Another look at the core concepts of physiology: revisions and resources.
Abstract In 2011, we published a description of 15 core concepts of physiology, and in 2017 we described how core concepts could be used to teach physiology. On the basis of publications and conference presentations, it is clear that the core concepts, conceptual frameworks, and the homeostasis concept inventory have been used by faculty in many ways to improve and assess student learning and align instruction and programs. A growing number of colleagues focus their teaching on physiology core concepts, and some core concepts have been used as explicit themes or organizing principles in physiology or anatomy and p...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - November 25, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Michael J, McFarland J Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

The effectiveness of formative assessment in pathophysiology education from students' perspective: a questionnaire study.
Abstract Current interdisciplinary medical training calls for reforms and innovations in the assessment of pathophysiology education. Formative assessment is used to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can improve both learning and teaching. Beginning in 2016, we implemented a formative assessment composed of case-based multiple-choice questions (MCQs) for all students in all majors. In 2017, case study questions began to be employed in the formative assessment, and student-set, case-based questions were further introduced. Aiming to gather the students' suggestions and feedback on the mixed-...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - November 10, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Cong X, Zhang Y, Xu H, Liu LM, Zheng M, Xiang RL, Wang JY, Jia S, Cai JY, Liu C, Wu LL Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Lessons learned while creating an effective emergency remote learning environment for students during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic is forcing many institutions to consider remote, virtual instruction for the safety of employees and students. Based upon the authors' experiences in transforming preclerkship medical science courses to virtual platforms, this paper shares tips for faculty rapidly establishing remote medical science instruction. With planning and support, faculty can create engaging, high-quality educational experiences for learners. PMID: 33141599 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - November 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Vollbrecht PJ, Porter-Stransky KA, Lackey-Cornelison WL Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

IUPS Physiology Education Workshop series in India: organizational mechanics, outcomes, and lessons.
Abstract Active learning promotes the capacity of problem solving and decision making among learners. Teachers who apply instructional processes toward active participation of learners help their students develop higher order thinking skills. Due to the recent paradigm shift toward adopting competency-based curricula in the education of healthcare professionals in India, there is an emergent need for physiology instructors to be trained in active-learning methodologies and to acquire abilities to promote these curriculum changes. To address these issues, a series of International Union of Physiological Sciences (I...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - October 31, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Chandran DS, Muthukrishnan SP, Barman SM, Peltonen LM, Ghosh S, Sharma R, Bhattacharjee M, Rathore BB, Carroll RG, Sengupta J, Chan JYH, Ghosh D Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Where do we go from here: a forward-thinking vision for physiology undergraduate education.
PMID: 33079560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - October 21, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Aguilar-Roca N, Anderson LC, Crecelius AR, French MB, Johnson KMS, McFarland JL, Rogers J, Stanescu CI, Wehrwein EA Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Student assessment of online tools to foster engagement during the COVID-19 quarantine.
es PB Abstract As a result of the installation of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) pandemic, online education has become an important teaching alternative, and new challenges about how to teach were found. Here we report our experience in offering an online course to review Human Physiology. We proposed synchronous and asynchronous activities using different online tools to address topics considered key to understanding the different systems of human physiology. The students considered important the use of this type of methodology, which uses different online tools to help understand the Human Physiology cont...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - October 21, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lima KR, das Neves BS, Ramires CC, Dos Santos Soares M, Martini VÁ, Lopes LF, Mello-Carpes PB Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

The 2019 P-MIG Student Survey report and capturing the undergraduate perspective of physiology programming.
Abstract The aim of the 2019 Student Survey was to inform the Physiology Majors Interest Group (P-MIG) of characteristics of undergraduates enrolled in physiology courses or degree programs from across the United States, to be used as one input source for the development of program-level guidelines. There were 1,389 participants from seven universities who completed the 2019 P-MIG Student Survey. Thirty-seven percent reported enrollment in a physiology/human physiology major; allied health-related programs were the second most common (24%). Sixty-one percent of respondents reported attending a community college, t...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - October 21, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rogers J, McFarland JL, Stanescu CI, Crosswhite PL, Crecelius AR Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Start with the end in mind: using student career aspirations and employment data to inform curriculum design for physiology undergraduate degree programs.
PMID: 33079563 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - October 21, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Steele KJ, VanRyn VS, Stanescu CI, Rogers J, Wehrwein EA Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Tackling acid-base disorders, one Twitter poll at a time.
We describe the use of Twitter, an online microblogging platform, to augment education in acid-base disturbances by using polls in which the user is shown laboratory values and then asked to select the most likely etiology of the disorder. The answer and a brief explanation are then shared in a subsequent tweet. Both polling questions and answers are shared from the account for the online, mobile-optimized, nephrology teaching tool NephSIM (https://www.nephsim.com/). An anonymous survey was administered to assess attitudes toward these polls. Using Twitter as an approach to enhance teaching of acid-base disturbances was bo...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - October 21, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rein JL, Sparks MA, Hilburg R, Farouk SS Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Incorporating higher order thinking and deep learning in a large, lecture-based human physiology course: can we do it?
Abstract Large classes taught with didactic lectures and assessed with multiple-choice tests are commonly reported to promote lower order (LO) thinking and a surface approach (SA) to learning. Using a case study design, we hypothesized that incorporating instructional scaffolding of core physiology principles and assessing students exclusively with long-answer written tests would encourage higher order (HO) thinking and promote a deep approach (DA) to learning in a two-course physiology sequence (Phys I and II), despite their large size. Test questions were categorized as LO or HO according to the Blooming Biology...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - October 21, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hobbins JO, Murrant CL, Snook LA, Tishinsky JM, Ritchie KL Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

PhysioArt: a teaching tool to motivate students to learn physiology.
z JC Abstract Learning physiology is challenging for students. The nature of the discipline, which includes many complex mechanisms, makes the subject complicated. Furthermore, the length of the textbooks and the usual multiple-choice tests, which prioritize memorizing instead of understanding, tend to discourage the students. Therefore, different pedagogical strategies have been adopted to motivate and facilitate the learning of physiology. In this sense, many pedagogical strategies have been using art as a tool to motivate and induce students to self-learn. Besides, art as a pedagogical tool has also been shown ...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Flôr AFL, Fernandes Costa F, Lima Garcia JM, Braga VA, Cruz JC Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Smartphone-assisted experimentation as a didactic strategy to maintain practical lessons in remote education: alternatives for physiology education during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract Online and distance education may be dismissed by educators who argue that these methods are not equivalent to traditional face-to-face education due to the lack of laboratory classes. However, smartphone-assisted experimentation is an innovative and powerful didactic tool that helps educators in the teaching process of physiology, particularly in situations with a lack of financial support for purchasing laboratory equipment, or lack of support for homework and assignments, distance learning courses, and emergency remote education, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we present the concept o...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lellis-Santos C, Abdulkader F Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Redesign and process of reforming an existing undergraduate Nutritional Sciences program.
Abstract Due to current and upcoming needs in the discipline and accreditation, the Nutritional Sciences faculty at a major university reformed their curriculum using backward design. As part of this process, they developed new learning outcomes that aligned to the institutional learning outcomes and mapped these new outcomes across the major's required courses. Also, they reorganized the existing major's single focus on biomedical nutrition into an academic program with a core curriculum and three concentrations (biomedical and molecular nutrition, global health and nutrition, and public health nutrition). The fa...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Becker TB, Lucas J, Li W, Fenton JI Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Zooming past the coronavirus lockdown: online spirometry practical demonstration with student involvement in analysis by remote control.
Abstract This paper describes the process involved in conducting an online spirometry practical through Zoom. The teacher demonstrated the practical from the medical school, and the students observed the procedure from the comfort of their own homes. Students were able to analyze the graphs captured in the teacher's laptop by remotely controlling the teacher's laptop. This method may be useful for places where face-to-face classes are suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic. PMID: 32880483 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bhaskar A, Ng AKM, Patil NG, Fok M Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Opportunistic physiology: inserting physiology and pathophysiology content into virtually delivered clinical rotations.
We describe our experience in building a 2-wk course that consisted of online small groups during week 1 and panels and cases during week 2. The physiology content involved faculty-vetted resources, along with both discrete and open-ended focus questions for each learning objective. The course also included mechanical ventilation, and the physiologist utilized discussion points and developed a formative quiz to emphasize the physiology correlates, in addition to the very clinical aspects of mechanical ventilation. There were pathophysiology opportunities with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflamm...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wilson TE, Mulye M, Akbar S Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Ten maxims for creating a safe learning environment.
Abstract To foster a milieu in which student learning can be optimum, teachers need to be aware of the attributes of a safe learning environment. This is the space created in the students' minds to seamlessly promote learning. The 10 maxims, presented in this paper, are the cornerstones, nay, the capstones, for making this happen. PMID: 32880485 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Prashanti E, Ramnarayan K Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Undergraduates from underrepresented groups gain research skills and career aspirations through summer research fellowship.
Abstract Undergraduate research experiences (UREs) have proven to be one of the most valuable approaches to increasing the number of underrepresented students earning degrees in STEM fields. However, there are many questions about how these impacts occur. Improving grades, experiencing laboratory work, and working with research staff are important components, but developing a "science identity" is integral to this process. In this qualitative study, interviews with 25 past summer research fellows who are members of groups underrepresented in STEM (underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, f...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bruthers CB, Matyas ML Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

The Wright table of the cardiac cycle: a stand-alone supplement to the Wiggers diagram.
Abstract The Wright table is introduced as a novel tool for teaching and learning the cardiac cycle. It supplements the nearly 100-yr-old Wiggers diagram, which is information rich but difficult for many students to learn. The Wright table offers a compact presentation of information, viewable both in terms of how 1) each compartment's pressures and flows change over time; and 2) the heart works as a pump, first filling and then emptying the ventricles, thereby moving blood from low-pressure venous to high-pressure arterial compartments. This new four-by-four display of interrelated aspects of cardiac cycle events...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wright BE, Watson GL, Selfridge NJ Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

From metabolism and behavior to respiratory physiology: an educational and research perspective.
Abstract Throughout my academic career, I have been extremely fortunate to have as mentors, teachers, and advisors, remarkable individuals who helped me develop into a competent researcher and passionate teacher. This essay describes a period in my career as a graduate student that was challenging, but also rewarding. I was fortunate to have contact with world-class researchers and teachers, including Drs. Clyde Herried, Leon Fahri, Hermann Rahn, Donald Riggs, Verner Noell, and Barbara Howell. In addition, I attended excellent University of Buffalo Department of Physiology seminars presented by world-renown scient...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Schlenker EH Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

A preference for peers over faculty: implementation and evaluation of medical student-led physiology exam review tutorials.
PMID: 32880489 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Frisch EH, Bhatter P, Grimaud LW, Tiourin E, Youm JH, Greenberg ML Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Impact of readiness assurance process and faculty feedback on individual application exercises: a model for continuous assessment in physiology.
In conclusion, the administration of iRAT first followed by gRAT and immediate feedback from faculty seem to be beneficial to prepare students to tackle application-based exercises. PMID: 32880490 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Nayak KR, Punja D, Suryavanshi C Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Using exam reflections to augment learning.
Abstract While teaching, learning, and assessment should undoubtedly encompass more than just focusing on student exam scores, exams are a pervasive assessment tool at many academic institutions. This paper describes a newly developed exam reflection assignment, which is a tool to assist students in successful exam experiences throughout the course. The exam reflection is described and compared and contrasted to other types of exam reflections. PMID: 32795120 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - August 18, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Gorres-Martens BK Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Implementation of an authentic learning exercise in a postgraduate physiology classroom setting.
PMID: 32795121 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - August 18, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Essop MF Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Teaching lifestyle medicine competencies in undergraduate medical education: active collaborative intervention for students at multiple locations.
Abstract The aims of this study are to 1) design feasible active collaborative educational approaches to teach and assess three of the newly described lifestyle medicine (LM) competencies to students at multiple locations; and 2) determine whether a mixed, flexible instructional delivery approach impacts students' learning and perception of confidence in LM. The educational interventions were part of the undergraduate clinical medical education curriculum and have two parts: 1) an asynchronous session [online self-learning module (SLM)], and 2) a synchronous session using case-based collaborative learning delivere...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - August 18, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Pasarica M, Kay D Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

From proposal to poster: course-based undergraduate research experience in a physiology laboratory course.
Abstract The laboratory course is an excellent venue to apply content, practice inquiry, improve critical thinking, practice key clinical skills, and work with data. The use of inquiry-based course projects allows for students to propose open ended questions, form a hypothesis, design an experiment, collect data, analyze data, draw conclusion, and present their findings. This comprehensive experience is ideal for a capstone (senior level) laboratory course that is the culmination of 4 yr of study in the degree. At Michigan State University, the capstone laboratory has incorporated a formal course-based research ex...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - August 18, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rennhack JP, VanRyn VS, Poteracki JM, Wehrwein EA Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Selected omissions and capstone presentations: a new approach to student-centered integrative physiology education.
Abstract Here, we describe a pedagogical approach that combines didactics with active learning to facilitate integration across physiological systems in a team-taught, graduate-level physiology course. We covered the major physiological systems, with each system preceded by an overview of its evolution/ontogeny to provide a broader perspective. Lectures provided a framework for integration by giving examples of how each system interacted with systems that preceded and followed. In lieu of a final exam, the course culminated in capstone presentations by small groups to promote student-centered learning of integrati...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - August 18, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Curtis KS, Benjamin B, Curtis JT, Finn W, Rouch AJ Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Structured oral examination as an effective assessment tool in lab-based physiology learning sessions.
Abstract Traditional oral examination (TOE) is criticized for the shortage of objectivity, standardization, and reliability. These perceived limitations can be mitigated by the introduction of structured oral examination (SOE). There is little evidence of the implementation of SOE in physiology laboratory courses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SOE in laboratory-based learning sessions. Second-year medical students (n = 114) attended a 16-wk physiology laboratory course. They were initially assessed by TOE in the middle of the academic term. The students' perspectives on this assessment...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - August 18, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wang L, Khalaf AT, Lei D, Gale M, Li J, Jiang P, Du J, Yinayeti X, Abudureheman M, Wei Y Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Utilizing serious games for physiology and anatomy learning and revision.
PMID: 32795126 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - August 18, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Moro C, Phelps C, Stromberga Z Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Revisiting the role of concept mapping in teaching and learning pathophysiology for medical students.
Abstract Concept mapping methodology is a way of representing knowledge described as a useful tool in medical education. It was introduced in the pathophysiology curricular unit at NOVA Medical School in 2002, within an ongoing experience of problem-based learning. Our goal is to present a comparison between the students' opinions and performances in two academic years, 2017-18 and 2018-19, to evaluate the effects of pedagogical changes in the concept mapping methodology, applied in the last year, which is also described in detail. Our convenience samples were composed by 224 students in 2017-2018 and by 216 stude...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - August 18, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Fonseca M, Oliveira B, Carreiro-Martins P, Neuparth N, Rendas A Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Designing and developing core physiology learning outcomes for pre-registration nursing education curriculum.
This study aimed to inform the construction of discipline-specific physiology learning outcomes to clarify relevant physiological topics required in pre-registration nursing. Initially, 360 learning outcomes were identified from various sources. Using a modified Delphi approach, an expert panel from the Bioscience in Nurse Education group reviewed and modified the list to 195 proposed outcomes. These were circulated to universities in the UK who teach nursing (n = 65). Outcomes that had 80% consensus were automatically included in the next round, with others recommended with modification (response rate 22%). The panel revi...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - August 18, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wood AF, Chandler C, Connolly S, Finn G, Redmond C, Jolly J, Powell AD, Davies C, Grant A Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Lighting up the NMJ: developing an LED-based model of the neuromuscular junction for the undergraduate classroom.
We describe an effort to create a more accurate, dynamic representation of the NMJ to enhance instruction in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. We sought to create a unique and memorable moving diagram that combines elements of static images with moving parts. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic model, students were asked about their understanding of the NMJ before and after exposure to the model. In addition, students were asked for attitudinal responses to the model and their preferred method of instruction. Analysis of student responses indicated that students enjoyed the model, although they also had con...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - August 18, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Olson HL, Turin DR, Petzold AM Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

The "Gut Game": an active methodology to teach digestive physiology.
The "Gut Game": an active methodology to teach digestive physiology. Adv Physiol Educ. 2020 Sep 01;44(3):444-447 Authors: de Campos RP, Viero VP, Medeiros NM, Marcondes FK, Montrezor LH, Porawski M, Gutierrez LLP PMID: 32697150 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: de Campos RP, Viero VP, Medeiros NM, Marcondes FK, Montrezor LH, Porawski M, Gutierrez LLP Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

A perfect confluence of physiology and morphology: discovery of the transverse tubular system and inward spread of activation in skeletal muscle.
Abstract By early 1954, there existed a plausible model of muscle contraction called the sliding filament model. In addition, the nature of muscle excitation was understood. Surprisingly, the link between the membrane excitation and contraction was entirely unknown. This dilemma has been called the time-distance paradox. The path to discovery of the missing link between excitation and contraction was a rocky one involving the simultaneous but independent development of physiological and morphological studies. From the viewpoint of physiology, significant events included the most thrilling moment of a scientific li...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rall JA Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

A student practical to conceptualize the importance of Poiseuille's law and flow control in the cardiovascular system.
Abstract The laboratory practical reported here is based in Poiseuille's law and utilizes low-cost laboratory consumable items, thereby making it easy to deploy in any teaching laboratory. In the practical, students take an experimental approach of individually changing physical variables and measuring fluid flow rates. Plotting these results allows them to discuss the effect each variable has on flow. Furthermore, students enhance their appreciation of experimental errors and variability by making repeat measurements. In the follow-up teaching session, the students are encouraged to apply their experimental findi...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Holmes AP, Ray CJ, Kumar P, Coney AM Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Understanding preload and preload reserve within the conceptual framework of a limited range of possible left ventricular end-diastolic volumes.
Abstract Preload has been variously defined, but if there is to be a direct relationship with activity of the Frank-Starling mechanism in its action to increase the force and extent of contraction, preload must directly reflect myocardial stretch. The Frank-Starling mechanism is activated during any stretch of a cardiac chamber beyond its resting size, which is present immediately before contraction. Every left ventricle has an intrinsic and limited range of possible volumes at end diastole. There is a curvilinear relationship between left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and LV end-diastolic volume...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Peverill RE Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Using online decision trees to support students' self-efficacy in the laboratory.
Abstract Failed experiments are a common occurrence in research, yet many undergraduate science laboratories rely on established protocols to ensure students are able to obtain results. While it is logistically challenging to facilitate students' conducting their own experiments in the laboratory, allowing students to "fail" in a safe environment could help with the development of problem-solving skills. To allow students a safe place to fail and encourage them to think through a laboratory protocol, online decision trees were created to lead students through protocols and give them timely feedback. The ...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: McLean S, Meadows KN, Heffernan A, Campbell N Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

A hydraulic model of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology embedded into a computer-based teaching system for student training in laboratory courses.
Abstract Functional understanding of the different parts of the cardiovascular system is essential for an insight into pathomechanisms of numerous diseases. During training cardiovascular physiology, students and early-stage medical personnel should understand the role of different functional parameters for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as for blood flow. The impact of isolated parameters can only be studied in models. Here physical hydraulic models are an advantage in which the students have a direct contact to the mechanical properties of the circulatory system. But these models are often diffic...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Christ A, Barowsky D, Gekle M, Thews O Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Electrify your class with a simple battery: battery demonstration of electrocardiogram vectors.
Abstract William Arthur Ward stated, "The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires." Discovery experimentation is an inductive method that demonstrates and inspires by creating an interest in determining the underlining basis of a phenomenon. This experiential approach also fosters motivation and enhances learning. Starting with what the student knows augments this approach. By starting with what the student already knows, the student can consciously and explicitly link the subsequent new information with previous knowledge. Accordin...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 8, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lujan HL, Wellette-Hunsucker A, DiCarlo SE Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Flipped classroom improves results in pathophysiology learning: results of a nonrandomized controlled study.
Abstract The flipped classroom has become increasingly popular in health professions education. The aim of this study was to analyze its effect on learning in a pathophysiology course. Flipped classroom was introduced to teach respiratory pathophysiology in 2018. We compared the exam results in respiratory pathophysiology in 2017 and 2018 and the exam results in blood pathophysiology from both years (taught by the same teacher, in a traditional way). Groups were compared with Student's t test. Students answered a survey after finishing the term. Two hundred and one students were examined in 2018 (and 229 in 2017)....
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 8, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Herrero JI, Quiroga J Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: It takes two to build a relationship for optimal integration of basic sciences in medical curricula.
PMID: 32628524 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 8, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Harris DM Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Self-directed learning: assessment of students' abilities and their perspective.
Abstract The introduction of Competency-Based Medical Education Curriculum in India has endorsed many new concepts, like foundation course, self-directed learning (SDL), early clinical exposure, etc. Emphasis is being given to active teaching-learning approaches. One such approach is SDL. SDL is an active learning approach in which the students are responsible for their own learning outcome, with teacher acting as a facilitator of learning. A medical graduate, being a lifelong learner, should inculcate the habit of SDL. In the present study, the SDL abilities of first year Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 8, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bhandari B, Chopra D, Singh K Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

The influence of size and abiotic factors on cutaneous water loss.
Abstract The greatest physiological threat to terrestrial life is dehydration; however, examining the factors that influence water balance in a teaching setting can be problematic. The proposed exercise examines cutaneous water loss using gelatin frogs. The use of models provides a unique approach to learning about water loss without the need of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approval or specialized equipment to measure dehydration from relatively small invertebrates. The first described hands-on experiment examines gelatin frogs of different sizes to understand how surface area-to-volume ratio impact...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 8, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Howard JM, Griffis HB, Westendorf R, Williams JB Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Decorative animations impair recall and are a source of extraneous cognitive load.
Abstract Working memory is critical for learning but has a limited capacity for processing new information in real time. Cognitive load theory is an evidence-based approach to education that seeks to minimize the extraneous (unnecessary) load on working memory to avoid overloading it. The "seductive details effect" postulates that extraneous load can come from instructional design materials that attract interest but are unrelated to, and impair, learning. Presentation packages, such as Microsoft PowerPoint, have built-in decorative animated "GIFs" that are designed to make presentations more vi...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 8, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Pink A, Newton PM Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

The impact of using virtual patients in preclinical pharmacology teaching.
The objective was to investigate the potential benefits of combining traditional teaching with VPs in preclinical pharmacology teaching. All year 3 medical students (2 cohorts), enrolled in the Systematic Pharmacology I course (lectures: 3 h weekly; tutorial: 1 h weekly), were invited to participate in this naturalistic, prospective study. During tutorials, students were taught using case-based discussion and single-best-answer questions (control) in four tutorials and VPs (experimental) in the remaining six tutorials. The impact of VPs was assessed by 1) performance in written examinations, and 2) student satisfaction/per...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - July 8, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Nicolaou PA, El Saifi M Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Teaching cardiac excitation-contraction coupling using a mathematical computer simulation model of human ventricular myocytes.
Abstract To understand the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling of cardiomyocytes, including the electrophysiological mechanism of their characteristically long action potential duration, is one of the major learning goals in medical physiology. However, the integrative interpretation of the responses occurring during the contraction-relaxation cycle is challenging due to the dynamic interaction of underlying factors. Starting in 2017, we adopted the mathematical computer simulation model of human ventricular myocyte (Cardiac E-C_Sim), hypothesizing that this educational technology may facilitate students' learni...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - June 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jeon YK, Youm JB, Ha K, Woo J, Yoo HY, Leem CH, Lee SH, Kim SJ Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: Addressing test security issues pertaining to reuse of closed-book summative assessment items possibly compromised during the COVID-19 pandemic.
PMID: 32568003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - June 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Prakash ES, Kacsoh B Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Vertical integration of head, neck, and special senses module in undergraduate medical curriculum.
Abstract Vertical integration is believed to increase motivation by providing context for the learning. In this quasi-experimental study, cohort I took two horizontally integrated modules: structure and function of head, neck, and special senses in the second year, and pathophysiology and clinical sciences in the third year. Cohort II took a combined, vertically integrated module in the second year. Data from the questionnaire and examination scores were compared. Response rate was 80.1% (125/156) for cohort I and 57.6% (98/170) for cohort II. Response to the statement that vertical integration provides context to...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - June 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Arain SA, Kumar S, Yaqinuddin A, Meo SA Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Augmented reality-based learning for the comprehension of cardiac physiology in undergraduate biomedical students.
Abstract The integrated mechanisms of heart contraction are some of the most complex processes for undergraduate biomedical students to understand. Visual models have the potential to enhance learning environments by providing visual representations of complex mechanisms. Despite their benefits, the use of visual models in undergraduate classrooms is still limited. For this study, we tested the effect of a learning sequence of activities related to the cardiac cycle using an augmented reality (AR) application for smartphones and tablets. We were interested in understanding the ability of students to draw and label...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - June 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Gonzalez AA, Lizana PA, Pino S, Miller BG, Merino C Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Use of Facebook groups as a strategy for continuum involvement of students with physiology after finishing a physiology course.
es PB PMID: 32568006 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Adv Physiol Educ)
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - June 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sosa PM, Carrazoni GS, Gonçalves R, Mello-Carpes PB Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research

Long weekend sleep is linked to stronger academic performance in male but not female pharmacy students.
Abstract Poor sleep hygiene portends loss of physical and mental stamina. Therefore, maintaining a regular sleep/wake schedule on both weekdays and weekends is highly recommended. However, this advice runs contrary to the habits of university students who sleep late on weekends. Pharmacy students at Duquesne University sit for frequent examinations, typically commencing at 7:30 AM, and they complain about mental fatigue. Here, we tested the central hypothesis that longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends are linked to stronger academic performance in men and women. Students in their first professional ...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - June 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Leak RK, Weiner SL, Chandwani MN, Rhodes DC Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research