Microfluidic Single-Cell Analytics.
We present and discuss recent advancements in single-cell analytics that enable the analysis of cell-specific growth, uptake, and production kinetics, as well as the gene expression and regulatory mechanisms at a single-cell level. PMID: 32737554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology)
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 1, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dusny C Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Emerging Biosensor Trends in Organ-on-a-Chip.
Abstract Organ-on-a-chip technology is ideally suited to cultivate and analyze 2D/3D cell cultures, organoids, and other tissue analogues in vitro, because these microphysiological systems have been shown to generate architectures, structural organization, and functions that closely resemble their respective human tissues and organs. Although great efforts have been undertaken to demonstrate organotypic cell behavior, proper cell-to-cell communication, and tissue interactions in recent years, the integration of biosensing strategies into organ-on-a-chip platforms is still in its infancy. While a multitude of micro...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - July 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rothbauer M, Ertl P Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microbioreactors for Process Development and Cell-Based Screening Studies.
Abstract Microbioreactors (MBRs) have emerged as potent cultivation devices enabling automated small-scale experiments in parallel while enhancing their cost efficiency. The widespread use of MBRs has contributed to recent advances in industrial and pharmaceutical biotechnology, and they have proved to be indispensable tools in the development of many modern bioprocesses. Being predominantly applied in early stage process development, they open up new fields of research and enhance the efficacy of biotechnological product development. Their reduced reaction volume is associated with numerous inherent advantages - ...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - July 26, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Frey LJ, Krull R Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microfluidics for Environmental Applications.
Abstract Microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip systems have become increasingly important tools across many research fields in recent years. As a result of their small size and precise flow control, as well as their ability to enable in situ process visualization, microfluidic systems are increasingly finding applications in environmental science and engineering. Broadly speaking, their main present applications within these fields include use as sensors for water contaminant analysis (e.g., heavy metals and organic pollutants), as tools for microorganism detection (e.g., virus and bacteria), and as platforms for the inv...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 22, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang T, Yu C, Xie X Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Lab-on-a-Chip Devices for Point-of-Care Medical Diagnostics.
Abstract The recent coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has underscored the need to move from traditional lab-centralized diagnostics to point-of-care (PoC) settings. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) platforms facilitate the translation to PoC settings via the miniaturization, portability, integration, and automation of multiple assay functions onto a single chip. For this purpose, paper-based assays and microfluidic platforms are currently being extensively studied, and much focus is being directed towards simplifying their design while simultaneously improving multiplexing and automation capabilities. Signal amplification strate...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 21, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Arshavsky-Graham S, Segal E Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Alkaliphiles: The Versatile Tools in Biotechnology.
Abstract The extreme environments within the biosphere are inhabited by organisms known as extremophiles. In recent years to Lately, these organisms are attracting a great deal of interest from researchers and industrialists. The motive behind this attraction is mainly related to the desire for new and efficient products of biotechnological importance and human curiosity of understanding nature. Organisms living in common "human-friendly" environments have served humanity for a very long time, and this has led to exhaustion of the low-hanging "fruits," a phenomenon witnessed by the diminishing ...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mamo G, Mattiasson B Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Impedimetric Aptamer-Based Biosensors: Principles and Techniques.
nn J Abstract Aptamers are a specific class of ligands with high affinities comparable to antibodies, which are selected and synthesized in vitro. In combination with impedance spectroscopy as sensitive measurement method, we gain a class of biosensors with high potential for handheld devices and point-of-care tests. In this review, we report on recent advances in aptamer-based impedimetric biosensors. Besides giving a short summary of electrochemical measurement techniques, the most exciting innovative developments of detection strategies in the last decades are reviewed. Finally, important criteria for the compa...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Reich P, Preuß JA, Bahner N, Bahnemann J Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Impedimetric Aptamer-Based Biosensors: Applications.
nn J Abstract Impedimetric aptamer-based biosensors show high potential for handheld devices and point-of-care tests. In this review, we report on recent advances in aptamer-based impedimetric biosensors for applications in biotechnology. We detail on analytes relevant in medical and environmental biotechnology as well as food control, for which aptamer-based impedimetric biosensors were developed. The reviewed biosensors are examined for their performance, including sensitivity, selectivity, response time, and real sample validation. Additionally, the benefits and challenges of impedimetric aptasensors are summar...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 21, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Preuß JA, Reich P, Bahner N, Bahnemann J Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

The Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessments of Industrial Biotechnology: An Introduction.
e M Abstract Industrial biotechnology (IB) uses biological and biochemical processes in industrial production and is often regarded as an emerging key technology revolutionizing the production of many products while protecting resources and the environment and fostering economic development. This contribution describes the background and sketches the content of the volume 'Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment of Industrial Biotechnology' in the Springer series 'Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology'. The field of IB is introduced from different perspectives (milestones in IB history, economics of b...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 31, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fröhling M, Hiete M Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment in Industrial Biotechnology: A Review of Current Approaches and Future Needs.
e M Abstract The development and implementation of industrial biotechnology (IB) is associated with high expectations for reductions of environmental impacts and risks, particularly in terms of climate change and fossil resource depletion, positive socioeconomic effects, hopes for new competitive products and processes, and development in rural areas. However, not all products and processes are really advantageous with regard to sustainability criteria, and not all are economically successful and accepted by stakeholders. Sustainability and life cycle assessment can play an important role to assess IB products and...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fröhling M, Hiete M Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Aptamer-Modified Nanoparticles in Medical Applications.
Abstract Since aptamers have been selected against a broad range of target structures of medical interest and nanoparticles are available with diverse properties, aptamer-modified nanoparticles can be used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. While the aptamer is responsible for specificity and affinity of the conjugate, the nanoparticles' function varies from signal generation in diagnostic approaches to drug loading in drug delivery systems. Within this chapter different medical applications of aptamer-modified nanoparticles will be summarized and underlying principles will be described. PMID...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 11, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Eilers A, Witt S, Walter J Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Glycan Array Technology.
Abstract Glycan (or carbohydrate) arrays have become an essential tool in glycomics, providing fast and high-throughput data on protein-carbohydrate interactions with small amounts of carbohydrate ligands. The general concepts of glycan arrays have been adopted from other microarray technologies such as those used for nucleic acid and proteins. However, carbohydrates have presented their own challenges, in particular in terms of access to glycan probes, linker attachment chemistries and analysis, which will be reviewed in this chapter. As more and more glycan probes have become available through chemical and enzym...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - January 7, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martinez JER, Thomas B, Flitsch SL Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Industrial Challenges of Recombinant Proteins.
Abstract The use of recombinant DNA methods to produce large quantities of protein for therapeutic uses has revolutionized medicine. Industrial challenges for manufacture of biotherapeutic proteins are related to the characteristics of these proteins and the increasing quantities required to address needs of patients, worldwide. A brief overview of therapies in which proteins are employed helps to frame some of the challenges facing their industrial production. The number of molecules and their applications have significantly expanded over the last 15-20 years, together with the quantities used to address spe...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - December 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rudge SR, Ladisch MR Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Aptamers in Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging Applications.
Abstract The origin of the term diagnostic comes from the Greek word gnosis, meaning "to know." In medicine, a diagnostic can predict the pathology risk, disease status, treatment, and prognosis, even following therapy. An early and correct diagnosis is necessary for an efficient treatment. Moreover, it is possible to predict if and why a therapy will be successful or fail, enabling the timely application of alternative therapeutic strategies. Available diagnostics are due to the advances in biotechnology; however, more sensitive, low-cost, and noninvasive methodologies are still a challenge. Knowledge a...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - December 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Calzada V Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Addressing the Manufacturing Challenges of Cell-Based Therapies.
Abstract Exciting developments in the cell therapy field over the last decades have led to an increasing number of clinical trials and the first cell products receiving marketing authorization. In spite of substantial progress in the field, manufacturing of cell-based therapies presents multiple challenges that need to be addressed in order to assure the development of safe, efficacious, and cost-effective cell therapies.The manufacturing process of cell-based therapies generally requires tissue collection, cell isolation, culture and expansion (upstream processing), cell harvest, separation and purification (down...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - December 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: de Almeida Fuzeta M, de Matos Branco AD, Fernandes-Platzgummer A, da Silva CL, Cabral JMS Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Insights on the Formulation of Recombinant Proteins.
ra JN Abstract Recombinant proteins are large and complex molecules, whose therapeutic activity highly depends on their structure. Formulation of biopharmaceuticals aims at stabilizing protein conformation, promoting its efficacy, and preventing safety concerns, such as immunogenicity. Currently, the rational design of formulations is possible due to the availability of several techniques for molecule characterization and an array of both well-known and new excipients. Also, high-throughput technologies and Quality by Design approaches are trending and have been contributing to the advancement of the field. Still,...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - December 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ribeiro R, Abreu TR, Silva AC, Gonçalves J, Moreira JN Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Assessing Land Use and Biodiversity Impacts of Industrial Biotechnology.
Abstract One of the many promises of biotechnology is that it allows societies to move away from a fossil-based industry toward a bio-based industry, with positive implications for anthropogenic climate change and resource dependency. The provision of biomass from agriculture or forestry is, however, linked to specific environmental implications that cannot be disregarded in an informed discussion about the role of biotechnology in the twenty-first century. In this chapter, we discuss landuse-related effects of biomass provision such as landscape homogenization, eutrophication, erosion, biodiversity, and others. W...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - December 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lindner JP, Beck T, Bos U, Albrecht S Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Antibody Engineering and Selection Strategies.
Abstract Antibody drugs became an increasingly important element of the therapeutic landscape. Their accomplishment has been driven by many unique properties, in particular by their very high specificity and selectivity, in contrast to the off-target liabilities of small molecules (SMs). Antibodies can bring additional functionality to the table with their ability to interact with the immune system, and this can be further manipulated with advances in antibody engineering.The expansion of strategies related to discovery technologies of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (phage display, yeast display, ribosome display, b...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - November 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ministro J, Manuel AM, Goncalves J Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: Applications and Challenges for Regenerative Medicine and Disease Modeling.
Abstract In recent years, human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells have started to emerge as a potential tool with application in fields such as regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug screening. In particular, the ability to differentiate human-induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into different cell types and to mimic structures and functions of a specific target organ, resourcing to organoid technology, has introduced novel model systems for disease recapitulation while offering a powerful tool to provide a faster and reproducible approach in the process of drug discovery. All these technologies are expect...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - November 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Miranda CC, Fernandes TG, Diogo MM, Cabral JMS Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Hormones, Blood Products, and Therapeutic Enzymes.
Abstract Therapeutic uses of biological medicines are diverse and include active substances from different classes. This chapter provides an overview on the clinical applications of biological medicines containing hormones, blood products, and therapeutic enzymes. Currently, therapeutic hormones have 78 approved medicines, including insulin and analogs, glucagon and analogs, growth hormone, gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin), thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone. In contrast, recombinant blood products, and particularly blood factors,...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - September 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Silva AC, Costa CP, Almeida H, Moreira JN, Sousa Lobo JM Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Gene Therapy.
guado I, Battaglia LS, Solinís MÁ Abstract Gene therapy medicinal products (GTMPs) are one of the most promising biopharmaceuticals, which are beginning to show encouraging results. The broad clinical research activity has been addressed mainly to cancer, primarily to those cancers that do not respond well to conventional treatment. GTMPs to treat rare disorders caused by single-gene mutations have also made important advancements toward market availability, with eye and hematopoietic system diseases as the main applications.Nucleic acid-marketed products are based on both in vivo and ex vivo strateg...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Del Pozo-Rodríguez A, Rodríguez-Gascón A, Rodríguez-Castejón J, Vicente-Pascual M, Gómez-Aguado I, Battaglia LS, Solinís MÁ Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Aptamer-Based Affinity Chromatography for Protein Extraction and Purification.
Abstract Aptamers are oligonucleotide molecules able to recognize very specifically proteins. Among the possible applications, aptamers have been used for affinity chromatography with effective results and advantages over most advanced protein separation technologies. This chapter first discusses the context of the affinity chromatography with aptamer ligands. With the adaptation of SELEX, the chemical modifications of aptamers to comply with the covalent coupling and the separation process are then extensively presented. A focus is then made about the most important applications for protein separation with real-l...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Perret G, Boschetti E Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

The Impact of Pharmacogenomics in Personalized Medicine.
Abstract Recent advances in Pharmacogenomics have made it possible to understand the reasons behind the different response of a drug. Discovery of genetic variants and its association with the varying response of drug provide the basis for recommending a drug and its dose to an individual patient. Genetic makeup-based prescription, design, and implementation of therapy not only improve the outcome of treatments but also reduce the risk of toxicity and other adverse effects. A better understanding of individual variations and their effect on drug response, metabolism excretion, and toxicity will replace the trial-a...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Singh DB Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Bioprinting Technologies in Tissue Engineering.
Abstract Bioprinting technology is a strong tool in producing living functional tissues and organs from cells, biomaterial-based bioinks, and growth factors in computer-controlled platform. The aim of this chapter is to present recent progresses in bioprinting of nerve, skin, cardiac, bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle, and other soft tissues and highlight the challenges in these applications. Various composite bioinks with bioactive ceramic-based scaffolds having patient-specific design and controlled micro-architectures were used at clinical and preclinical applications successfully for regeneration of bone. In ne...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yilmaz B, Tahmasebifar A, Baran ET Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Advances in Vaccines.
Abstract Vaccines represent one of the most important advances in science and medicine, helping people around the world in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. However, there are still gaps in vaccination programs in many countries. Out of 11.2 million children born in EU region, more than 500,000 infants did not receive the complete three-dose series of diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine before the first birthday. Data shows that there were more than 30,000 measles cases in the European region in recent years, and measles cases are rising in the USA. There are about 20 million children in the wor...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mao HH, Chao S Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Environmental Aspects of Biotechnology.
Abstract A key motivation behind the development and adoption of industrial biotechnology is the reduction of negative environmental impacts. However, accurately assessing these impacts remains a formidable task. Environmental impacts of industrial biotechnology may be significant across a number of categories that include, but may not be limited to, nonrenewable resource depletion, water withdrawals and consumption, climate change, and natural land transformation/occupation. In this chapter, we highlight some key environmental issues across two broad areas: (a) processes that use biobased feedstocks and (b) indus...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Venkatesh A, Posen ID, MacLean HL, Chu PL, Griffin WM, Saville BA Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Cytokines and Growth Factors.
Abstract Several cytokines have been used to treat autoimmune diseases, viral infections, and cancer and to regenerate the skin. In particular, interferons (INFs) have been used to treat cancer, hepatitis B and C, and multiple sclerosis, while interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) have been used in the management of different types of cancer. Concerning the hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs), epoetin has been used for anemia, whereas the colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) have been used for neutropenia. Other growth factors have been extensively explored, although most still need to demonstrate in v...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Silva AC, Lobo JMS Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biophysical Characterization of Aptamer-Target Interactions.
Abstract Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acid molecules forming well-defined 3D structures. Aptamers typically bind to their ligands with high affinity and specificity. They are capable of interacting with various kinds of ligands: ions, small molecules, peptides, proteins, viruses, bacteria, and even cells. Therefore, aptamers are in widespread use as sensor molecules or as targeting agents in diagnostics and pharmaceutics. As a prerequisite for their use in these economic high-value areas, aptamers must be studied in detail with respect to different biophysical characteristics. Of central importance are bas...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Plach M, Schubert T Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Alkaline Active Hemicellulases.
Abstract Xylan and mannan are the two most abundant hemicelluloses, and enzymes that modify these polysaccharides are prominent hemicellulases with immense biotechnological importance. Among these enzymes, xylanases and mannanases which play the vital role in the hydrolysis of xylan and mannan, respectively, attracted a great deal of interest. These hemicellulases have got applications in food, feed, bioethanol, pulp and paper, chemical, and beverage producing industries as well as in biorefineries and environmental biotechnology. The great majority of the enzymes used in these applications are optimally active in...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mamo G Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Assessing Industrial Biotechnology Products with LCA and Eco-Efficiency.
Abstract Biotechnology is applied in many industrial areas and uses microorganisms, enzymes, or precursors replacing chemicals to produce goods, including chemicals, plastics, food, agricultural and pharmaceutical products, and energy carriers from renewable raw materials and increasingly also from waste from agriculture and forestry (BIOPRO Baden-Württemberg GmbH, Facts and Figures. Biotechnologie.de. https://www.biooekonomie-bw.de/en/articles/dossiers/industrial-biotechnology-biological-resources-for-industrial-processes/ , 2013). In comparison with conventional processes, industrial biotechnology processes...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - August 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Saling P Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Defining Target Product Profiles (TPPs) for Aptamer-Based Diagnostics.
Abstract Defining target product profiles (TPPs) for aptamer-based diagnostics is crucial to the success or failure of aptamer businesses or products. A well-conceived TPP will place the aptamer in an assay for a target against which antibodies are ill-suited or have difficulty detecting the analyte, such as some highly related proteins or poorly immunogenic small molecule haptens. Strong TPPs can also take advantage of the unique nucleic acid nature of aptamers, to produce assays with longer shelf life or special chemical properties and ability to be modified versus protein-based antibodies. The following chapter...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kaur H, Chaterjee B, Bruno JG, Sharma TK Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Societal and Ethical Issues in Industrial Biotechnology.
Abstract In this chapter we aim to give an overview of the main societal and ethical issues that are currently voiced around industrial biotechnology. We will illustrate this with some recent cases, such as the development of synthetic artemisinin, synthetic vanillin and vegetable oil produced by engineered algae. We show that current societal and ethical issues in industrial biotechnology centre on the following five themes: sustainability, naturalness, innovation trajectories, risk management and economic justice. In each of these themes, clashing public opinions fuel the public debate on the acceptability of ne...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - July 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Asveld L, Osseweijer P, Posada JA Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Challenges and Adaptations of Life in Alkaline Habitats.
Abstract A vast array of organisms is known thriving in high pH environments. The biotechnological, medical, and environmental importance of this remarkable group of organisms has attracted a great deal of interest among researchers and industrialists. One of the most intriguing phenomena of alkaliphiles that engrossed researchers' attention is their adaptation to high pH and ability to thrive in the "extreme" condition which is often lethal to other organisms. Studies made in this line revealed that alkaliphiles deployed a range of adaptive strategies to overcome the various challenges of life in high p...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - July 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mamo G Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metabolites Produced by Alkaliphiles with Potential Biotechnological Applications.
Abstract Alkaliphiles are a diverse group of relatively less known microorganisms living in alkaline environments. To thrive in alkaline environments, alkaliphiles require special adaptations. This adaptation may have evolved metabolites which can be useful for biotechnological processes or other applications. In fact, certain metabolites are found unique to alkaliphiles or are effectively produced by alkaliphiles. This probably aroused the interest in metabolites of alkaliphiles. During recent years, many alkaliphilic microbes have been isolated, especially in countries having alkaline environments, like soda lak...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - June 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Khalikova E, Somersalo S, Korpela T Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Social Life Cycle Assessment for Industrial Biotechnology.
Abstract This chapter focuses on social assessment methods (known as SLCA) applied to industrial biotechnology (IB), which are part of the "life cycle" approach. IB is a heading for a set of different technologies. The first section presents a review of the literature to provide an analysis of the results and limitations of IB SLCA studies, with the main focus on the biofuel industries. Often conducted via a social performance analysis based on CSR (corporate social responsibility) criteria, most studies provide little new information. Nevertheless, there are some studies on the change caused by the emer...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - June 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Macombe C Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Alkaliphilic Enzymes and Their Application in Novel Leather Processing Technology for Next-Generation Tanneries.
Abstract Leather manufacturing involves conversion of raw skin and hides into leather (stable material) through series of mechanical and chemical operations. The leather industry has attracted public outcry due to severe environmental degradation, pollution and health and safety risks. Currently the industry faces serious sustainability challenge due to extensive use of toxic chemicals and generation of hazardous waste. This chapter describes the polluting chemicals consumed in different stages of conventional leather processing and the nature of waste generated. In order to overcome the hazards caused by toxic ch...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wanyonyi WC, Mulaa FJ Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Alkaliphiles: The Emerging Biological Tools Enhancing Concrete Durability.
Abstract Concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials ever used. Despite it is a very important and common construction material, concrete is very sensitive to crack formation and requires repair. A variety of chemical-based techniques and materials have been developed to repair concrete cracks. Although the use of these chemical-based repair systems are the best commercially available choices, there have also been concerns related to their use. These repair agents suffer from inefficiency and unsustainability. Most of the products are expensive and susceptible to degradation, exhibit poor bonding ...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - May 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mamo G, Mattiasson B Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Starch-Modifying Enzymes.
Abstract Starch is a carbohydrate polymer found abundantly on earth. It is synthesized in plants as a short-term storage compound for respiration in the leaves and for long-term storage in the tubers, seeds and roots of plants. A wide variety of enzymes modify or convert starch into various products. The classes of enzymes that act on starch include endoamylases, exoamylases, debranching enzymes and transferases. Starch-modifying enzymes of microbial origin are utilized in a wide variety of industrial applications. Alkaline-active amylases are diverse in terms of optimum reaction conditions, substrate and product ...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hashim SO Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Stimulating Production of Pigment-Type Secondary Metabolites from Soft Rotting Wood Decay Fungi ("Spalting" Fungi).
Stimulating Production of Pigment-Type Secondary Metabolites from Soft Rotting Wood Decay Fungi ("Spalting" Fungi). Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2019 Mar 20;: Authors: Van Court RC, Robinson SC Abstract A small group of soft rotting wood decay fungi produce extracellular pigments as secondary metabolites in response to stress and as a means of resource capture. These fungi are collectively known as "spalting fungi" and have been used in wood art for centuries. The pigments produced by these fungi are finding increasing usage in industrial dye applications and green energy but remain...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Van Court RC, Robinson SC Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Aptazymes: Expanding the Specificity of Natural Catalytic Nucleic Acids by Application of In Vitro Selected Oligonucleotides.
Abstract Aptazymes are synthetic molecules composed of an aptamer domain and a catalytic active nucleic acid unit, which may be a ribozyme or a DNAzyme. In these constructs the aptamer domain serves as a molecular switch that can regulate the catalytic activity of the ribozyme or DNAzyme subunit. This regulation is triggered by binding of the aptamers target molecule, which causes significant structural changes in the aptamer and thus in the entire aptazyme. Therefore, aptazymes function similar to allosteric enzymes, whose catalytic activity is regulated by binding of ligands (effectors) to allosteric sites due t...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Walter JG, Stahl F Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Aroma Profile Analyses of Filamentous Fungi Cultivated on Solid Substrates.
l M Abstract Filamentous fungi have been used since centuries in the production of food by means of solid substrate fermentation (SSF). The most applied SSF involving fungi is the cultivation of mushrooms, e.g., on tree stumps or sawdust, for human consumption. However, filamentous fungi are also key players during manufacturing of several processed foods, like mold cheese, tempeh, soy sauce, and sake. In addition to their nutritive values, these foods are widely consumed due to their pleasant flavors. Based on the potentials of filamentous fungi to grow on solid substrates and to produce valuable aroma compounds,...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Orban A, Fraatz MA, Rühl M Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Design and Operation of a Pilot-Scale Packed-Bed Bioreactor for the Production of Enzymes by Solid-State Fermentation.
Abstract In this review, we describe our experience in building a pilot-scale packed-bed solid-state fermentation (SSF) bioreactor, with provision for intermittent mixing, and the use of this bioreactor to produce pectinases and lipases by filamentous fungi. We show that, at pilot scale, special attention must be given to several aspects that are not usually problematic when one works with laboratory-scale SSF bioreactors. For example, it can be a challenge to produce large amounts of inoculum if the fungus does not sporulate well. Likewise, at larger scales, the air preparation system needs as much attention as t...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mitchell DA, Pitol LO, Biz A, Finkler ATJ, de Lima Luz LF, Krieger N Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Cultivation of Medicinal Mushroom Biomass by Solid-State Bioprocessing in Bioreactors.
Abstract Basidiomycetes of various species and their wide range of pharmaceutically interesting products in the last decades represent one of the most attractive groups of natural products in Asia and North America. Production of fungal fruit bodies using farming technology is hardly covering the market. Comprehensive solid-state technologies and bioreactors are the most promising part for fast and large amount of cultivation of medicinal fungi biomass and its pharmaceutically active products. Wood, agriculture, and food industry wastes represent the main substrates that are in this process delignified and enriche...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - March 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Berovic M Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion for Waste Management and Biogas Production.
Abstract Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) is commonly used to treat feedstocks with high solid content such as municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic biomass. Compared to liquid state anaerobic digestion (LS-AD), SS-AD has multiple advantages including high organic loading, minimal digestate generated, and low energy requirement for heating. However, the main disadvantages limiting the efficiency of SS-AD are long solid retention time, incomplete mixing, and an accumulation of inhibitors. For a successful and efficient SS-AD, it is important to control operation parameters such as nutrient levels, C/N ra...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhou H, Wen Z Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Genomics of Alkaliphiles.
Abstract Alkalinicity presents a challenge for life due to a "reversed" proton gradient that is unfavourable to many bioenergetic processes across the membranes of microorganisms. Despite this, many bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, collectively termed alkaliphiles, are adapted to life in alkaline ecosystems and are of great scientific and biotechnological interest due to their niche specialization and ability to produce highly stable enzymes. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have propelled not only the genomic characterization of many alkaliphilic microorganisms that have been isolat...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lebre PH, Cowan DA Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Isolation and Cultivation of Alkaliphiles.
Abstract Alkaliphilic microorganisms are ubiquitous and inhabit various econiches on Earth. Alkaline environments suitable for alkaliphilic microbial communities may be created by certain geological processes or human activities. Moreover, a significant contribution to the emergence of alkaline conditions may be due to the activity of neutralophilic microorganisms through certain reactions, which explains the widespread distribution of alkaliphiles. Alkaliphilic microorganisms are part of extremophiles and become interesting and useful in environmental and industrial microbiology. With increasing knowledge of alka...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kevbrin VV Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

It Is the Mix that Matters: Substrate-Specific Enzyme Production from Filamentous Fungi and Bacteria Through Solid-State Fermentation.
Abstract Fungi have a diverse spectrum of extracellular enzymes. In nature, extracellular enzymes primarily serve to procure nutrients for the survival and growth of the fungi. Complex polymers such as lignocellulose and starch as well as proteins and fats are broken down into their basic building blocks by extracellular enzymes such as amylases, proteases, lipases, xylanases, laccases, and many more.The abilities of these enzymes are made use of in diverse areas of industry, including food technology, textiles, and pharmaceuticals, and they have become indispensable for today's technology. Enzyme production is us...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Steudler S, Werner A, Walther T Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Application Potentials of Geobiotechnology in Mining, Mineral Processing, and Metal Recycling.
Abstract This chapter highlights the huge and manifold possibilities of reactions which result from the interactions between microorganisms and the geosphere and which are used for mining, mineral processing, and metal recycling. Besides the introduction (Sect. 1) the contribution is divided into five different sections describing the mobilization (Sect. 2) and immobilization (Sect. 3) of valuable substances, the processes of biosorption and bioaccumulation (Sect. 4), as well as transformation of metals into metal organic compounds (Sect. 5). A special topic (Sect. 6) addresses the application of CO2 as an importa...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Glombitza F, Kermer R, Reichel S Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Fermented Solids and Their Application in the Production of Organic Compounds of Biotechnological Interest.
Abstract We review the application of dry fermented solids (DFS) containing naturally immobilized enzymes as catalysts in synthesis and in hydrolysis reactions. The most studied application is the use of DFS containing lipases in the synthesis of biodiesel esters, by transesterification of oils or by esterification of fatty acids with short-chain alcohols in solvent-free reaction media. Other applications of DFS that have been studied include the use of DFS containing pectinases to liberate D-galacturonic acid from pectin and the production of high-value compounds by DFS containing lipases, such as the synthesis o...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Krieger N, Dias GS, Alnoch RC, Mitchell DA Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research

Environmental Concerns Regarding Ionic Liquids in Biotechnological Applications.
Abstract Ionic liquids provide challenges and opportunities for sustainable industrial developments. However, the toxic impacts of ionic liquids reported by many researchers cannot be overlooked. Therefore, in this chapter, we introduce the antimicrobial activities of ionic liquids in bioprocesses and, in greater detail, we discuss their environmental impacts, including the toxicity, biodegradability, bioaccumulation, and mobility of ionic liquids. We believe that this presented information will support colleagues engaged in ionic liquid-related fields. Graphical Abstract. PMID: 30710154 [PubMed - as supplied...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - February 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cho CW, Song MH, Pham TPT, Yun YS Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research