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Trends and age, period and cohort effects for marijuana use prevalence in the 1984 –2015 US National Alcohol Surveys
ConclusionsThe steep rise in marijuana use in the United States since 2005 occurred across the population and is attributable to general period effects not linked specifically to the liberalization of marijuana policies in some states. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 11, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: William C. Kerr, Camillia Lui, Yu Ye Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

The need to exercise caution in accepting addiction as a reason for performing euthanasia
Abstract The recent practice in Belgium and the Netherlands of accepting addiction as a reason for performing euthanasia raises important issues for the field of addiction and the practice of euthanasia. In this paper we outline some of these issues. We also argue that physicians making decisions about whether to accept requests for euthanasia from people with an allegedly untreatable addiction should consider two issues carefully. They should ensure that: (1) the person has the capacity to give free and informed consent to undergo euthanasia; and (2) their request is the outcome of a deliberative process in which all reas...
Source: Addiction - October 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Wayne Hall, Malcolm Parker Tags: Addiction Debate Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

News and Notes
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Tags: News and Notes Source Type: research

New Books
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Tags: New Books Source Type: research

Supporting The SALIS Collection: an ATOD digital archive
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Andrea L. Mitchell Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Commentary on Parish et al. (2017): What is the best exposure for estimating alcohol ‐attributable burden of disease?
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: J ürgen Rehm Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Commentary on Wu et al. (2017): Do very brief reduction interventions increase quitting among smokers not ready to quit?
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Elias M. Klemperer, John R. Hughes Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Commentary on Currie et al. (2017): Low ‐risk gambling limits—a bridge too far?
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Max W. Abbott Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Commentary on Burdzovic Andreas & Bretteville ‐Jensen (2017): Cannabis use opportunities—an under‐researched factor in substance use epidemiology
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: David S. Fink Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Commentary on Lichenstein et al. (2017): Escalating cannabis use, weak corticostriatal connections and negative outcomes
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Francesca M. Filbey Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Commentary on McCutcheon et al. (2017): Familial transmission of abstinent remission and social cognition
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Shirley Y. Hill Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Commentary on Moore et al. (2017): Focus on policies rather than programmes to address alcohol ‐related violence
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Kypros Kypri Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ Title, Aims & Scope
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Patterns of substance use and mortality risk in a cohort of “hard‐to‐reach” polysubstance users
ConclusionsIn a Norwegian prospective cohort study, “hard‐to‐reach” polysubstance users had more than ten times higher mortality risk than the general population. Mortality risk was not a function of any single drug use indicator, but two distinct combinations of substances, frequencies and routes of administration were associated with the mortality risk. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 7, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Linn Gjersing, Anne Line Bretteville ‐Jensen Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Trends in age of smoking initiation in the Netherlands: a shift towards older ages?
ConclusionsIn the Netherlands, the peak age of smoking initiation did not shift across subsequent cohorts born between 1980 and 1995, suggesting that young adolescents remain the main target group for smoking initiation prevention policies. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 7, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Paulien A. W. Nuyts, Mirte A. G. Kuipers, Marc C. Willemsen, Anton E. Kunst Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Impulsivity predicts poorer improvement in quality of life during early treatment for people with methamphetamine dependence
ConclusionsIn Australian methamphetamine‐dependent individuals, elevated impulsivity predicts lower improvement of social and psychological quality of life in the first six to nine weeks of treatment. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 7, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Adam J. Rubenis, Rebecca E. Fitzpatrick, Dan I. Lubman, Antonio Verdejo ‐Garcia Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Do practice approaches go far enough in shifting focus from the individual?
Commentary to: All drinking is not equal: how a social practice theory lens could enhance public health research on alcohol and other health behaviours (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 3, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Suzanne Fraser Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

How do we determine the impact of e ‐cigarettes on cigarette smoking cessation or reduction? Review and recommendations for answering the research question with scientific rigor
ConclusionsOnly a small proportion of studies seeking to address the effect of e‐cigarettes on smoking cessation or reduction meet a set of proposed quality standards. Those that do are consistent with randomized controlled trial evidence in suggesting that e‐cigarettes can help with smoking cessation or reduction. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 3, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Andrea C. Villanti, Shari P. Feirman, Raymond S. Niaura, Jennifer L. Pearson, Allison M. Glasser, Lauren K. Collins, David B. Abrams Tags: Addiction Debate Source Type: research

The short ‐term impact of the alcohol act on alcohol‐related deaths and hospital admissions in Scotland: a natural experiment
ConclusionThe implementation of the Alcohol Act in Scotland has not been associated clearly with a reduction in alcohol‐related deaths or hospital admissions in the 3‐year period after it was implemented in October 2011. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 2, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Mark Robinson, Janet Bouttell, James Lewsey, Daniel Mackay, Gerry McCartney, Clare Beeston Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Associations between Methadone Maintenance Treatment and Crime: A 17 ‐year Longitudinal Cohort study of Canadian Provincial Offenders
ConclusionsAmong a cohort of Canadian offenders, rates of violent and non‐violent offending were lower during periods when individuals were dispensed methadone compared with periods in which they were not dispensed methadone. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - October 1, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Angela Russolillo, Akm Moniruzzaman, Lawrence C. McCandless, Michelle Patterson, Julian M. Somers Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

The Effect of a Behavioral Activation Treatment for Substance Use on Post ‐treatment Abstinence: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusionsa behavioral activation group treatment for substance use (LETS ACT) appears to increase the likelihood of abstinence and reduce adverse consequences from substance use up to 12 months post‐treatment. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 30, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Stacey B. Daughters, Jessica F. Magidson, Deepika Anand, C. J. Seitz ‐Brown, Yun Chen, Sydney Baker Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Why we should conduct research in collaboration with people who use alcohol and other drugs
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 27, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Joanne Neale, Annabel Bouteloup, Mel Getty, Cassandra Hogan, Paul Lennon, Martin Mc Cusker, John Strang Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Evaluating the mutual pathways among electronic cigarette use, conventional smoking and nicotine dependence
We examined mutual associations between e‐cigarette use, conventional cigarette use and nicotine dependence over time to (1) test the association between e‐cigarette use and later conventional smoking (both direct and via nicotine dependence), (2) test the converse associations and (3) determine the strongest pathways predicting each product's use. DesignData from four annual waves of a prospective cohort study were analyzed. Path analysis modeled the bidirectional, longitudinal relationships between past‐month smoking frequency, past‐month e‐cigarette frequency and nicotine dependence. SettingChicago area, Illin...
Source: Addiction - September 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Arielle S. Selya, Jennifer S. Rose, Lisa Dierker, Donald Hedeker, Robin J. Mermelstein Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Risk, individual perception of risk and population health
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Kevin D. Shield, Gerrit Gmel, Pia M äkelä, Charlotte Probst, Robin Room, Gerhard Gmel, Jürgen Rehm Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Sexual Identity Differences in High ‐Intensity Binge Drinking: Findings from a US National Sample
ConclusionsIn the USA, sexual minority women are more likely, and sexual minority men are equally likely, to drink at standard and high‐intensity binge drinking levels as their heterosexual counterparts. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 23, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Jessica N. Fish, Tonda L. Hughes, Stephen T. Russell Tags: Short Report Source Type: research

Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders: a systematic review with direct and network meta ‐analyses on nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen and topiramate
ConclusionsThere is currently no high‐grade evidence for pharmacological treatment to control drinking using nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate in patients with alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorder. Some treatments show low to medium efficacy in reducing drinking across a range of studies with a high risk of bias. None demonstrates any benefit on health outcomes. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 20, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Cl ément Palpacuer, Renan Duprez, Alexandre Huneau, Clara Locher, Rémy Boussageon, Bruno Laviolle, Florian Naudet Tags: Review Source Type: research

Scaling ‐up HCV prevention and treatment interventions in rural United States— model projections for tackling an increasing epidemic
ConclusionsCombined scale‐up of hepatitis C virus treatment and prevention interventions is needed to decrease the increasing burden of hepatitis C virus incidence and prevalence in rural Indiana, USA, by 90% by 2025/30. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 20, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Hannah Fraser, Jon Zibbell, Thomas Hoerger, Susan Hariri, Claudia Vellozzi, Natasha K. Martin, Alex H. Kral, Matthew Hickman, John W. Ward, Peter Vickerman Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Addiction Lives: Thomas F. Babor
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 19, 2017 Category: Addiction Tags: Addiction Lives Source Type: research

Addiction Lives: Wayne Hall
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 19, 2017 Category: Addiction Tags: Addiction Lives Source Type: research

Assessing causal relationships using genetic proxies for exposures: An introduction to Mendelian randomisation
ConclusionsMendelian randomisation (MR) analyses are already producing robust evidence for addiction‐related practice and policy. As genetic variants associated with addictive behaviours are identified, the potential for MR analyses will grow. Methodological developments are also increasing its applicability. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 18, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Michael Green, Amy E. Taylor, George Davey Smith, Marcus R. Munaf ò Tags: Methods and Techniques Source Type: research

Effects of high alcohol intake, alcohol ‐related symptoms and smoking on mortality
ConclusionsNumber of symptoms related to high alcohol intake and tobacco smoking appear to account for the positive association between alcohol consumption and premature mortality. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 18, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: John B. Whitfield, Andrew C. Heath, Pamela A. F. Madden, J. George Landers, Nicholas G. Martin Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Genome ‐wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences
ConclusionsThree independent chromosome 19 signals account for ~20% of the variability in the nicotine metabolite ratio in African‐American smokers. The hits identified may contribute to inter‐ethnic variability in nicotine metabolism, smoking behaviours, and tobacco‐related disease risk. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 17, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Meghan J. Chenoweth, Jennifer J. Ware, Andy Z. X. Zhu, Christopher B. Cole, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Nikki Nollen, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia, Neal L. Benowitz, Robert A. Schnoll, Larry W. Hawk, Paul M. Cinciripini, Tony P. George, Caryn Lerman, Joanne Knight, Rachel Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Alcohol e ‐Help: Study protocol for a Web‐based self‐help program to reduce alcohol use in adults with drinking patterns considered harmful, hazardous, or suggestive of dependence in middle‐income countries
Abstract Background and aimsGiven the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle‐income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e‐health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web‐based self‐help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicenter randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the Internet‐based self‐help intervention to reduce alcohol use. DesignTwo‐arm RCT with follow‐up 6 months after randomisation. SettingCommunity samples in middle‐income countries. ParticipantsPeople aged 18+, with AUDIT scores of 8...
Source: Addiction - September 17, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Michael P. Schaub, Marcela Tiburcio, Nora Martinez, Atul Ambekar, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Andreas Wenger, Andr é Luiz Monezi Andrade, Dzianis Padruchny, Sergey Osipchik, Elise Gehring, Vladimir Poznyak, Dag Rekve, Maria Lucia Oliveira Souza‐Formigoni, Tags: Trial Protocol Source Type: research

Socio ‐economic differentials in cannabis use trends in Australia
Abstract AimTo test if the degree of change in cannabis use between 2001 and 2013 differed according to socio‐economic status. DesignRepeated cross‐sectional household surveys that were nationally representative. SettingAustralia. ParticipantsAdult samples from the 2001 and 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Surveys (n = 23 642 in 2001 and n = 21 353 in 2013), the largest nationally representative survey on drug use in Australia. MeasurementsFrequency of cannabis use coded as daily use, weekly use, less than weekly use and non‐current use; socio‐economic status (SES) as measured...
Source: Addiction - September 14, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Gary C. K. Chan, Janni Leung, Catherine Quinn, Megan Weier, Wayne Hall Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Trends and age, period and cohort effects for marijuana use prevalence in the 1984 to 2015 US National Alcohol Surveys
ConclusionsThe steep rise in marijuana use in the United States since 2005 occurred across the population and is attributable to general period effects not specifically linked to the liberalization of marijuana policies in some states. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 12, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: William C. Kerr, Camillia Lui, Yu Ye Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

The lessons learned from the fentanyl overdose crises in British Columbia, Canada
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 12, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Erica Thomson, Hugh Lampkin, Russ Maynard, Mohammad Karamouzian, Ehsan Jozaghi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing HCV transmission among people who inject drugs: findings from a Cochrane Review and meta ‐analysis
Abstract AimsTo estimate the effects of needle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST), alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people who inject drugs (PWID). MethodsSystematic review and meta‐analysis. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies measuring concurrent exposure to current OST (within last 6 months) and/or NSP and HCV incidence among PWID. High NSP coverage was defined as regular NSP attendance or ≥100% coverage (receiving sufficient or greater number of needles/syringes per reported injecting frequency). Studies were assessed using ...
Source: Addiction - September 11, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman Tags: Review Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

News and Notes
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Tags: News and Notes Source Type: research

Moral Jeopardy: Risks of Accepting Money from the Alcohol, Tobacco and Gambling Industries by Peter J. Adams, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 2016
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Jim McCambridge Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Commentary on Schmitz et al. (2017): Advancing medication development for addiction —behavioral and neuroimaging outcomes as indirect biomarkers of target engagement
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Mehdi Farokhnia, Reza Momenan, Lorenzo Leggio Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Commentary on Popova et al. (2017): Co ‐used and co‐administered tobacco and cannabis (marijuana) require further investigation
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Hannah Walsh, Chandni Hindocha, Maria Duaso Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Commentary on Pardo (2017) and Moyo et al. (2017): Much still unknown about prescription drug monitoring programs
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Corey S. Davis Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Commentary on White et al. (2017): Adolescent drinking and exposure to advertising —behaviour does not occur in a social vacuum
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Megan Weier Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Commentary on Fazel et al. (2017): High levels of substance use disorders among correctional inmates —some implications for interventions of the review data from Fazel et al.
(Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Benedikt Fischer, Amanda Butler, Cayley Russell Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Behavioural Addiction Open Definition 2.0 —using the Open Science Framework for collaborative and transparent theoretical development
Commentary to: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours? (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Jo ël Billieux, Antonius J. Rooij, Alexandre Heeren, Adriano Schimmenti, Pierre Maurage, Johan Edman, Alexander Blaszczynski, Yasser Khazaal, Daniel Kardefelt‐Winther Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ Title, Aims & Scope
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

The future of the international drug control system and national drug prohibitions
Abstract A major impediment to any nation abandoning the policy of drug prohibition has been the fact that international drug treaties to which the majority of United Nations (UN) member states are signatory prohibit the non‐medical use of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine and heroin. The future of these treaties is now uncertain because of decisions by Uruguay, eight US states and Canada to legalize cannabis use. This paper: (1) provides a brief account of the international drug control treaties; (2) outlines the major criticisms of the treaties; (3) analyses critically proposals for treaty reform; and (4) provides a pers...
Source: Addiction - September 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Wayne Hall Tags: Monograph Source Type: research

Setting research priorities in tobacco control: a stakeholder engagement project
ConclusionsThere are many unanswered questions in the field of tobacco control. Stakeholders highlighted electronic cigarettes, addressing inequalities and mental health and other substance abuse as key areas for further research, and efficacy, relative efficacy, cost‐effectiveness and use of non‐randomized studies as important themes cutting across research areas. Future prioritization work would benefit from targeting non‐US and non‐UK stakeholders explicitly and from examining where priorities may differ based on stakeholder group. (Source: Addiction)
Source: Addiction - September 6, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Nicola Lindson, Dan Richards ‐Doran, Laura Heath, Jamie Hartmann‐Boyce, Tags: Cochrane Updates Source Type: research