The power of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) hijacked UL/b' functions lost in vitro.
te; M, Nemčovičová I Abstract Viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to subvert immunity to benefit overall viral fitness. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, β-herpesvirus) represents a paradigm of very effective hijacking of gene functions that imitate host encoded immunomodulatory proteins. This co-evolution with the host immune system allowed for establishment of lifelong persistence. The HCMV infection is largely asymptomatic in healthy persons; however, it can induce serious disease in immunocompromised individuals. For this reason, great attention is paid to the development of therapeutics bas...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kempová V, Lenhartová S, Benko M, Nemčovič M, Kúdelová M, Nemčovičová I Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

T cells and their function in the immune response to viruses.
aacute; M, Betáková T Abstract The development of CD4+ T helper cells is determined by the set of transcription factors and the genes these transcription factors transcribe. In this review, we describe the basic nature of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, T-follicular helper (Tfh), gamma delta (γδ) T cells, and T-regulatory (Treg) cells subsets, their master regulator transcription factors and their corresponding signature cytokine production profiles. Cellular immunity plays important role during virus infection. Optimal immune response to viral infections require a gentle balance of effector respons...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Beňová K, Hancková M, Koči K, Kúdelová M, Betáková T Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Murine experimental models for studying the pathogenesis of coxsackieviruses.
We describe different mouse models used for studying the diseases caused by coxsackieviruses and the immune responses in different mouse models.  We then shortly elucidate experiences from our laboratory related to the oral route of infection, and compare the similarities and differences we found in this model. Keywords: pathogenesis; coxsackievirus; murine models. PMID: 32551783 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bopegamage S, Benköová B, Pospišilová M, Klement C Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Cell-to-cell transport in viral families: faster than usual.
We describe the cell-to-cell transport in different viral families to show that this way of virus distribution is present in almost all the mammalian virus families and is not as uncommon as it was thought. The knowledge of the ways of viral transport might lead us to exploit more successful therapeutic approaches and fight the most threatening diseases. Keywords: cell-to-cell transmission; tunneling nanotubes; viral synapses; filopodia; actin comets. PMID: 32551784 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Labudová M Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4, prototype strain MHV-68) as an important model in global research of human oncogenic gammaherpesviruses.
estenská K Abstract The aim of this work was to give an overview of murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) (synonyms: murine gammaherpesvirus 68, mouse herpesvirus strain 68), the first model for the study of human and animal oncogenic gammaherpesviruses. Based on our results confirming similarity of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) to another gammaherpesvirus, human oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), we were able to interpret some processes observed in the course of MHV-68 infection in analogy to EBV infection. In particular, that were the processes occurring during MHV-68-induced persistent infection in mice ac...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mistríková J, Bbrestenská K Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Posttranslational modifications of HBV core protein.
ber J Abstract Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) often leads to development of chronic liver disease. In fact, 10% of infected adults and almost 90% of infected infants develop chronic hepatitis B associated with severe liver diseases, including acute liver failure, liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. At present there is no effective cure for chronic hepatitis B. The current treatment of chronically infected patients is long-term, expensive and relies on treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogs in combination with immune therapies, that frequently lead to adverse side effects. Recently, the National Inst...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lubyová B, Weber J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Retrospective review and current knowledge on the occurrence of West Nile virus in mosquito vectors, reservoirs and hosts in Slovakia (Central Europe).
anová V, Csank T Abstract West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus (the genus Flavivirus) representing a medical and veterinary public health concern. Birds are the most important reservoirs. Culicine mosquitoes transmit WNV to vertebrate hosts (including horses and humans) and migratory birds play role in its long-distance transport. Slovakia is geographically localised at the crossroad of migration routes connecting South Europe and Africa with breeding localities in the Western, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe and Siberia. This review summarizes historical and present knowledge...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Korytár Ľ, Peňazziová K, Pistl J, Tichá E, Čabanová V, Csank T Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Metabolic reprogramming as a feast for virus replication.
Abstract Viral replication depends entirely on the energy and biosynthetic precursors supplied by the host cell metabolic network. Viruses actively reprogram host cell metabolism to establish optimal environment for their replication and spread. They stimulate the uptake of extracellular nutrients and predominantly modulate glucose, glutamine, and fatty acid metabolism to support anabolic metabolic pathways. Some viruses activate the process of aerobic glycolysis, divert the glycolytic carbon for biosynthetic reactions, and stimulate glutamine utilization to replenish tricarboxylic cycle intermediates. Others use ...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Polcicova K, Badurova L, Tomaskova J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Historical analysis of epizootiological situation of rabies on the territory of the Slovak Republic.
emanová S, Benkő Z, Korytár Ľ Abstract Currently, Slovakia is a rabies-free country, but the epizootiological situation of rabies was not always favorable. The main reservoir species of rabies virus in the first half of the last century was the domestic dog. Since 1906, hundreds of cases were reported, of which approximately 90% were infected dogs. The disease had a typical urban character. Since 1929, the number of rabid domestic animals decreased due to the implementation of dog vaccination campaigns in particular parts of Slovakia. From the second half of 1950s, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have be...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ondrejková A, Švrček Š, Ondrejka R, Beníšek Z, Süli J, Kopřiva V, Zemanová S, Benkő Z, Korytár Ľ Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Tick-borne encephalitis in domestic animals.
Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a disease caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), represents a serious neural infection of humans in Europe and Asia. The main reservoir hosts of TBEV are ticks, rodents and insectivores, but domestic animals may also be infected with the virus. This review summarizes what is known about TBE in domestic species (e.g., dogs, horses), in which infection may manifest with clinical signs similar to those seen in severe human cases. We also focus on TBE in ruminants where TBE infections are typically asymptomatic and do not cause health problems in the infected hosts. How...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Salat J, Ruzek D Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Chemokine-binding proteins encoded by herpesviruses.
aacute; T, Kúdelová M Abstract To establish infection, a wide variety of pathogens, including viruses, have evolved a number of strategies to avoid immune elimination. Viruses have acquired and optimized molecules that interact with the host chemokine network in order to disrupt immune surveillance and defense of vertebrates, helping to promote cell entry, facilitating dissemination of infected cells, and evasion the immune response. Viral immunomodulators include ligands, chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins (vCKBPs) functioning as either cell surface receptor mimics, ligand mimics, or...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Benko M, Lenhartová S, Kempová V, Betáková T, Kúdelová M Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019: A new severe acute respiratory syndrome from Wuhan in China.
Abstract An outbreak of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has emerged during December 2019. The ongoing outbreak in Wuhan City spread rapidly throughout China, where the fatality rate ranged from 2.1 to 4.9%. Due to its high transmissibility, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020. The current outbreak has the potential to become the first pandemic of the new millennium. Most patients who were first diagnosed with COVID-19 worked at or lived in the vicinity of the local Hua...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cao Y, Cai K, Xiong L Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Recent advances in vaccines and diagnostics against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
Abstract Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an RNA virus that causes severe respiratory disease. Since it was identified in 2012, approximately 2500 MERS cases with high mortality have been confirmed in 27 countries. Although most cases have occurred in the Middle East, an outbreak in South Korea in 2015 showed that MERS could be a global threat via human-to-human transmission. There is no licensed vaccine against MERS. Thus, early detection is the best way to limit the spread of this fatal disease. In this review, we focus on transmission, the infection process, and scientific efforts in v...
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lee K, Nam JH Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

A case of coronavirus HKU1 encephalitis.
This study might help understand more about coronavirus and improve the awareness of pathogen detection in patients with coronavirus encephalitis. Keywords: coronavirus HKU1; encephalitis. PMID: 32551794 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cao P, Huang Y, Wu Z, Sun H, Ma W, Fang T Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Coronaviruses.
;ni J Abstract The members of coronavirus family are facultative pathogens of birds and mammals, including men. From their first isolation 60 years ago, they caused smaller or larger epidemics mainly originating from China. The most recent pandemic quickly spreading worldwide has affected over 2,000,000 people. Keywords: coronavirus; epidemic; single strand vRNA. PMID: 32551795 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - June 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rajčáni J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

HIV-1: towards understanding the nature and quantifying the latent reservoir.
Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic constitutes one of the greatest public health issues, since 36.9 million people worldwide were living with HIV in 2017 and 940,000 died from AIDS- related illnesses in the same year. One of the main obstacles in the effort to achieve viral eradication or long-term virologic remission is the existence of the HIV-reservoir. Except for resting memory CD4+ T cells there is a plethora of innate immunity cells including macrophages, dendritic cells, follicular T helper cells and NK cells which are now considered to play a...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chatzidimitriou D, Tsotridou E, Grigoropoulos P, Skoura L Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Andrias davidianus ranavirus 1R encoding a delayed-early protein promotes cell proliferation by driving cell cycle progression into S phase.
In this study, the transcription and expression of ADRV-1R were investigated in Chinese giant salamander thymus cells (GSTCs). ADRV-1R transcription starts 6 hours post-infection (hpi), while the protein expression starts 8 hpi. Drug inhibition assay showed that the transcripts are inhibited by cycloheximide (CHX), a de novo protein synthesis inhibitor, indicating that ADRV-1R is a viral delayed-early (DE) gene. Subcellular localization showed that ADRV-1R is distributed in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm. The effect of ADRV-1R overexpression on cell proliferation and virus titer was analyzed. ADRV-1R overexpression signifi...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yu NT, Ke F, Zhang QY Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

The investigation of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus co-infection in humans and animals in China.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of co-infection of hepatitis A and hepatitis E virus (HAV/HEV) in patients with acute hepatitis as well as in different animal species. A total of 46 serum samples from patients diagnosed as hepatitis A or hepatitis E and 675 fecal samples of 11 animal species were collected. The IgM class antibodies to HEV and HAV, respectively, were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HEV and HAV RNAs were extracted from serum and fecal samples for the nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. At least 10.9% (5/46) of the patients were co-i...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Li M, Zhang H, Wang L, Li Z, Wang J, Xu B, Hao R, Liu C, Fu H, Rao H, Zhuang H, Wang L Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Identification of Pistacia-associated flexivirus 1, a putative mycovirus of the family Gammaflexiviridae, in the mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus) transcriptome.
In this study, we identified the genome sequence of the novel virus Pistacia-associated flexivirus 1 (PAFV1), a putative member of the mycovirus family Gammaflexiviridae (the order Tymovirales), via analysis of a transcriptome dataset for the mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus, the family Anacardiaceae). PAFV1 was predicted to have three open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1, encoding a replicase (REP) with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity; ORF2, a movement protein (MP); and ORF3, a hypothetical protein. The PAFV1 REP sequence showed high similarity to those of three known members of the family Gammaflexiviridae i.e., Entoleu...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Park D, Goh CJ, Lee JS, Sebastiani F, Hahn Y Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Identification of Trichosanthes associated rhabdovirus 1, a novel member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, in the Trichosanthes kirilowii transcriptome.
Abstract The genome sequence of a novel RNA virus, Trichosanthes associated rhabdovirus 1 (TrARV1), was identified in a transcriptome dataset isolated from a root sample of Trichosanthes kirilowii, which is a flowering plant belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The fruits, seeds, and root tubers of T. kirilowii have been used clinically in traditional Chinese medicine. The TrARV1 genome sequence was predicted to have six open reading frames (ORFs) encoding five canonical structural proteins of the family Rhabdoviridae (N ORF for nucleocapsid, P ORF for phosphoprotein, M ORF for matrix protein, G ORF for glycopro...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Goh CJ, Park D, Hahn Y Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Thiol/disulfide exchange occurs in rotavirus structural proteins during contact with intestinal villus cell surface.
Abstract Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an enzyme that catalyzes disulfide bond reduction or formation and rearrangements of disulfide bridges, and also functions as a chaperone. During entry of some of the viruses PDI participates in thiol-disulfide exchange. Previous reports show that rotavirus entry is interfered by impermeant thiol/disulfide exchange inhibitors and antibodies against PDI. Our objective was to assess the interaction between PDI and triple-layered particles (TLPs) from rotavirus strains ECwt and RRV and from a human rotavirus isolate (HI) during the early steps of virus entry in a system o...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rivera M, Guerrero CA, Acosta O Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Characterization of a P18 protein in the S1 segment of the novel duck reovirus genome.
Abstract Novel duck reovirus (NDRV), the prototype strain of avian orthoreoviruses, continues to circulate among ducks. Analysis of its genome suggested that a putative second open reading frame in the S1 segment encodes a 162-amino acid nonstructural protein with size of 18 kDa, provisionally designated P18. This protein is different from the 17 kDa nonstructural protein encoded in the same open reading frame in other avian orthoreoviruses, which is designated P17 and consists of 146 amino acids. There is no corresponding protein in Muscovy duck reovirus. Antibodies raised to the purified recombinant pr...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: DU X, Ding M, Wu Q, Li CH, Guo H, Liu G, Chen Z Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Two genetically similar H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from different species show similar virulence in minks but different virulence in mice.
In this study, two H9N2 influenza viruses were isolated from the same region in eastern China but from different hosts; one was isolated from mink and named A/Mink/Shandong/WM01/2014(H9N2)(WM01), while the other was isolated from chicken and named A/Chicken/Shandong/LX830/2014(H9N2)(LX830). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that both H9N2 influenza viruses had similar genetic backgrounds. The results of infection in minks suggested that both viruses caused significant weight loss and pathological changes in the lungs. Mouse infection showed that LX830 was nonpathogenic in mice, but WM01 resulted in 25% mortality ...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ren W, Zhang CH, Li G, Liu G, Shan H, Li J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Influenza A virus lacking the effector and C terminal domains of NS1 protein induces cytokines associated with high pathogenicity in mice.
e;bová A, Betáková T Abstract Non-structural NS1 protein of influenza A virus counters host antiviral defences by antagonizing the interferon response. The C-terminal effector domain suppresses the host response and is associated with the pathogenicity of the virus.  To better understand the regulatory role of the C-terminal domain, we used reverse genetics system to generate NS1-truncated virus (NS80) and compared the cytokine profiles in the lungs of mice infected with the NS80 mutant and with the control virus A/WSN/33 (WSN). The NS80 virus was attenuated and the viral titer in the lun...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Turianová L, Lachová V, Beňová K, Kostrábová A, Betáková T Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Full genome sequence of a chrysanthemum-infecting tomato spotted wilt virus isolate from Zimbabwe obtained by next-generation sequencing.
This study provides the first full genome of TSWV from Zimbabwe. It also adds useful information towards understanding the evolution of the pathogen. Keywords: Africa; tospovirus; phylogenetic analysis; recombination; virus identification. PMID: 32180422 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Karavina C, Ibaba JD, Gubba A Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Targeting Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) with Murraya koengii bio-compounds: An in-silico approach.
This study is thus aimed to explore the inhibitory potential of Muuraya koengii bioactive compounds isomahanine, murrayanol and mahanimbine against the EBNA-1 of EBV. 3D structure of EBNA-1 was retrieved from the PDB data bank with further optimization of both the protein and ligands. In-silico inhibitory potential of the selected M. koengii bio-compounds against EBNA-1 as well as the molecular properties of the derivatives against EBNA-1 were assessed. Murrayanol seems to be a potent inhibitory drug to target EBNA-1 with a promising binding energy of -7.21 with two hydrogen bonds. Drug likeliness parameters recorded murra...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mathivadani V, Smiline AS, Priyadharsini JV Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Occurrence and detection of little cherry virus 1, little cherry virus 2, cherry green ring mottle virus, cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus, and cherry virus A in stone fruit trees in Poland.
jka A Abstract To investigate the occurrence of little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1), little cherry virus 2 (LChV-2), cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV), cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV), and cherry virus A (CVA) in stone fruit trees in Poland, leaf samples were collected from sweet and sour cherry, peach, and apricot trees. Two sets of primers were used to increase the effectiveness of virus detection. The RT-PCR results indicated that the most frequently detected virus in all of the tested samples was CVA (60%), followed by CGRMV (13%), CNRMV (12%), LChV-1 (11%), and LChV-2 (4%). CVA and CNRMV were not d...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Komorowska B, Hasiów-Jaroszewska B, Czajka A Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Genomic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the first H12N2 influenza A virus identified from wild birds, China.
In this report, an H12N2 influenza A virus was identified from a fecal sample in the falcated teal, Anas falcata, located in the Dongting Lake wetland. This is the first report of H12N2 IAV detected from wild birds in China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all eight segments of this H12N2 virus clustered in the Eurasian lineage. This strain was also shown to be closely related to those from duck-origin, goose origin and wild bird origin. This suggested a transmission of influenza A virus along the East Asian-Australian flyway. In addition, these results implied an interaction between wild birds and domestic poultry and e...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Liu J, Zhou L, Luo Z, Zou Y, Lv J, Wang T Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Different mechanisms of the protection against influenza A infection mediated by broadly reactive HA2-specific antibodies.
rečková E Abstract Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause yearly repeating infections in humans. The current vaccination approach is based on the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies. Virus-neutralizing antibodies, however, are closely strain-specific due to the IAV variability. Therefore, antibodies produced during the previous influenza season do not provide sufficient protection against new infection, and, hence, annual revaccination is needed. The utilization of the influenza conserved stem domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the HA2 gp, led to a new vaccine design based on cross-reactive cellular and ...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tomčíková K, Varečková E Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Zostera virus T - a novel virus of the genus Tepovirus identified in the eelgrass, Zostera muelleri.
Abstract Analysis of a transcriptome dataset obtained from tissue samples of the eelgrass Zostera muelleri, an aquatic flowering plant species of the family Zosteraceae, yielded three genome sequence contigs of a novel RNA virus. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the novel RNA virus, named Zostera virus T (ZoVT), belongs to the genus Tepovirus of the family Betaflexiviridae. The three genome contigs of ZoVT showed 88.2‒97.2% nucleotide sequence identity to each other, indicating that they descended from a common ancestor. The ZoVT genome contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1 e...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Goh CJ, Park D, Lee JS, Davey PA, Pernice M, Ralph PJ, Hahn Y Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Identification of a novel member of the family Betaflexiviridae from the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum.
Abstract Betaflexiviridae is a family of plant-infecting RNA viruses with 11 recognized genera, of which genomes have diverse organization with three to six open reading frames (ORFs). A genome sequence of a novel Betaflexiviridae species, named Salvia divinorum RNA virus 1 (SdRV1), was identified in Salvia divinorum, herbal mint plant with hallucinogenic properties. The SdRV1 genome was predicted to have four ORFs encoding a replicase polyprotein (REP), a movement protein (MP), a coat protein (CP), and a putative nucleic acid-binding protein (NBP). Phylogenetic analyses based on the REP, MP, and CP sequences indi...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Goh CJ, Hahn Y Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Molecular detection of Marek's disease virus in feather and blood samples from young laying hens in Colombia.
In conclusion, different strains of MDV are circulating for up to 120 days in layers in Antioquia-Colombia and could be of major impact in poultry health. Keywords: Marek's disease virus (MDV); Antioquia-Colombia; qPCR; PCR; Meq gene phylogeny. PMID: 31802681 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: López-Osorio S, Villar D, Piedrahita D, Ramírez-Nieto G, Nair V, Baigent S, Chaparro-Gutiérrez J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Autophagy triggered by MAVS inhibits Coxsackievirus A16 replication.
Abstract Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), a crucial adaptor protein localized on mitochondria, plays vital roles in various biological processes. Autophagy and apoptosis are two independent and closely linked cell death pathways. But whether MAVS could induce apoptosis and autophagy in rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cells) and what is the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis still remains elusive. Here, we reveal that overexpression of MAVS could trigger both apoptosis and autophagy in RD cells. Interestingly, MAVS-induced apoptosis was dependent on the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinas...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shi Y, Liu Y, Zheng Y, Tang Y, Zhu G, Qiu W, Huang L, Han S, Yin J, Peng B, He X, Liu W Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Attenuation and amino acid changes in infectious bronchitis virus Iranian 793/B serotype during serial passaging in embryonated chicken eggs.
Abstract The use of live attenuated vaccine (LAV) is the main method for controlling infectious bronchitis (IB). It is advisable to develop a LAV using a dominant serotype in the region in the case of vaccine failure. Since 793/B serotype is one of the most predominant circulating IB viruses in Iran, attenuation of three Iranian 793/B isolates (IR/773/2001, IR/794/2002 and IR/520/2002) was done by serial passaging in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs up to 90 passages to assess the degree of their attenuation to achieve a native LAV in the future. Virulence and pathogenicity of passage levels 1...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Salarpour A, Toroghi R, Nikbakht GR, Rezai A, Momayez R Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Identification of the experimental herbaceous host range of the Apscaviroids infecting citrus species.
Abstract Citrus viroid V (CVd-V), citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd) and citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd) (the genus Apscaviroid, the family Pospiviroidae) have been reported to be restricted to citrus species naturally. The herbaceous host range of these viroids was identified using the viroids infectious clones. Several herbaceous plants from the Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae families were found to be susceptible to CVd-V, CDVd and CBLVd. Also, the viroids could be transferred to these hosts through rubbing of monomeric DNA plasmids and through mechanical inoculation of infected sap. Keywords: cit...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ebrahimi-Moghaddam L, Zakiaghl M, Jafarpour B, Mehrvar M Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Proteomics analysis of suckling mouse brain infected with attenuated rabies virus strain SRV9.
Abstract Rabies virus is an enveloped negative-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae. It can be successfully controlled by vaccination however, there are still tens of thousands of deaths each year caused by rabies virus due to its mutations and complexity. A better understanding of the interaction between the rabies virus and the host might help solve this problem. Therefore, in this study, we used two-dimensional electrophoresis to investigate the protein expression of rabies virus-infected mice. This can help us to understand the impact of rabies virus on host protein expression during infect...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yan W, Xiang R, Chen J, Huang C, Yuan ZG, Huang Y, Luo SJ, Huang Z, Xiang H, Wang XH Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of a bunya-like virus from the freshwater Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.
In this study, full-length genome sequences of EsBV were pursued using next generation sequencing; the genome of EsBV was found to be composed of 6.7 kb L, 3.3 kb M, and 0.8 kb S segments, respectively. PCR detection based genomic sequences showed that the positive rate of EsBV reached 40% in crabs from farming ponds. EsBV had the highest similarity with the Wenling crustacean virus 9, an unassigned, negative sense ssRNA virus. EsBV clustered with the Wenling crustacean virus 9 firstly, and then the branch clustered with Peribunyaviridae clade in every phylogenetic tree - based on L, M and S encoded sequence...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huang P, Zhang X, Ame KH, Shui Y, Xu Z, Serwadda A, Shen H Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Recombinant luciferase-expressing murine gammaherpesvirus 68 as a tool for rapid antiviral screening.
acute;ková M, Mistríková J Abstract Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) provides a valuable tool to screen novel therapeutic strategies against oncogenic gammaherpesviruses. The development and characterization of antiviral agents usually depend on appropriate screening assays. The aim of this study was to develop rapid and sensitive method for testing antiviral compounds against gammaherpesviruses. For this purpose, a recombinant MHV-68 expressing firefly luciferase (MHV-68/LUC) was constructed. The conditions for MHV-68/LUC infection in Vero cells suitable for novel antiviral scree...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Briestenská K, Šamšulová V, Poláková M, Mistríková J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Kinetic analysis of bacteriophage Sf6 binding to outer membrane protein a using whole virions.
Abstract For successful infection, viruses must recognize their respective host cells. A common mechanism of host recognition by viruses is to utilize a portion of the host cell as a receptor. Bacteriophage Sf6, which infects Shigella flexneri, uses lipopolysaccharide as a primary receptor and then requires interaction with a secondary receptor, a role that can be fulfilled by either outer membrane proteins (Omp) A or C. Our previous work showed that specific residues in the loops of OmpA mediate Sf6 infection. To better understand Sf6 interactions with OmpA loop variants, we determined the kinetics of these inter...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hubbs NB, Whisby-Pitts MM, McMurry JL Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Genetic variation and phylogenetic analysis of Porcine circovirus type 2 in China from 2016 to 2018.
In this study, 48 PCV2 strains were isolated in China between 2016 and 2018 and the genetic diversity of these PCV2 isolates was determined. Results showed that these PCV2 isolates were classified into genotypes PCV2a (4 of 48), PCV2b (13 of 48) and PCV2d (31 of 48). Among them, 54.5% isolated in 2016, 65.2% isolated in 2017 and 71.4% isolated in 2018 belonged to PCV2d. It indicated that the prevalence of PCV2d genotype increased. All strains shared 93.4%-100% nucleotide sequence identity for the whole genome. Results of the analysis using RDP 4.0 molecular recombination software showed there were no recombinant events amo...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hou Z, Wang H, Feng Y, Song M, Li Q, Li J Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Phosphorylation of nucleopolyhedrovirus 39K is essential for the regulation of viral gene transcription in silkworm cells.
Abstract 39K protein was proven to be the most notable hyperphosphorylated protein of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), since its amino acid 136 has the highest phosphorylation ratio (16.683) among all of BmNPV phosphorylated proteins (Shobahah et al., 2017). Therefore, we inserted positive (mimicking phosphorylation) and negative (mimicking dephosphorylation) mutants of the highest phosphorylated site of 39K and the wild type 39k into the 39k-ko-Bacmid using the Bac-to-Bac system. These three kinds of recombinant Bacmids along with wild type and knocked-out Bacmid were then transfected into the Bombyx mor...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yan H, Shobahah J, Wei M, Obeng E, Xue S, Hu D, Quan Y, Yu W Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Efficient inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in vitro by artificial microRNA targeting 3D polymerase.
In this study, the efficacy of amiRNAs in preventing FMD virus replication in a permissive cell culture system was investigated, by generating stable cell lines expressing amiRNAs targeting three functional regions of the FMD virus (FMDV) genome (IRES, 3B3 and 3D). The results showed that amiRNA targeting 3D polymerase is relatively more efficient. However, expression of multiple microRNAs targeting the three regions did not exhibit additive effect. The data suggest that 3D specific miRNA is a potential valid strategy in developing novel antiviral measures against FMDV infection. Keywords: artificial microRNA; foot-and-mou...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Basagoudanavar SH, Ranjitha HB, Hosamani M, Kolangath SM, Selvan RPT, Sreenivasa BP, Saravanan P, Sanyal A, Venkataramanan R Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Role of oral vaccines as an edible tool to prevent infectious diseases.
Abstract Plants have been as medicinal mediators for centuries. Recent trends in agro-biotechnology however, improved the therapeutic roles of plants to a significant level and introduced plant-based oral vaccine which can arouse an immune response in consumer. Although conventional vaccines against infectious diseases have been administrated for years the discovery of plant-based oral vaccines can potentially replace them completely in the future. The probable limitations in conventional vaccines are found to be overcome by plant-based oral vaccines. Humans and animals will no longer be dependent upon local or sy...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shakoor S, Rao AQ, Shahid N, Yaqoob A, Samiullah TR, Shakoor S, Latif A, Tabassum B, Khan MAU, Shahid AA, Husnain T Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

The involvement of the substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor system in viral infection: focus on the gp120 fusion protein and homologous dipeptide domains.
R, Kramer M Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope, via a key extracellular amino acid sequence, may simulate the functionality of native undecapeptide substance P (SP) acting through the host's neurokinin 1 (SP preferring) receptor (NK-1R). Human monocytes and macrophages express both NK-1Rs and SP. In HIV/AIDS the NK-1R may function as a chemokine-like G-protein coupled co-receptor that: 1) fuses to the outer envelope of HIV; 2) enables intracellular entry of the envelope-capsid-NK-1R complex; 3) co-opts immune defence via its physiological interaction with the SP-like envelope; 4) may con...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muñoz M, Coveñas R, Kramer M Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

The effect of human interferon alpha on replication of different bovine viral diarrhea virus strains.
Abstract Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) exists in two main biotypes: cytopathic (cp) and noncytopathic (ncp). Although some studies were done on the effect of interferon alpha (IFN-α) on BVDV, the effect of exogenous IFN against BVDV biotypes remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the comparative effect of exogenous human IFN-α (HuIFN-α) on different BVDV biotypes and genotypes. The results showed that exogenous HuIFN-α greatly inhibited the growth of different BVDV biotypes and genotypes. However, HuINF-α has a significant inhibitory effect on cp biotype compared to ...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elsheikh AA, Braun LJ, Mansour SMG, Orabi A, Alqahtani AS, Benfield DA, Chase CCL Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Identification and phylogenetic analysis of an orf virus strain isolated in Anhui Province, East-central China, in 2018.
Abstract Orf, also called contagious ecthyma or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a significant zoonotic disease that primarily affects goat and sheep globally. Currently, the infection by orf virus (ORFV) has been observed in different host species worldwide, including China. Here, a suspected outbreak of orf infection in a goat farm in Anhui Province in 2018 was investigated. Through PCR, electron microscopy, and cell culture techniques, we confirmed that the outbreak was caused by ORFV. Consequently, the orf virus strain was named the AH/LA/2018 strain. The amplified and sequenced ORFV011 (B2L) and ORFV059 (F1...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wang Y, Yang K, Wang YA, Yu Z, Zhang Q, Zhang G, Su L, Lu Z, Zhang X, Liu Z, Jiang S, Li Y Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Synthetic peptide optimization improves the inhibition of dengue NS2B-NS3 protease and dengue replication in vitro.
In this study, we employed computational studies using YASARA, HADDOCK server and PyMOL software to generate short and linear peptides based on a reference peptide, CP5-46A, to block DENV NS2B-NS3 protease. The inhibition potencies of the peptides were evaluated using in-house DENV2 serine protease and fluorogenic peptide substrates. In vitro analyses were performed to determine the peptides cytotoxicity and the inhibitory effects against DENV2 replication in WRL-68 cells. Our computational analyses revealed that the docking energy of AYA3, a 16 amino acid (aa) (-81.2 ± 10.6 kcal/mol) and AYA9, a 15 aa peptide (-83....
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abdulrahman AY, Rothan HA, Khazali AS, Teoh TC, Daher AM, Yusof R Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Schmallenberg virus affects T-bet, Gata3, RoRr γt, Foxp3 and Eomes in mice brain.
In this report, we introduce preliminary data of T cell transcription factors affected by SBV infection of BALB/c mice. Keywords: Eomes; Foxp3; Gata3; RoRγt; Schmallenberg virus; T-bet. PMID: 31507194 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aksoy E, Azkur AK Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Secondary dengue infection in immunocompetent murine model leads to heart tissue damage.
ra DF Abstract Dengue, considered the most important arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and caused by one of the four distinct serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4). Infection with one of the four serotypes provides lifelong homotypic immunity. However, immunity against the heterologous serotypes is transient. As a consequence, secondary infection may lead to severer manifestations due to cross-reactivity of antibodies and T-cells. Over 500,000 people are hospitalized every year and around 2,5 million, living in endemic areas, are...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jácome FC, Teixeira AL, Coutinho DD, Costa AD, Caldas GC, Nunes MA, Barth OM, Barreto-Vieira DF Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Efficacy and immunogenicity of a live L. acidophilus expressing SAD epitope of transmissible gastroenteritis virus as an oral vaccine.
In this study, a TGEV oral vaccine was generated by transferring a eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid carrying the SAD (A and D antigenic sites of the S protein) epitope of TGEV into a swine-origin Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus). In orally immunized BALB/c mice, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced significantly higher level of SIgA antibodies specific to TGEV compared with the mice immunized with a commercial inactivated TGEV vaccine and similar levels of IgG specific to TGEV as the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, which...
Source: Acta Virologica - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xue R, Tian Y, Zhang Y, Zhang M, Tian F, Ma J, Jiang S Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research