Challenges and Adaptations of Life in Alkaline Habitats.
Abstract A vast array of organisms is known thriving in high pH environments. The biotechnological, medical, and environmental importance of this remarkable group of organisms has attracted a great deal of interest among researchers and industrialists. One of the most intriguing phenomena of alkaliphiles that engrossed researchers' attention is their adaptation to high pH and ability to thrive in the "extreme" condition which is often lethal to other organisms. Studies made in this line revealed that alkaliphiles deployed a range of adaptive strategies to overcome the various challenges of life in high p...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - July 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mamo G Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metabolites Produced by Alkaliphiles with Potential Biotechnological Applications.
Abstract Alkaliphiles are a diverse group of relatively less known microorganisms living in alkaline environments. To thrive in alkaline environments, alkaliphiles require special adaptations. This adaptation may have evolved metabolites which can be useful for biotechnological processes or other applications. In fact, certain metabolites are found unique to alkaliphiles or are effectively produced by alkaliphiles. This probably aroused the interest in metabolites of alkaliphiles. During recent years, many alkaliphilic microbes have been isolated, especially in countries having alkaline environments, like soda lak...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - June 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Khalikova E, Somersalo S, Korpela T Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Social Life Cycle Assessment for Industrial Biotechnology.
Abstract This chapter focuses on social assessment methods (known as SLCA) applied to industrial biotechnology (IB), which are part of the "life cycle" approach. IB is a heading for a set of different technologies. The first section presents a review of the literature to provide an analysis of the results and limitations of IB SLCA studies, with the main focus on the biofuel industries. Often conducted via a social performance analysis based on CSR (corporate social responsibility) criteria, most studies provide little new information. Nevertheless, there are some studies on the change caused by the emer...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - June 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Macombe C Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Alkaliphilic Enzymes and Their Application in Novel Leather Processing Technology for Next-Generation Tanneries.
Abstract Leather manufacturing involves conversion of raw skin and hides into leather (stable material) through series of mechanical and chemical operations. The leather industry has attracted public outcry due to severe environmental degradation, pollution and health and safety risks. Currently the industry faces serious sustainability challenge due to extensive use of toxic chemicals and generation of hazardous waste. This chapter describes the polluting chemicals consumed in different stages of conventional leather processing and the nature of waste generated. In order to overcome the hazards caused by toxic ch...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wanyonyi WC, Mulaa FJ Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Alkaliphiles: The Emerging Biological Tools Enhancing Concrete Durability.
Abstract Concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials ever used. Despite it is a very important and common construction material, concrete is very sensitive to crack formation and requires repair. A variety of chemical-based techniques and materials have been developed to repair concrete cracks. Although the use of these chemical-based repair systems are the best commercially available choices, there have also been concerns related to their use. These repair agents suffer from inefficiency and unsustainability. Most of the products are expensive and susceptible to degradation, exhibit poor bonding ...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mamo G, Mattiasson B Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Starch-Modifying Enzymes.
Abstract Starch is a carbohydrate polymer found abundantly on earth. It is synthesized in plants as a short-term storage compound for respiration in the leaves and for long-term storage in the tubers, seeds and roots of plants. A wide variety of enzymes modify or convert starch into various products. The classes of enzymes that act on starch include endoamylases, exoamylases, debranching enzymes and transferases. Starch-modifying enzymes of microbial origin are utilized in a wide variety of industrial applications. Alkaline-active amylases are diverse in terms of optimum reaction conditions, substrate and product ...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hashim SO Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Stimulating Production of Pigment-Type Secondary Metabolites from Soft Rotting Wood Decay Fungi ("Spalting" Fungi).
Stimulating Production of Pigment-Type Secondary Metabolites from Soft Rotting Wood Decay Fungi ("Spalting" Fungi). Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2019 Mar 20;: Authors: Van Court RC, Robinson SC Abstract A small group of soft rotting wood decay fungi produce extracellular pigments as secondary metabolites in response to stress and as a means of resource capture. These fungi are collectively known as "spalting fungi" and have been used in wood art for centuries. The pigments produced by these fungi are finding increasing usage in industrial dye applications and green energy but remain...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Van Court RC, Robinson SC Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Aptazymes: Expanding the Specificity of Natural Catalytic Nucleic Acids by Application of In Vitro Selected Oligonucleotides.
Abstract Aptazymes are synthetic molecules composed of an aptamer domain and a catalytic active nucleic acid unit, which may be a ribozyme or a DNAzyme. In these constructs the aptamer domain serves as a molecular switch that can regulate the catalytic activity of the ribozyme or DNAzyme subunit. This regulation is triggered by binding of the aptamers target molecule, which causes significant structural changes in the aptamer and thus in the entire aptazyme. Therefore, aptazymes function similar to allosteric enzymes, whose catalytic activity is regulated by binding of ligands (effectors) to allosteric sites due t...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Walter JG, Stahl F Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Aroma Profile Analyses of Filamentous Fungi Cultivated on Solid Substrates.
l M Abstract Filamentous fungi have been used since centuries in the production of food by means of solid substrate fermentation (SSF). The most applied SSF involving fungi is the cultivation of mushrooms, e.g., on tree stumps or sawdust, for human consumption. However, filamentous fungi are also key players during manufacturing of several processed foods, like mold cheese, tempeh, soy sauce, and sake. In addition to their nutritive values, these foods are widely consumed due to their pleasant flavors. Based on the potentials of filamentous fungi to grow on solid substrates and to produce valuable aroma compounds,...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Orban A, Fraatz MA, Rühl M Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Design and Operation of a Pilot-Scale Packed-Bed Bioreactor for the Production of Enzymes by Solid-State Fermentation.
Abstract In this review, we describe our experience in building a pilot-scale packed-bed solid-state fermentation (SSF) bioreactor, with provision for intermittent mixing, and the use of this bioreactor to produce pectinases and lipases by filamentous fungi. We show that, at pilot scale, special attention must be given to several aspects that are not usually problematic when one works with laboratory-scale SSF bioreactors. For example, it can be a challenge to produce large amounts of inoculum if the fungus does not sporulate well. Likewise, at larger scales, the air preparation system needs as much attention as t...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mitchell DA, Pitol LO, Biz A, Finkler ATJ, de Lima Luz LF, Krieger N Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Cultivation of Medicinal Mushroom Biomass by Solid-State Bioprocessing in Bioreactors.
Abstract Basidiomycetes of various species and their wide range of pharmaceutically interesting products in the last decades represent one of the most attractive groups of natural products in Asia and North America. Production of fungal fruit bodies using farming technology is hardly covering the market. Comprehensive solid-state technologies and bioreactors are the most promising part for fast and large amount of cultivation of medicinal fungi biomass and its pharmaceutically active products. Wood, agriculture, and food industry wastes represent the main substrates that are in this process delignified and enriche...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Berovic M Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion for Waste Management and Biogas Production.
Abstract Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) is commonly used to treat feedstocks with high solid content such as municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic biomass. Compared to liquid state anaerobic digestion (LS-AD), SS-AD has multiple advantages including high organic loading, minimal digestate generated, and low energy requirement for heating. However, the main disadvantages limiting the efficiency of SS-AD are long solid retention time, incomplete mixing, and an accumulation of inhibitors. For a successful and efficient SS-AD, it is important to control operation parameters such as nutrient levels, C/N ra...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhou H, Wen Z Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Genomics of Alkaliphiles.
Abstract Alkalinicity presents a challenge for life due to a "reversed" proton gradient that is unfavourable to many bioenergetic processes across the membranes of microorganisms. Despite this, many bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, collectively termed alkaliphiles, are adapted to life in alkaline ecosystems and are of great scientific and biotechnological interest due to their niche specialization and ability to produce highly stable enzymes. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have propelled not only the genomic characterization of many alkaliphilic microorganisms that have been isolat...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lebre PH, Cowan DA Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Isolation and Cultivation of Alkaliphiles.
Abstract Alkaliphilic microorganisms are ubiquitous and inhabit various econiches on Earth. Alkaline environments suitable for alkaliphilic microbial communities may be created by certain geological processes or human activities. Moreover, a significant contribution to the emergence of alkaline conditions may be due to the activity of neutralophilic microorganisms through certain reactions, which explains the widespread distribution of alkaliphiles. Alkaliphilic microorganisms are part of extremophiles and become interesting and useful in environmental and industrial microbiology. With increasing knowledge of alka...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kevbrin VV Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

It Is the Mix that Matters: Substrate-Specific Enzyme Production from Filamentous Fungi and Bacteria Through Solid-State Fermentation.
Abstract Fungi have a diverse spectrum of extracellular enzymes. In nature, extracellular enzymes primarily serve to procure nutrients for the survival and growth of the fungi. Complex polymers such as lignocellulose and starch as well as proteins and fats are broken down into their basic building blocks by extracellular enzymes such as amylases, proteases, lipases, xylanases, laccases, and many more.The abilities of these enzymes are made use of in diverse areas of industry, including food technology, textiles, and pharmaceuticals, and they have become indispensable for today's technology. Enzyme production is us...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Steudler S, Werner A, Walther T Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Application Potentials of Geobiotechnology in Mining, Mineral Processing, and Metal Recycling.
Abstract This chapter highlights the huge and manifold possibilities of reactions which result from the interactions between microorganisms and the geosphere and which are used for mining, mineral processing, and metal recycling. Besides the introduction (Sect. 1) the contribution is divided into five different sections describing the mobilization (Sect. 2) and immobilization (Sect. 3) of valuable substances, the processes of biosorption and bioaccumulation (Sect. 4), as well as transformation of metals into metal organic compounds (Sect. 5). A special topic (Sect. 6) addresses the application of CO2 as an importa...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Glombitza F, Kermer R, Reichel S Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Fermented Solids and Their Application in the Production of Organic Compounds of Biotechnological Interest.
Abstract We review the application of dry fermented solids (DFS) containing naturally immobilized enzymes as catalysts in synthesis and in hydrolysis reactions. The most studied application is the use of DFS containing lipases in the synthesis of biodiesel esters, by transesterification of oils or by esterification of fatty acids with short-chain alcohols in solvent-free reaction media. Other applications of DFS that have been studied include the use of DFS containing pectinases to liberate D-galacturonic acid from pectin and the production of high-value compounds by DFS containing lipases, such as the synthesis o...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Krieger N, Dias GS, Alnoch RC, Mitchell DA Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Environmental Concerns Regarding Ionic Liquids in Biotechnological Applications.
Abstract Ionic liquids provide challenges and opportunities for sustainable industrial developments. However, the toxic impacts of ionic liquids reported by many researchers cannot be overlooked. Therefore, in this chapter, we introduce the antimicrobial activities of ionic liquids in bioprocesses and, in greater detail, we discuss their environmental impacts, including the toxicity, biodegradability, bioaccumulation, and mobility of ionic liquids. We believe that this presented information will support colleagues engaged in ionic liquid-related fields. Graphical Abstract. PMID: 30710154 [PubMed - as supplied...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cho CW, Song MH, Pham TPT, Yun YS Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

History, Current State, and Emerging Applications of Industrial Biotechnology.
e K Abstract The past 150 years have seen remarkable discoveries, rapidly growing biological knowledge, and giant technological leaps providing biotechnological solutions for healthcare, food production, and other societal needs. Genetic engineering, miniaturization, and ever-increasing computing power, in particular, have been key technological drivers for the past few decades. Looking ahead, the eventual transition from fossil resources to biomass and CO2 demands a shift toward a 'bio-economy' based on novel production processes and engineered organisms. PMID: 30671594 [PubMed - as supplied by publishe...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - January 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Schürrle K Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Whole-Cell Biocatalysis in Ionic Liquids.
Abstract The use of whole-cell biocatalysis in ionic liquid (IL)-containing systems has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Compared to bioreactions catalyzed by isolated enzymes, the major advantage of using whole cells in biocatalytic processes is that the cells provide a natural intracellular environment for the enzymes to function with in situ cofactor regeneration. To date, the applications of whole-cell biocatalysis in IL-containing systems have focused on the production of valuable compounds, mainly through reduction, oxidation, hydrolysis, and transesterification reactions. The interaction mech...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - November 29, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mai NL, Koo YM Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Extraction and Isolation of Natural Organic Compounds from Plant Leaves Using Ionic Liquids.
Abstract Plants contain many kinds of natural organic compounds, and their compounds possess many useful properties. Natural organic compounds are important for the development of medicines, pesticides, fragrances, cosmetics, and synthetic chemicals. In this chapter, we introduce efficient methods for extraction and isolation of valuable natural organic compounds from various plant leaves by using cellulose-dissolving ionic liquids. High-polarity ionic liquids, which can dissolve cellulose, contribute to the extraction of natural organic compounds from plant leaves probably by breaking down plant cell walls, which...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - November 16, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Usuki T, Yoshizawa-Fujita M Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Engineering of Yeast Glycoprotein Expression.
Abstract Yeasts are valuable hosts for recombinant protein production, as these unicellular eukaryotes are easy to handle, grow rapidly to a high cell density on cost-effective defined media, often offer a high space-time yield, and are able to perform posttranslational modifications. However, a key difference between yeasts and mammalian cells involves the type of glycosylation structures, which hampers the use of yeasts for the production of many biopharmaceuticals. Glycosylation is not only important for the folding process of most recombinant proteins; it has a large impact on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodyna...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - November 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: De Wachter C, Van Landuyt L, Callewaert N Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Green Chemistry and Its Contribution to Industrial Biotechnology.
r K Abstract Sustainable chemistry is a broad framework that starts with the function that a chemical product is offering. Not only chemical but also economic and ethical aspects come into focus throughout the complete lifecycle of chemical products. Green chemistry is an important building block for sustainable chemistry and addresses the issue of greener synthesis and, to a certain degree, the more benign properties of chemicals. The principles of green chemistry clearly aim at making chemical reactions and processes more environmentally friendly. Aspects such as atom efficiency, energy efficiency, harmless reac...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pleissner D, Kümmerer K Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Electrification of Biotechnology: Quo Vadis?
Abstract Electrobiotechnology has come a long way and has gained much interest among researchers all over the world. In the previous chapters of this book, an abundance of successful developments of lab-scale electrobiosynthesis and their underlying fundamentals are described. Thereby the individual needs and lines of research are highlighted. In this final chapter we will try to shed light on the overall performance of electrobiosynthetic processes with regard to their technological maturity, as well as the potential ecological and economic incentives for their industrial implementation.The evaluation of technica...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - September 29, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Holtmann D, Harnisch F Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Risk Assessment of Processes and Products in Industrial Biotechnology.
Abstract Risk assessment has been used extensively as the main approach to prevent accidents in the chemical and process industry. Industrial biotechnology has many of the same hazards as chemical technology, but also encounters biological hazards related to biological agents. Employees in the biotechnology industry are susceptible to health risks because of different types of exposure to harmful agents. The external environment may also be affected by these agents in cases of accidental release. This chapter first presents several traditional risk assessment methods that may be used in industrial biotechnology af...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - September 23, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chen C, Reniers G Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biopolymer-Based Composite Materials Prepared Using Ionic Liquids.
This article summarizes the processes for preparing biopolymer-based composite materials using ionic liquids. The processes include biopolymer dissolution using ionic liquids, regeneration of the biopolymer by an anti-solvent, formation of shapes, and drying of the regenerated biopolymer. In particular, the preparation and applications of biopolymer blend-based composite materials containing two or more biopolymers are addressed. PMID: 30242432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology)
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - September 22, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Park S, Oh KK, Lee SH Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Interplay of Carbohydrate and Carrier in Antibacterial Glycoconjugate Vaccines.
Abstract Bacterial infections are a serious health concern and are responsible for millions of illnesses and deaths each year in communities around the world. Vaccination is an important public health measure for reducing and eliminating this burden, and regions with comprehensive vaccination programs have achieved significant reductions in infection and mortality. This is often accomplished by immunization with bacteria-derived carbohydrates, typically in conjunction with other biomolecules, which induce immunological memory and durable protection against bacterial human pathogens. For many species, however, vacc...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 25, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Moeller TD, Weyant KB, DeLisa MP Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Bacterial Glycoengineering as a Biosynthetic Route to Customized Glycomolecules.
Abstract Bacteria have garnered increased interest in recent years as a platform for the biosynthesis of a variety of glycomolecules such as soluble oligosaccharides, surface-exposed carbohydrates, and glycoproteins. The ability to engineer commonly used laboratory species such as Escherichia coli to efficiently synthesize non-native sugar structures by recombinant expression of enzymes from various carbohydrate biosynthesis pathways has allowed for the facile generation of important products such as conjugate vaccines, glycosylated outer membrane vesicles, and a variety of other research reagents for studying and...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 12, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yates LE, Mills DC, DeLisa MP Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Synthesis of Ionic Liquids Originated from Natural Products.
Abstract In this chapter, preparation, basic properties, and some applications of ionic liquids composed of naturally-derived ions are summarized. There are many candidate ions in nature suitable for ionic liquid preparation. Physicochemical properties and preparation of some ionic liquids based on carboxylate anions, cholinium cation, and even amino acids are mentioned. Some interesting applications based on these ionic liquids composed of naturally-derived ions are also briefly introduced. Graphical Abstract. PMID: 30094602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology)
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ohno H Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Glyco-Engineering of Plant-Based Expression Systems.
Abstract Most secreted proteins in eukaryotes are glycosylated, and after a number of common biosynthesis steps the glycan structures mature in a species-dependent manner. Therefore, human therapeutic proteins produced in plants often carry plant-like rather than human-like glycans, which can affect protein stability, biological function, and immunogenicity. The glyco-engineering of plant-based expression systems began as a strategy to eliminate plant-like glycans and produce human proteins with authentic or at least compatible glycan structures. The precise replication of human glycans is challenging, owing to th...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 2, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fischer R, Holland T, Sack M, Schillberg S, Stoger E, Twyman RM, Buyel JF Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Economic Aspects of Industrial Biotechnology.
Abstract Industrial biotechnology is a key tool in the switch from a petro-based to a bio-based economy. For biotechnological processes to compete competitively in cost with chemical synthesis, the best available state-of-the-art technologies are necessary. In the last few years, industrial biotechnology has undergone fast technological development, resulting in a high number of basic technologies emanating from research efforts at universities and research institutions. Academic spin-offs have great importance in technological development because of their innovation from academic backgrounds. Technology transfer ...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Festel G Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Ionic Liquids as Stabilization and Refolding Additives and Solvents for Proteins.
Abstract This chapter focuses on recent advances in the use of ionic liquids as additives and solvents in protein applications. The solvent properties of ionic liquids can be tuned by the appropriate selection of cation and anion. The effects of different kinds of ionic liquids on protein stability and refolding behavior have been investigated and reported. The ionic liquid properties affect the intermolecular interactions of proteins, inducing different formations and folding behavior. These effects also vary with the concentration of ionic liquids. Although many of the associated mechanisms are not completely cl...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - July 13, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fujita K Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Logistics of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks: Preprocessing as a Preferable Option.
horst H Abstract In comparison to crude oil, biorefinery raw materials are challenging in concerns of transport and storage. The plant raw materials are more voluminous, so that shredding and compacting usually are necessary before transport. These mechanical processes can have a negative influence on the subsequent biotechnological processing and shelf life of the raw materials. Various approaches and their effects on renewable raw materials are shown. In addition, aspects of decentralized pretreatment steps are discussed. Another important aspect of pretreatment is the varying composition of the raw materials de...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - June 23, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tippkötter N, Möhring S, Roth J, Wulfhorst H Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Glycobiotechnology of the Insect Cell-Baculovirus Expression System Technology.
x MMJ Abstract The insect cell-baculovirus expression system technology (BEST) has a prominent role in producing recombinant proteins to be used as research and diagnostic reagents and vaccines. The glycosylation profile of proteins produced by the BEST is composed predominantly of terminal mannose glycans, and, in Trichoplusia ni cell lines, core α3 fucosylation, a profile different to that in mammals. Insects contain all the enzymatic activities needed for complex N- and O-glycosylation and sialylation, although few reports of complex glycosylation and sialylation by the BEST exist. The insect cell line an...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - June 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Palomares LA, Srivastava IK, Ramírez OT, Cox MMJ Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents and Their Applications in Biotechnology.
Abstract Following the appearance of ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs), natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) have emerged as a new type of truly green solvents with many excellent advantages such as cheapness, sustainability, biocompatibility, environmental friendliness, and, in particular, remarkable solubilizing power and outstanding designability. Although only at an early stage, research on NADESs has started to blossom with exponential growth, showing attractive and promising potentials for applications in various areas. In this chapter we focus on an introduction to what is currently k...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 24, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang Z Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

An Introduction to "Recent Trends in the Biotechnology Industry: Development and Manufacturing of Recombinant Antibodies and Proteins".
An Introduction to "Recent Trends in the Biotechnology Industry: Development and Manufacturing of Recombinant Antibodies and Proteins". Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2018 May 11;: Authors: Pohlscheidt M, Kiss R, Gottschalk U Abstract The production of the first therapeutic proteins in the early 1980s heralded the launch of the biopharmaceuticals industry. The number of approved products has grown year on year over the past three decades to now represent a significant share of the entire pharmaceuticals market. More than 200 therapeutic proteins have been approved, approximately a quarter of wh...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 11, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pohlscheidt M, Kiss R, Gottschalk U Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Activation of Lipase-Catalyzed Reactions Using Ionic Liquids for Organic Synthesis.
Abstract The use of ionic liquids to replace organic or aqueous solvents in biocatalysis processes has recently received great attention, and much progress has been made in this area; the lipase-catalyzed reactions are the most successful. Recent developments in the application of ionic liquids as solvents in lipase-catalyzed reactions for organic synthesis are reviewed, focusing on the ionic liquid mediated activation method of lipase-catalyzed reactions. PMID: 29744541 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology)
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Itoh T Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Enhanced Enzymatic Delignification.
Abstract Ionic liquids (ILs), a potentially attractive "green," recyclable alternative to environmentally harmful volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly exploited as solvents and/or cosolvents and/or reagents in a wide range of applications, including pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for further processing. The enzymatic delignification of biomass to degrade lignin, a complex aromatic polymer, has received much attention as an environmentally friendly process for clean separation of biopolymers including cellulose and lignin. For this purpose, enzymes are generally isolated from natura...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Moniruzzaman M, Goto M Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Advances in Processing Chitin as a Promising Biomaterial from Ionic Liquids.
Abstract Chitin isolated through microwave-assisted dissolution using ionic liquids is a high molecular weight (MW) polymer that can be manufactured into materials of different architectures (e.g., fibers, films, microspheres, nanostructured materials) to be used as wound care dressings, drug delivery devices, scaffolds, etc. However, because of differences from traditional isolation methods and, thus, differences in polymer length and degree of deacetylation, it could exhibit bio-related properties that differ from those of traditionally 'pulped' chitin. Here we present the initial assessments of bio-related chit...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shamshina JL, Zavgorodnya O, Rogers RD Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Ionic Liquids in Bioseparation Processes.
Abstract Bioseparation processes are a relevant part of modern biotechnology, particularly regarding the development of efficient and biocompatible methods for the separation and purification of added-value biologically active compounds. In this field, ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed, either in liquid-liquid extractions, in which non-water miscible ILs or aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) formed by ILs can be used, or in solid-liquid extractions, in which they are covalently attached to create supported IL phases (SILPs). Aprotic ILs possess unique properties, such as non-volatility and designability, which ar...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Belchior DCV, Duarte IF, Freire MG Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

A Different Perspective: How Much Innovation Is Really Needed for Monoclonal Antibody Production Using Mammalian Cell Technology?
Abstract As biopharmaceutical companies have optimized cell line and production culture process development, titers of recombinant antibodies have risen steadily to 3-8 g/L for fed-batch mammalian cultures at production scales of 10 kL or larger. Most new antibody products are produced from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines, and there are relatively few alternative production hosts under active evaluation. Many companies have adopted a strategy of using the same production cell line for early clinical phases as well as commercial production, which reduces the risk of product comparability issues dur...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 3, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kelley B, Kiss R, Laird M Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Erratum to: Animal Cell Expression Systems.
PMID: 29705867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology)
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 29, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Butler M, Reichl IU Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biorefineries: A Short Introduction.
r N Abstract The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown. PMID: 29651503 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology)
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 13, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wagemann K, Tippkötter N Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Reactors for Microbial Electrobiotechnology.
Abstract From the first electromicrobial experiment to a sophisticated microbial electrochemical process - it all takes place in a reactor. Whereas the reactor design and materials used strongly influence the obtained results, there are no common platforms for MES reactors. This is a critical convention gap, as cross-comparison and benchmarking among MES as well as MES vs. conventional biotechnological processes is needed. Only knowledge driven engineering of MES reactors will pave the way to application and commercialization. In this chapter we first assess the requirements on reactors to be used for bioelectroch...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 13, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Krieg T, Madjarov J, Rosa LFM, Enzmann F, Harnisch F, Holtmann D, Rabaey K Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Innovation in Cell Banking, Expansion, and Production Culture.
Abstract Cell culture-based production processes enable the development and commercial supply of recombinant protein products. Such processes consist of the following elements: thaw and initiation of culture, seed expansion, and production culture. A robust cell source storage system in the form of a cell bank is developed and cells are thawed to initiate the cell culture process. Seed culture expansion generates sufficient cell mass to initiate the production culture. The production culture provides an environment where the cells can synthesize the product and is optimized to deliver the highest possible product ...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 11, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kshirsagar R, Ryll T Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Next Generation Biopharmaceuticals: Product Development.
Abstract Therapeutic proteins show a rapid market growth. The relatively young biotech industry already represents 20 % of the total global pharma market. The biotech industry environment has traditionally been fast-pasted and intellectually stimulated. Nowadays the top ten best selling drugs are dominated by monoclonal antibodies (mABs).Despite mABs being the biggest medical breakthrough in the last 25 years, technical innovation does not stand still.The goal remains to preserve the benefits of a conventional mAB (serum half-life and specificity) whilst further improving efficacy and safety and to open new and be...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 11, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mathaes R, Mahler HC Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Glycoengineering of Mammalian Expression Systems on a Cellular Level.
MJ Abstract Mammalian expression systems such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), mouse myeloma (NS0), and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells serve a critical role in the biotechnology industry as the production host of choice for recombinant protein therapeutics. Most of the recombinant biologics are glycoproteins that contain complex oligosaccharide or glycan attachments representing a principal component of product quality. Both N-glycans and O-glycans are present in these mammalian cells, but the engineering of N-linked glycosylation is of critical interest in industry and many efforts have been directed to impro...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 13, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Heffner KM, Wang Q, Hizal DB, Can Ö, Betenbaugh MJ Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Advances in Sequencing and Resequencing in Crop Plants.
Abstract DNA sequencing technologies have changed the face of biological research over the last 20 years. From reference genomes to population level resequencing studies, these technologies have made significant contributions to our understanding of plant biology and evolution. As the technologies have increased in power, the breadth and complexity of the questions that can be asked has increased. Along with this, the challenges of managing unprecedented quantities of sequence data are mounting. This chapter describes a few aspects of the journey so far and looks forward to what may lie ahead. Graphical Abstr...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 8, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Marri PR, Ye L, Jia Y, Jiang K, Rounsley SD Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

TILLING: The Next Generation.
Abstract Gene space: the final frontier in plant functional genomics. These are the voyages of TILLING, the reverse-genetics strategy that sought to boldly go where no-one had gone before by combining high-density chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput mutation discovery. Its 18-year mission has been to explore new technologies such as next generation sequencing and to seek out new strategies like in silico databases of catalogued EMS-induced mutations from entire mutant plant populations. This chapter is a clip show highlighting key milestones in the development of TILLING. Use of different technologies for th...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 8, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Till BJ, Datta S, Jankowicz-Cieslak J Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Trait Mapping Approaches Through Association Analysis in Plants.
Abstract Previously, association mapping (AM) methodology was used to unravel genetic complications in animal science by measuring the complex traits for candidate and non-candidate genes. Nowadays, this statistical approach is widely used to clarify the complexity in plant breeding program-based genome-wide breeding strategies, marker development, and diversity analysis. This chapter is particularly focused on methodologies with limitations and provides an overview of AM models and software used up to now. Association or linkage disequilibrium mapping has become a very popular method for discovering candidate and...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Saba Rahim M, Sharma H, Parveen A, Roy JK Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research