater importance of the “emotional state&rdq...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Social Deprivation of Persons Older Than Working Age in Terms of Causes of Death Which Require Forensic Medical Examination
AbstractThe article analyzes the structure of forensic medical examinations of persons older than working age and its change during the period of improving social and economic conditions in the country. Persons whose causes of death are determined by forensic medical examination are considered as a deviant group of people who did not adapt to changing socio-cultural conditions and to age changes. This is manifested in the causes and circumstances of death (external causes, death at home without witnesses, death on street or in hospital without examination). The information on 72  324 forensic examinations of elderly...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Family Care as a Tool for Mitigating the Social Risks of the Elderly People in Remote Areas
The objective of the study was to analyze the foster family as a tool of the social security system for elderly persons in remote northern territories. We discuss the significance of pre-existing long-term relationships for the building and microclimate of the foster family, the relationship with the living environment as a socio-psychological support for reducing (eliminating) the risk of loneliness, and social inclusion in society through the foster family. It is noted that legally consolidated efforts of the state and family at the regional level respond more rapidly to changing needs for various types of services, taki...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Transformation of Erythrocytes in Rats of Different Ages
AbstractThe dynamics of transformation and osmotic fragility (OF) of erythrocytes in the blood of rats of different ages (6, 12, and 24 months) were studied. The indices of transformation of erythrocytes were calculated. The heterogeneity of the erythrocyte population in the blood increases with age. The proportion of both normal and highly resistant flattened discocytes decreases. The proportion of flattened discocytes is the lowest in 12-month-old rats. Correspondingly, the proportion of erythrocytes with altered shapes, both reversibly (stomatocytes) and irreversibly (spherocytes), increases with age. The transformation...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age-Related Changes in the Functional Indices of Cardiac Mitochondria in Chronic Alcohol Intoxication in Rats
AbstractThe effect of chronic continuous consumption of 5 and 10% ethanol solutions for six months on the respiratory function and oxidant/antioxidant status in the cardiac mitochondria of rats of different gender and age is studied. A decrease in the rate of oxygen consumption by cardiomyocyte mitochondria under theV2,V3, andV4 metabolic conditions according to Chance during the activation of the respiratory chain complexes I, I + II, and II is observed in old animals (24-month-old) compared to young (11-month-old) rats. The level of the products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) (malondialdehyde) in the cardiomyocyte mitochond...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Kinetic Model of Aging Biological Species in Natural Habitat
AbstractIt is found that the rate of change (kinetics) of the probability of death of representatives of living systems (LS) of different biological species —Drosophila, mice, rats, dogs, horses, and people in natural environments residing in different geographical areas—is described by a kinetic equation with similar values of the parameters. However, the kinetics of the probability of death of young people and rats, starting from birth, is more ac curately described by a kinetic equation of a slightly different type, taking into account the prevailing process of development and adaptation of the organism to t...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Effect of Different Types of Bariatric Surgery on Metabolic and Hormonal Parameters in Rats with a Decompensated Form of Type II Diabetes Mellitus
AbstractBariatric surgery (BS), including sleeve gastrectomy (SG), gastric bypass (GB), and ileal transposition (IT), is one of the approaches currently used for the correction of metabolic disturbances in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) with obesity. However, the efficiency of these approaches and their impact on hypothalamic signaling and hormonal status in severe forms of DM2 without obesity remain poorly characterized. The aim of this work is to study the effect of IT, SG, and GB on insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in the blood and on the expression of the genes encoding the main comp...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Dose-Dependent Mechanisms of Melatonin on the Functioning of the Cardiovascular System and on the Behavior of Normotensive Rats of Different Ages
AbstractThe purpose of the work on normotensive rats of different age groups (3, 15, and 22 months) is to study the synchronism between the functioning of the cardiovascular system and the locomotor activity of animals in open field tests by a single injection of exogenous melatonin in different doses (1 and 10 mg/kg). The studies show a unidirectional dose-dependent effect of exogenous melatonin on the locomotor activity of rats of different ages and an age-dependent effect of melatonin on the parameters of the cardiovascular system. The results show the possible desynchronization between the circadian rhythms of locomoto...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Induced Liver Fibrosis Is Accompanied in Young and Old Animals by Age-Dependent Changes in Bone Marrow Cells
AbstractThe purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis stating that the functional characteristics of bone marrow cells (BMCs), such as the proliferation rate and the focus of differentiation, etc., are determined not so much by the age of animals as by some specificities in the microenvironment of the BMCs. To test this hypothesis, two techniques to change the microenvironment are used —in vivo (induction of liver fibrosis in young and old animals) and in vitro (transferal of BMCs isolated from young and old animals of both control groups and groups with fibrosis into the same standard culturing system). It is f...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Prevalence and Intensity of Smoking in Older Patients with Coronary Heart Disease Living in the Extreme North
AbstractThis paper analyzes the prevalence and intensity of smoking and its correlation with other risk factors of coronary artery disease among patients with chronic coronary artery disease aged 60 years and over living in the extreme North on the basis of ethnicity, age, and gender. A dependence of smoking on age is observed in non-indigenous patients. Smoking is less prevalent among women compared to men and among long-livers in comparison with the elderly and senile age. High intensity and long history of smoking are revealed in both ethnic groups of male patients. The average smoking history of smokers at the time of ...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Changes in the Activity of Glutathione Peroxidase in the Blood Plasma and Serum of Rats during Postnatal Development and Aging
AbstractThe activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in plasma and serum of Wistar rats during postnatal ontogeny and aging is studied. A combination of various substrates is used for assessment of the enzymatic activity. During the period of milk nutrition, since the beginning of the consumption of solid food, GPx activity is rapidly increasing and almost reaches the adult level by 1.5 months. Enzyme activity remains stable in adulthood and has long been high in aging rats. A decrease in GPx activity around 23 –26 months of age is revealed, with reduced homocysteine (but not with reduced glutathione) as a GPx substr...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Gender Specificity of the Effect of Neonatal Melatonin Administration on Lifespan and Age-Associated Pathology in 129/ Sv Mice
AbstractMelatonin is subcutaneously administered in a single dose of 1.2 μg to 129/Sv mice at days 3, 5, and 7 after birth, and the mice are observed until natural death. In adult males, a decrease in the body weight and a reduction of the contribution of lung lesions detected during postmortal autopsy to mortality are detected. In adult females, an increase in the proportion of mice with impaired estrous cycle at the later stages of life and an acceleration of the mortality associated with uterine hemangioma are observed with the absence of any effect of melatonin on the body weight. Changes in the frequency of detecti...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Morphochemical Changes in the Human Striatum in Aging
AbstractAge-dependent neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson ’s disease, are characterized by a group of pathomorphological signs, such as neuronal death in certain brain structures, gliosis, and iron accumulation. However, literature data confirm that these signs can also be observed in normal (physiological) aging. The aim of the study is to evaluate qual itative and quantitative morphochemical changes in neurons and neuroglia in the human striatum in physiological aging, as well as changes in the localization of iron(II) compounds. It is found that neuronal cell bodies become significantly smaller in size...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Analysis of Indicators of Primary and Repeated Disability due to Eye Diseases in People of Retirement Age in the Russian Federation and in Moscow
AbstractThis paper analyzes the dynamics of primary and secondary disability due to eye diseases in people of retirement age in the Russian Federation and Moscow for the period 2007 –2016. The main medical and social indicators in disabled people of retirement age are defined. A comparative analysis of primary and repeated disability in the Russian Federation and Moscow is performed. (Source: Advances in Gerontology)
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Medical Rehabilitation System for Senior Patients with Severe Craniocerebral Injury in the Megalopolis
AbstractThe capacity of comprehensive standardized stepped medical rehabilitation is assessed in 469 patients who underwent surgical procedures for severe craniocerebral injury in Saint Petersburg hospitals in 2010 –2017. As a result of the neurorehabilitation system, the incidence rates of infectious and inflammatory complications associated with physical inactivity significantly declined. The average number of bed days decreased from 34 ± 5 to 23 ± 4 days. At the time of discharge from the neurosurgical hospital, the Barthel index (BI) of activities of daily living (ADL) was 42 ± 8 points. Afte...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Features of the Formation of Disability due to Coronary Heart Disease in People of Retirement Age in the Russian Federation in the Period 2006 –2017
AbstractThe article analyzes the structure and dynamics of disability due to coronary heart disease in the Russian Federation among the retirement-age population in the period 2006 –2017. The prevalence of retirees in the disability structure in all years of the study is revealed. Their total number is large, 2.3 million people over 12 years, and is constantly decreasing in dynamics. The level of disability in this age group is high; the average annual level is 61.5 per 10  000 people of the corresponding age; in the first years of the study it is much less than the level of middle-aged disabilities, but in re...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - July 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Taxonomic and Ethnical Dispersion of the Phenomenon of Pineal Concretions in the Gerontological Context
AbstractThe pineal gland (PG), or epiphysis, is involved in the organization of biological rhythms and adaptive reactions of the organism by the hormone melatonin. It is shown that various factors can influence the morphology and functional activity of the gland. Calcified concretions (corpora arenacea, brain sand) are unique biomineral structures of the PG; the causes of their formation and their possible functional significance have been unclear until now. To date, concrements have been found in four species of birds and 21 mammalian species, as well as in humans; they are absent in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. In thi...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - April 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Effects of Cloudberry Fruit Extract on Drosophila melanogaster Lifespan and Stress Resistance
AbstractWe previously demonstrated that carotenoids increase the lifespan of model organismsDrosophila melanogaster andCaenorhabditis elegans. This work studies the effect of the extract of cloudberry fruits (which is characterized by a relatively high content of carotenoids and widely used for food in the north) on lifespan parameters and resistance to various types of stress in theDrosophila melanogaster flies. It is demonstrated that cloudberry extract increased median lifespan and the age of 90% mortality in females up to 11 –19%, and it decreased the population aging rate in them by 13%. At the same time, the ef...
Source: Advances in Gerontology - April 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research