Role of oral vaccines as an edible tool to prevent infectious diseases.
Abstract Plants have been as medicinal mediators for centuries. Recent trends in agro-biotechnology however, improved the therapeutic roles of plants to a significant level and introduced plant-based oral vaccine which can arouse an immune response in consumer. Although conventional vaccines against infectious diseases have been administrated for years the discovery of plant-based oral vaccines can potentially replace them completely in the future. The probable limitations in conventional vaccines are found to be overcome by plant-based oral vaccines. Humans and animals will no longer be dependent upon local or sy...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shakoor S, Rao AQ, Shahid N, Yaqoob A, Samiullah TR, Shakoor S, Latif A, Tabassum B, Khan MAU, Shahid AA, Husnain T Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

The involvement of the substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor system in viral infection: focus on the gp120 fusion protein and homologous dipeptide domains.
R, Kramer M Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope, via a key extracellular amino acid sequence, may simulate the functionality of native undecapeptide substance P (SP) acting through the host's neurokinin 1 (SP preferring) receptor (NK-1R). Human monocytes and macrophages express both NK-1Rs and SP. In HIV/AIDS the NK-1R may function as a chemokine-like G-protein coupled co-receptor that: 1) fuses to the outer envelope of HIV; 2) enables intracellular entry of the envelope-capsid-NK-1R complex; 3) co-opts immune defence via its physiological interaction with the SP-like envelope; 4) may con...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muñoz M, Coveñas R, Kramer M Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

The effect of human interferon alpha on replication of different bovine viral diarrhea virus strains.
Abstract Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) exists in two main biotypes: cytopathic (cp) and noncytopathic (ncp). Although some studies were done on the effect of interferon alpha (IFN-α) on BVDV, the effect of exogenous IFN against BVDV biotypes remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the comparative effect of exogenous human IFN-α (HuIFN-α) on different BVDV biotypes and genotypes. The results showed that exogenous HuIFN-α greatly inhibited the growth of different BVDV biotypes and genotypes. However, HuINF-α has a significant inhibitory effect on cp biotype compared to ...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elsheikh AA, Braun LJ, Mansour SMG, Orabi A, Alqahtani AS, Benfield DA, Chase CCL Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Identification and phylogenetic analysis of an orf virus strain isolated in Anhui Province, East-central China, in 2018.
Abstract Orf, also called contagious ecthyma or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a significant zoonotic disease that primarily affects goat and sheep globally. Currently, the infection by orf virus (ORFV) has been observed in different host species worldwide, including China. Here, a suspected outbreak of orf infection in a goat farm in Anhui Province in 2018 was investigated. Through PCR, electron microscopy, and cell culture techniques, we confirmed that the outbreak was caused by ORFV. Consequently, the orf virus strain was named the AH/LA/2018 strain. The amplified and sequenced ORFV011 (B2L) and ORFV059 (F1...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wang Y, Yang K, Wang YA, Yu Z, Zhang Q, Zhang G, Su L, Lu Z, Zhang X, Liu Z, Jiang S, Li Y Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Synthetic peptide optimization improves the inhibition of dengue NS2B-NS3 protease and dengue replication in vitro.
In this study, we employed computational studies using YASARA, HADDOCK server and PyMOL software to generate short and linear peptides based on a reference peptide, CP5-46A, to block DENV NS2B-NS3 protease. The inhibition potencies of the peptides were evaluated using in-house DENV2 serine protease and fluorogenic peptide substrates. In vitro analyses were performed to determine the peptides cytotoxicity and the inhibitory effects against DENV2 replication in WRL-68 cells. Our computational analyses revealed that the docking energy of AYA3, a 16 amino acid (aa) (-81.2 ± 10.6 kcal/mol) and AYA9, a 15 aa peptide (-83....
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abdulrahman AY, Rothan HA, Khazali AS, Teoh TC, Daher AM, Yusof R Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Schmallenberg virus affects T-bet, Gata3, RoRr γt, Foxp3 and Eomes in mice brain.
In this report, we introduce preliminary data of T cell transcription factors affected by SBV infection of BALB/c mice. Keywords: Eomes; Foxp3; Gata3; RoRγt; Schmallenberg virus; T-bet. PMID: 31507194 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aksoy E, Azkur AK Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Secondary dengue infection in immunocompetent murine model leads to heart tissue damage.
ra DF Abstract Dengue, considered the most important arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and caused by one of the four distinct serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4). Infection with one of the four serotypes provides lifelong homotypic immunity. However, immunity against the heterologous serotypes is transient. As a consequence, secondary infection may lead to severer manifestations due to cross-reactivity of antibodies and T-cells. Over 500,000 people are hospitalized every year and around 2,5 million, living in endemic areas, are...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jácome FC, Teixeira AL, Coutinho DD, Costa AD, Caldas GC, Nunes MA, Barth OM, Barreto-Vieira DF Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Efficacy and immunogenicity of a live L. acidophilus expressing SAD epitope of transmissible gastroenteritis virus as an oral vaccine.
In this study, a TGEV oral vaccine was generated by transferring a eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid carrying the SAD (A and D antigenic sites of the S protein) epitope of TGEV into a swine-origin Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus). In orally immunized BALB/c mice, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced significantly higher level of SIgA antibodies specific to TGEV compared with the mice immunized with a commercial inactivated TGEV vaccine and similar levels of IgG specific to TGEV as the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, which...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xue R, Tian Y, Zhang Y, Zhang M, Tian F, Ma J, Jiang S Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Growth activation of influenza virus by trypsin and effect of T-705 (favipiravir) on trypsin-optimized growth condition.
Abstract Influenza virus is activated by proteolytic cleavage of hemagglutinin by trypsin. After determining the optimal trypsin concentration, intracellular and extracellular influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2) virus productions were compared in cultures treated with T-705 (favipiravir) and GS 4071 (an active form of oseltamivir). Although both drugs efficiently inhibited extracellular viral RNA release in a dose-dependent manner, T-705 inhibited it to the level of the inoculum without trypsin treatment, while GS 4071 inhibited it to a final level 10 times higher than that without trypsin. T...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Daikoku T, Okuda T, Kawai M, Morita N, Tanaka T, Takemoto M, Fukuda Y, Takahashi K, Nomura N, Shiraki K Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Extract prepared from the leaves of Ocimum basilicum inhibits the entry of Zika virus.
In this study, we report for the first time that highly diluted ethanol extracts prepared from basil leaves can effectively inhibit ZIKV replication in Vero E6 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 1:134. The diluted extract as well as the amount of ethanol that goes into its preparation have been found to be completely non-toxic to the above mentioned cell line. The extract seems to inhibit the virus at the step of attachment and entry into the host cell. The specific inhibition of ZIKV observed using the basil leaf extract suggests a new alternative mode of treatment against flavivirus. Keywo...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Singh P, Chakraborty P, He DH, Mergia A Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) regulates the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) positive cell population in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines.
In this study, we overexpressed LMP1 in two NPC cell lines and found elevated level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression. CK19 is an undifferentiated keratin and a stem cell marker. We also have found an increased number of ALDH positive cells along with LMP1 overexpression in both cell lines. Our data demonstrate that LMP1 regulates the maintenance of ALDH-1 positive NPC cancer stem cells, thus shedding light on target therapy of NPC in clinical application. Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma; latent membrane protein 1; aldehyde dehydrogenase; cancer stem cells. PMID: 31507199 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wu J, Su H, Li G, Huang Y Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

High prevalence of norovirus GII.P16/GII.2 and chicken anemia virus in two acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Huzhou, China.
Abstract Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequently occuring illnesses in children and adults worldwide. In February 2017, two AGE outbreaks occurred in two adjacent schools in Huzhou city, Zhenjiang province of China. We detected high percentages of recombinant norovirus GII.P16/GII.2 in one school and chicken anemia virus (CAV) in another school using next generation sequencing (NGS) and specific PCR. The results highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of GII.P16/GII.2, and suggest the need of further studies on whether CAV causes AGE. Keywords: acute gastroenteritis; norovirus; chicke...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Li Y, Zhang P, Wu X, Wen D, Ji L, Chen L, Liu G, Fu X, Zhang J, Zhang C, Han J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

A case of intracranial molluscum contagiosum virus infection diagnosed by metagenomic sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid.
We report a very rare case of intracranial infection by molluscum contagiosum virus. A 25-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital due to severe headache but no fever or other symptoms. Upon examination, some small flesh-colored flattened papules on both arms were noticed. Blood tests showed slightly reduced levels of CD3 and CD4 T lymphocytes. Three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF-MRA) and head magnetic resonance (MR) were both normal. Lumbar puncture was performed, and metagenomic sequencing was applied to the spinal fluid. The unique sequences of the molluscum contagiosum virus were i...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huang M, Peng M, Gan CH, Ma J, Liu R, Li M, He P, Ke R, Wang Y, Xia J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Herpes simplex virus type 1 suppresses the transformed phenotype of cultured cells.
upolíková M, Golais F PMID: 31507202 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Búda D, Mrázová V, Šupolíková M, Golais F Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Efficient RT-PCR tool for tomato spotted wilt virus detection in its vectors Thrips tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis.
lánki K, Fedor P PMID: 31507203 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Šubr ZW, Király KD, Fail J, Almási A, Salánki K, Fedor P Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

A CRISPR/Cas9 library to map the HIV-1 provirus genetic fitness.
Abstract The integrated proviral genome is the major barrier to a cure for HIV-1 infection. Genome editing technologies, such as CRISPR/Cas9, may disable or remove the HIV-1 provirus by introducing DNA double strand breaks at sequence specific sites in the viral genome. Host DNA repair by the error-prone non-homologous end joining pathway generates mutagenic insertions or deletions at the break. CRISPR/Cas9 editing has been shown to reduce replication competent viral genomes in cell culture, but only a minority of possible genome editing targets have been assayed. Currently there is no map of double strand break g...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoder KE Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Characterization and in silico proteomic analysis of C2 and C3 proteins of squash leaf curl China virus associated with pumpkin leaf curl disease in Assam, India.
Abstract The pumpkin leaf curl disease is an emerging disease of pumpkin in Assam, India. Symptomatic pumpkin leaf samples from different locations were immunologically tested using Begomovirus specific antibody. PCR with the ELISA-positive samples, using Geminivirus universal primers amplified 1.4 kb virus-specific fragments. Sequence of these amplicons showed around 95% identity with squash leaf curl China virus-[Pumpkin: Varanasi] (SLCCV-Pumpkin: Varanasi EU573715). To investigate the possible functions of the viral proteins present in the fragment, the full-length C2 and C3 genes were conceptually translated a...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Baldodiya GM, Devi K, Borah BK, Nath PD, Modi MK Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Identification of two novel anti-HCV E2 412-423 epitope antibodies by screening a Chinese-specific phage library.
Abstract The hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 412-423 linear epitope has been found to be highly conserved across multiple HCV genotypes. The antibodies against this epitope have broadly neutralizing activity. Considering the poor immunogenicity of the epitope in humans and significant diversity in the global distribution of HCV genotypes, the aim of this study was to construct an anti-HCV phage library by using a series of optimal strategies to screen novel broadly neutralizing antibodies from Chinese donors. mRNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples of 39 patients who were anti-HCV positive. A phage library was ...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cui CH, Zhu Y, Jia Z, Mao Q, Lan L Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Novel Foveavirus (the family Betaflexiviridae) species identified in ginseng (Panax ginseng).
In this study, the genome sequence of the virus Panax ginseng flexivirus 1 (PgFV1) was identified from a ginseng root transcriptome data set. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that PgFV1 is a novel plant RNA virus species of the genus Foveavirus (the family Betaflexiviridae). Foveaviruses have flexuous and filamentous virions with a single-stranded positive-sense mono-segmented RNA genome. Its infection causes diseases with mosaic and ringspot symptoms in the stems and leaves. The PgFV1 genome encodes for 5 open reading frames: a replicase polyprotein for viral genome replication, 3 triple gene block pro...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Park D, Zhang M, Hahn Y Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Characterization of liver specific promoters in a foamy viral vector pMD09.
Abstract Foamy viruses (FVs) or spumaviruses are retroviruses that are explored as vectors for gene therapy. The good feature of foamy viruses is its broad tropism; however, their infections result in non-targeted gene expression. Here, we attempted to design the liver targeted viral gene delivery by employing liver specific gene promoters like albumin (ALB), transthyretin (TTR) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) promoters. We compared the relative gene expression of liver specific promoters versus the U3 promoter in liver cell line (HepG2) and non-liver cell lines: human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080), baby hamster kid...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Singh AK, Weber C, Varshney A, Gupta S, Kazim SN, Sanal MG, Rethwilm A, Sarin SK Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Absence of keratin 1 restricts the course of infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strain MX.
ová I, Pastoreková S, Pastorek J Abstract A rodent-transmitted enveloped lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an RNA virus causing persistent infection. During persistent infection, a unique strain MX of LCMV does not yield infectious virions, therefore it is not able to use a receptor for its dissemination, and spreads by cell-to-cell contacts. Virus can be transported to the neighboring cell by different cellular structures such as tunneling nanotubes or cytonemes. Using q-PCR, immunofluorescence, siRNA and western blot, we show that keratin 1 (K1) is essential for the persistent infection...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Labudová M, Zdurienčíková M, Fabianová A, Barátová M, Ditte P, Radvak P, Nemčovičová I, Pastoreková S, Pastorek J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Genetic variation of TNF- α and IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 genes and association with torque teno virus infection post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
In this study, the association between interleukin-12, interleukin-17, interleukin-10 (IL-12,-17,-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) polymorphisms was evaluated in patients with TTV infection who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from South of Iran. The single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cytokine genes including IL-12 (-1188A/C), IL-17 (-197G/A), IL-10 (-1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A) and TNF-α (-308 G/A) were analyzed by PCR-RFLP methods. While our results did not show any association between IL-17, IL-12 and IL-10 (-819C/T and -1082G/A) polymorphisms and TTV infection ...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ramzi M, Arandi N, Zarei T, Saadi MI, Yaghobi R, Moghadam M, Geramizadeh B Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Phylogenetic analysis of HA and NA genes of influenza H1N1 viruses from 1918 to 2017.
Abstract The 1918 "Spanish" pandemic is the earliest known influenza H1N1 virus. Since then H1N1 viruses circulated between humans and animals continuously. With the increased amount of samples of H1N1 viruses and technology development, researchers have been studying how the viruses evolved. Here, we analyzed HA and NA genes of H1N1 viruses from three aspects: host distribution, geographical distribution and phylogenetic analysis. The data showed hosts were predominantly human, swine and poultry, and other hosts were mainly cat, ferret, wild bear, canine, cheetah and seal. In terms of geographical distr...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yan HX, Xu HF, He WJ, Xie Y, Dong GY Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Comparative studies of mucosal humoral and cellular immune responses to  2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in mice.
Comparative studies of mucosal humoral and cellular immune responses to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in mice. Acta Virol. 2019;63(2):203-210 Authors: Zhang YY, An J, Wang K, Han B, Liu YF, Jia HL, Li YS, Lei L, Jia N, Lv J Abstract The nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs), embedded in the submucosa of murine upper respiratory tract, represents an important site of induction for local mucosal immune responses to airborne pathogens and intranasal vaccines. Here, we systematically investigated the mucosal humoral and cellular immune responses of NALTs in mice infected with A/Beijing/501/2...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhang YY, An J, Wang K, Han B, Liu YF, Jia HL, Li YS, Lei L, Jia N, Lv J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

A novel Waikavirus (the family Secoviridae) genome sequence identified in rapeseed (Brassica napus).
Abstract The genome sequence of a novel species of the genus Waikavirus (the family Secoviridae), which we named Brassica napus RNA virus 1 (BnRV1), was identified in a rapeseed (Brassica napus) transcriptome dataset. The BnRV1 genome was 12,293 nucleotides long followed by a poly(A) tail. Two open reading frames (ORFs), called ORF1 and ORFX, were predicted. The larger ORF, ORF1, encodes a polyprotein of 3,471 amino acids and the smaller ORF, ORFX, overlaps ORF1 and encodes an 87 aa long protein of unknown function. The BnRV1 ORF1 polyprotein was predicted to undergo proteolytic processing to yield seven mature pr...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Park D, Hahn Y Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Characterization and full genome sequencing of a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Ck/IR/Beh/2011 belonging to subgenotype VII(L).
In this study we have characterized and fully sequenced the genome of a velogenic NDV strain named Beh (Ck/IR/Beh/2011) that has been used in our lab for a number of challenge and immunological studies over the last few years. This strain was isolated from poultry in the city of Behshahr, Mazandaran Province, Iran after an outbreak reported in the region in 2011. The intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) was 1.8 in one-day-old chicks, characteristic of a velogenic NDV strain. Later, the virus was purified using a sucrose gradient centrifugation and used for next-generation sequencing (NGS). The results showed that the g...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Goudarzi H, Borm SV, Bashashati M, Sabouri F, Abdoshah M, Nouri A, Banani M, Ebrahimi MM, Molouki A Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Sequence analysis and biological characterization of virulent Avian avulavirus 1 isolated from asymptomatic migratory fowl.
This study concludes an evolutionary nature of avian avulavaris 1 (AAvV-1), ascertaining continuous surveillance of migratory fowl to better elucidate their infection, epidemiology and subsequent impacts on commercial and backyard poultry. Keywords: virulent AAvV-1; migratory fowl; genetic characterization; evolutionary analysis; Pakistan. PMID: 31230452 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aziz-ul-Rahman, Yaqub T, Imran M, Habib M, Sohail T, Mukhtar N, Shahid MF, Munir M, Shabbir MZ Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Country-wide distribution of bluetongue virus with expanding host spectrum and evidence of vector competence in Hungary.
Hornyák Á Abstract Following the introduction of bluetongue virus type 4 (BTV-4) in 2014, country-wide monitoring of bluetongue (BT) disease was performed to see whether the virus has become enzootic in Hungary. To analyse the epizootiology of BT, over 110,000 samples collected from domestic and wild ruminants were screened for the presence of BTV RNA and virus-specific antibodies using real-time RT-PCR assay and commercial ELISA kit, respectively. During laboratory analysis, specimens collected from 333 (0.8%) cattle, 79 (2.2%) sheep, 4 (0.9%) goats, and 1 (2.3%) mouflon were found to be positive by...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Domán M, Marton S, Malik P, Bányai K, Hornyák Á Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Impact of interplay between autophagy and interferon-alpha in HCV and HCV/HIV infection.
In this study, a total number of 40 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) including 20 HCV and 20 HCV/HIV patients before treatment were evaluated. The HCV viral load in both groups was evaluated by semi quantitative real-time PCR. The level of Beclin-1 and IFN-α gene expression was examined in all samples by semi quantitative real-time PCR assay. The median viral load was 8.3×105 copies/ml in HCV group and 2.1×106 copies/ml in HCV/HIV patients. While the expression level of Beclin-1 gene in HCV group was significantly higher, the level of IFN-α expression was lower compared to the H...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lajevardi B, Bamdad T, Choobin H, Jamalidoust M, Namayandeh M Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

The phylogenetic analysis of a novel genetic subtype of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in the Czech Republic.
, Václavek P, Šimek B PMID: 31230455 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - June 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tonka T, Čurn V, Stehlíková D, Vejčík A, Barták P, Václavek P, Šimek B Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Bluetongue virus vaccine: conventional to modern approach.
Abstract Bluetongue (BT) is an economically important, infectious and non-contagious disease of ruminant animals. BT disease is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) of the genus Orbivirus (the family Reoviridae). BTV is transmitted by certain species of biting midges of the genus Culicoides. Although originally BT was restricted to African continent, now it is present in all the continents except Antarctica. Conventional BT vaccines such as live attenuated and inactivated vaccines showed different degree of success in BT control. However, conventional vaccines have certain disadvantages of reversion to virulent strain...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ranjan K, Prasad M, Brar B, Lambe U, Kumar R, Ghosh M, Prasad G Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Chicken anemia virus: A deadly pathogen of poultry.
In conclusion, improvement on DNA and recombinant vaccines strategy could curtail the economic impact of CAV on poultry birds. Keywords: adjuvant; CAV; chicken; disease. PMID: 30879309 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fatoba AJ, Adeleke MA Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

The antisense 5' end of the V2 gene confers enhanced resistance against the monopartite begomovirus cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala strain.
Abstract Whitefly-transmitted viruses of the genus Begomovirus (the family Geminiviridae) have become a limiting factor for agricultural productivity in many warmer parts of the world. The economies of Pakistan and India have, since the early 1990s, suffered losses due to cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD). The disease is caused by begomoviruses, the most important of which at this time is cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus strain Burewala (CLCuKoV-Bu), and a disease-specific betasatellite, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). Efforts to minimize losses due to CLCuD rely mainly on the use of insecticides to ...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali I, Khurshid M, Iqbal Z, Shafiq M, Amin I, Mansoor S, Briddon RW Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Use of the cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite as a silencing or expression vector.
Abstract Alphasatellites, formerly known as DNA 1, are a satellite-like components associated with begomoviruses (the family Geminiviridae) that require betasatellite for symptom induction but depend on DNA-A for systemic movement. We have converted alphasatellite into gene-silencing vector (modified alphasatellite (∆DNA 1)) by deleting its A-rich region that does not affect the replication nor the movement of the helper virus. Insertion of a transgene green florescence protein (GFP) into ∆DNA 1 resulted in the silencing g of the cognate gene in Nicotiana benthamiana. The silencing persisted for more than one ...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shahid MS, Mansoor S, Briddon RW Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

New approaches for post-vaccination surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease.
Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious and important transboundary disease of cloven-hoofed animals and ruminants. In ruminants, an animal is considered as a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) carrier if a live FMDV/FMDV RNA is obtained from the oro-pharyngeal fluid (OPF) beyond 28 days after infection. These carrier animals may pose a risk for causing outbreaks in healthy animals. Moreover, it is important to conduct serosurveillance to know the virus circulation. In the present study, an ELISA was developed using field samples to detect FMDV specific secretory IgA antibodies. These samples were a...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jain B, Tewari A, Batra K, Kadian SK Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Expression of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 VP3 protein mediated by avian adeno-associated virus and its immunogenicity in ducklings.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that the VP3 expression mediated by rAAAV in ducklings could induce protective immunity against DHAV challenge, and this could be a candidate vaccine for the control of duck viral hepatitis. Keywords: avian adeno-associated virus; duck hepatitis A virus; VP3 gene; immunogenicity. PMID: 30879313 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wang AP, Liu L, Gu LL, Wu S, Guo CM, Feng Q, Xia WL, Yuan C, Zhu SY Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Cytokine responses in pigs after natural infection with classical swine fever virus.
Abstract Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral infection that affects domestic and wild pig population. The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) targets immune cells which perturb the immune functions causing immunopathological disorders such as immunosuppression, leukopenia and haemorrhage. In the present study, ELISA and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was employed to determine cytokine profiles in pigs naturally infected with CSFV using whole blood assay (WBA) under field conditions. Significantly higher TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6 expression levels were fou...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khatoon E, Barman NN, Deka M, Hussain MDI, Borah P, Kumar S Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Differential molecular response of maize and Johnson grass against maize dwarf mosaic virus and bermuda grass southern mosaic virus.
Abstract Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and bermuda grass southern mosaic virus (BgSMV) is the most important cereal potyvirus in Iran. Expression of some key genes in maize plants susceptible and tolerant to MDMV or BgSMV and gene expression profile of MDMV and BgSMV compatible or incompatible to Johnson grass plants were studied. Time points of 1, 9, 24 and 72 h after inoculation with both viruses were investigated as well. By analyzing the expression of the genes, it was identified that in maize infected by MDMV and BgSMV, the transcript levels of the peroxiredoxin, GLP, SAM, NPR1 and chlorophyll a-b binding g...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mostafavi FS, Sabbagh SK, Yamchi A, Nasrollanejad S, Panjehkeh N Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

A simplified method for the simultaneous detection of nervous necrosis virus and iridovirus in grouper Epinephelus spp.
Abstract Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) and grouper iridovirus (GIV) are major grouper-infecting viruses in southern China that can cause serious economic losses. A duplex reverse transcription-PCR (duplex RT-PCR) method was developed for the simultaneous detection of GNNV and GIV. Eight groups of primers specifically targeting the capsid protein genes of GNNV and GIV were designed and analyzed. The primer set GN4 was selected and used to amplify fragments of 887 bp and 319 bp in length from GNNV and GIV, respectively. Furthermore, the duplex PCR assay was shown to be sensitive because it could detect at le...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yu NT, Zhang YL, Xiong Z, Qu L, Liu ZX Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of a novel linear epitope in the spike protein of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.
Abstract The main immunogenic protein of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the spike protein (S protein), which plays an important role in receptor binding, membrane fusion, and viral invasion of the host. In this paper, the linear epitope of the 3F10 non-neutralizing monoclonal antibody that was previously prepared in our laboratory was identified. The expression of truncated forms of the S protein for 3F10 reaction studies proved that the epitope was located between amino acids (aa) 674 and 791. To further locate the core aa of the 3F10 epitope, 12 random peptide libraries were used, and the result s...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gong L, Gong Y, Lin Y, Qin J, Liu Y, Qian X, Xue C, Cao Y Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Experimental infection of conventional newly-weaned piglets with porcine astrovirus.
This study shows for the first time the effects of porcine astrovirus infection on conventional newly-weaning piglets. Keywords: porcine astrovirus; newly-weaned piglets. PMID: 30879318 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ulloa JC, Olarte-Aponte AM, Ospina JC, Rincon MA Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of group A rotavirus (RVA) strains detected in bovine and porcine species: Circulation of unusual rotavirus strains. A study from western, India.
In conclusion the present study highlights the circulation of unusual G-P combinations and VP6 genogroup specificities of human RVA strains indicative of possible interspecies transmission and reassortment events in animal species. The study further warrants utmost need for such surveillance studies across the country to understand the role of animals as genetic reservoirs for the emergence of RVA strains pathogenic for humans. Keywords: rotaviruses; genotypes; unusual G-P types; animals. PMID: 30879319 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tatte VS, Jadhav M, Ingle VC, Gopalkrishna V Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Localization of human recombinant adenoviral vectors to the mitochondria following transduction of human cell lines.
Abstract Recently, mitochondria have been shown to have a vital role in the innate immune response to viral infection. In response, viruses such as adenovirus, have developed mechanisms to alter mitochondrial function through direct or indirect interaction with the mitochondria. The interaction of human recombinant adenoviral vectors directly with human mitochondria has not previously been shown. We demonstrate that human recombinant adenoviral vectors co-localize to mitochondria. We show that the adenoviral vectors are present within the membranes of the mitochondria and that they cause ultrastructural changes to...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Morrison BJ, Abu-Asab M, Morris JC, Steel JC Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Phospholipase C signaling is involved in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in cell cultures.
In this study, we demonstrated that PLC-specific inhibitor U73122 strongly suppressed porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) productive infection in cell cultures. The inhibitor affected both viral post-binding cell entry and post-entry processes. The virus infection led to an early transient activation of PLCγ-1 at 0.5 h post-infection (hpi), and sustained event at a stage from 4 to 16 hpi in MARC-145 cells. In addition, U73122 inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK signaling stimulated by PRRSV infection, suggesting that PLC signaling may be associated with the virus infection-induced i...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuan WF, Chen Q, Gao XT, Zheng ZM, Jia H, Zhu HF, Xin T, Sui XK, Li M, Hou SH, Guo XY Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Isolation of H8N4 avian influenza virus from wild birds in Shanghai, China.
Abstract The H8 subtype viruses are rarely isolated from wild ducks. Shanghai is one of the important wintering or stopover sites on the East Asia-Australia Migration Flyway. An influenza virus, subtype H8N4, was firstly isolated from a common teal (Anas crecca) in Shanghai during 2017-2018 in this study. To clarify the genetic characteristics of the H8N4 virus, the whole genome sequences were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes showed that they shared highest nucleotide identity (99.19%-99.64%) with the Japan duck-origin H8N4 virus collected in 2016 (A/duck/Aichi/231003/20...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tang W, Li X, Hu CH, Zhu C, Li Z, Wu D, Wang T, He G Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Segment 2 sequences analysis of genogroup II picobirnavirus in pig stool in China.
PMID: 30879323 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chen M, Sun H, Hua X Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Molecular detection and genetic diversity of porcine bocavirus in piglets in China.
This study demonstrated for the first time that PBoV strains in Xinjiang belong to three subgroups of three different genetic groups, indicating a substantial genetic diversity of the epidemic strains circulating in China, which provided the useful epidemiological data for scientific control and prevention of this disease in farm pigs. Keywords: porcine bocavirus; molecular detection; genetic characterization; piglets. PMID: 30472863 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - November 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Meng Q, Qiao M, Gong S, Tian L, Li C, Qiao J, Meng D, Wu Y, Cai K, Zhang Z, Cai X Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Development of a  standard protocol for quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect adenovirus 36, which is associated with obesity.
In this study, we developed a method for quantitative and rapid detection of Ad36 DNA. Using a TaqMan probe quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we identified that the E3 and E4orf1 regions specifically detect Ad36 DNA, because these regions did not show cross reactivity with other types of adenoviruses. The limit of detection was 379 copy/ml and 384 copy/ml for E3 and E4orf1 regions of Ad36, respectively. The %CV (coefficient of variation) for reproducibility of the assay using adenovirus reference material ranged from 1.07-13.02. After we developed the standard protocol to detect Ad36 DNA, we used mou...
Source: Acta Virologica - November 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hwang KA, Park S, Ahn JH, Nam JH Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

The time course analysis of morphological changes induced by Chikungunya virus replication in mammalian and mosquito cells.
Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging Alphavirus, causes chronic myalgia and arthralgia in infected individuals. However, the exact pathophysiology remains undefined till date. Virus induced time course changes in host cells at the ultrastructural level and host cytoskeleton have been reported for other alphaviruses such as Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus. Few studies have tried to delineate the same for CHIKV leading to some understanding of the replication process. Selective CHIKV infection of progenitor cells involved in muscle repair has been proposed as a cause of myalgia; albeit the ou...
Source: Acta Virologica - November 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ghosh A, Alladi PA, Narayanappa G, Vasanthapuram R, Desai A Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Virus neutralization study using H120, H52, 793/B antisera against Iranian infectious bronchitis virus genotypes.
This study is aimed to investigate the neutralizing efficiency of H52, H120, and 4/91 antiserum against IBV genotypes (IS-1494, IS-720, 793/B, IR-1) recently circulating in Iran. For the first time, we have used cross-neutralization tests for the serological classification of these isolates. In this study, all antisera failed to neutralize all IBV strains. According to the results of our research, cross-protection studies are necessary for the design of a proper vaccination program for IBV circulating genotypes in Iran. The data are useful for the development of new vaccine strategies. Keywords: avian infectious bronc...
Source: Acta Virologica - November 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zabihipetroudi MT, Ghalyanchilangeroudi A, Karimi V, Khaltabadifarahani R, Hashemzadeh M Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research