Analysis of cerebellum with magnetic resonance 3D T1 sequence in individuals with chronic subjective tinnitus
AbstractTinnitus is a symptom in which the patient can hear ringing, buzzing and similar sounds in the ear for 3  months longer. In our study, we aimed to analyse the cerebellum volume and cerebellum connections in patients with chronic tinnitus using VolBrain program. A total number of 10 patients and 10 otherwise healthy peoples records were then enrolled. Volumetric analysis was performed with automated se gmentation of the cerebellum and its lobules, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mean volumes of 10 cerebellar volume were compared between the tinnitus and control groups. Quadrangular lobular portion o...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cytochrome P450-mediated estrogen catabolism therapeutic avenues in epilepsy
AbstractEpilepsy is a neuropsychiatric disorder, which does not have any identifiable cause. However, experimental and clinical results have asserted that the sex hormone estrogen level and endocrine system function influence the seizure and epileptic episodes. There are available drugs to control epilepsy, which passes through the metabolism process. Cytochrome P-450 family 1 (CYP1A1) is a heme-containing mono-oxygenase that are induced several folds in most of the tissues and cells contributing to their differential expression, which regulates various metabolic processes upon administration of therapeutics.CYP1A1 gene fa...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - August 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ruptured de novo posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm associated with fibromuscular dysplasia
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bilateral facial palsy as the first presentation of primary Sj ögren’s syndrome: a case report and review of literature
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

An elderly patient with Charles Bonnet Syndrome misdiagnosed as Lewy Body Dementia
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Various head rotations for ultrasonographic diagnosis of bilateral bow hunter ’s syndrome
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intravenous immunoglobulin-induced aseptic meningitis in a patient with Miller Fisher syndrome
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Heidenhain variant of Creutzefeldt –Jackob disease in a patient carrying the V210I mutation with asymmetric MRI abnormalities
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The fusiform gyrus and theory of mind: a case study
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis revealing burned-out seminoma
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Idiopathic internal carotid artery vasospasm successfully treated with balloon angioplasty
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of dynamic and widespread mechanical sensitivity in cluster headache
AbstractWe investigated if dynamic pressure pain sensitivity in the symptomatic area is associated with pressure sensitivity in local and distant pain-free areas in cluster headache (CH). A pressure algometry set consisting of 8 rollers with fixed pressure levels ranging from 500 to 5300  g was used to assess dynamic pressure pain sensitivity in men with episodic CH. Each roller was moved from an anterior-to-posterior direction over the temporalis muscle. The load level of the first painful roller was considered the dynamic pain threshold (DPT). Further, pain elicited during DPT (r oller evoked pain) was also assessed...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Facing acute neuromuscular diseases during COVID-19 pandemic: focus on Guillain –Barré syndrome
AbstractIn December 2019, a cluster of cases with 2019 Novel Coronavirus pneumonia from Wuhan, China, aroused worldwide concern due to an escalating outbreak in all the countries in the world. Coronavirus belongs to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), that have caused human epidemics with high fatality. The spectrum of the novel coronavirus disease (SARS-Co-2 or COVID-19) ranges from asymptomatic infections to fatal pneumonia, and differs from other viral pulmonary infections. MERS-CoV is known to be potentiall...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Neurological manifestations of COVID ‑19, SARS and MERS
Unfortunately, the first name and family names of all authors were incorrectly swapped in the original publication. The complete correct names should read as follows. (Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment and depression after acute myocardial infarction: associations with ejection fraction and demographic characteristics
AbstractCognitive impairment and depression are often associated with acute myocardial infarction, however, the risk factors for their occurrence after myocardial infarction are still unclear. To determine the effect of reduced ejection fraction and demographic characteristics on the occurrence of cognitive impairment and depression after myocardial infarction. In the prospective study, the final sample consisted of 82 patients. Based on the value of the ejection fraction, the patients were divided into those with a value of  
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of immunotherapy in a CASPR2 and LGI1 antibody-positive elderly patient with Isaacs ’ syndrome: a case study
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CYP2C9 ( *2 & amp;*3 ) and CYP2C19 ( *2 & amp;*3 ) polymorphisms among children with nonlesional epilepsy: a single-center study
AbstractCytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes are responsible for metabolism of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and encoded by highly polymorphic genes. A case –control study was conducted in Mansoura University Children’s Hospital, Egypt including 100 children with nonlesional epilepsy (50 AEDs responders and 50 resistant cases) and 50 healthy controls. All participants were investigated for frequencies ofCYP2C9 (*2&*3) andCYP2C19 (*2&*3) genotypes and alleles using polymerase chain reaction. The current study reported higher frequencies ofCYP2C9*2 (CT) genotype and (T) allele among responsive and resistant groups...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: “COVID-19 does not reduce stroke-related emergencies”
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral creatine deficiency: Black cat in the coal cellar
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings of microcystic meningioma and meningeal Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors
AbstractMicrocystic meningiomas (MCMs) and meningeal Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours (pPNETs) are difficult to differentiate because of the similarity in their image manifestation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Differential diagnosis of these two tumours before surgery could contribute to ameliorating clinical decision-making, and predicting prognosis. Here, we aimed to comparatively analyse the difference between MRI and pathological findings of these two tumours. Thirteen cases of MCM and eleven cases of meningeal Ewing sarcoma/pPNET confirmed through pathology were analysed retrospective...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Phenotypic and genotypic features of patients diagnosed with ALS in the city of Sakarya, Turkey
In this study, the clinical, demographic, and genetic features of ALS patients in the city of Sakarya, Turkey, were investigated. Patients with an established diagnosis of ALS according to the Awaji criteria were included. Age, sex, age at onset of ALS, initial complaints, consanguineous marriage, and genetic features were retrospectively investigated. Conventional genetic analysis and NGS were used for molecular evaluation of patients. A total of 55 probands (10 familial, 45 sporadic) in whom ALS was suspected due to their phenotypic features were included. Thirty-two patients were male (58.2%), and 23 were female (41.8%)...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Assessment of responsiveness of four hand-related scales in stroke patients
AbstractSelf-reporting scales are commonly utilized in determining appropriate treatment strategies and follow-up in hand-related disorders. Responsiveness is described as the ability of a scale to detect clinically significant changes. We aimed to evaluate responsiveness of Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), Duru öz Hand Index (DHI), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and ABILHAND questionnaire in stroke patients. Fifty-one stroke patients were assessed in this descriptive study. Participants received conventional stroke rehabilitation program consisting of 30 sessions. Brunnst ...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Central-variant posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with bilateral corticospinal tract involvement: a case report
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: emergency department management protocol
AbstractAcute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a rare but disabling infectious condition that requires a performant multidisciplinary management approach. Between 70 and 90 adult patients are diagnosed with community-acquired ABM in Belgium annually, and reported case fatality rates range from 17 to 40%. The currently available guidelines provide evidence-based guidance on how to manage this disease. However, these guidelines do not translate the evidence to the daily practice at the emergency department in a Belgian healthcare context. We created a taskforce in University Hospitals Leuven consisting of experts with complemen...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical features and the role of magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients with intracranial hypertension
AbstractIncreased intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a defined clinical condition; however, an unsolved pathophysiologic background usually creates problems in its diagnosis and proper approach. The aim of this study was to emphasize the clinical conditions and brain magnetic resonce imaging (MRI) clues of pediatric patients, especially this clinical entity with high morbidity. Here, we review the etiology, clinical presentation, brain MRI findings, and prognosis of IIH in children. The symptoms ’ onset age ranged from 9 months to 16 years. Headache (81%), vomiting (37%), and diplopia (33.3%) were the most ...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of chronic kidney disease with outcomes in acute stroke
AbstractPrevious studies have found an association between chronic kidney disease and poor outcomes in stroke patients. However, there is a paucity of literature evaluating this association by stroke type. We therefore aimed to explore the association between CKD and stroke outcomes according to type of stroke. The data consisting of 594,681 stroke patients were acquired from Universal Coverage Health Security Insurance Scheme Database in Thailand. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of CKD and outcomes, which were as follows; in-hospital mortality, long length of stay (>3  days), pneumon...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Anti-PD1-R checkpoint inhibitor related severe relapsing myelitis
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Iatrogenic nerve injuries: a potentially serious medical and medicolegal problem. About a series of 42 patients and review of the literature
ConclusionsNI can result in considerable disability, pain and litigation. Optimal management is required. (Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Comparison of the effect of whole-body vibration therapy versus conventional therapy on functional balance of patients with Parkinson ’s disease: adding a mixed group
ConclusionsWBV therapy is a useful tool as co-adjuvant in conventional therapy. The combination of both therapies is a significant therapeutic alternative for the improvement of functional balance status in PD patients compared to conventional therapy alone. (Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evaluation of clinical outcome and safety profile of edaravone in treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a 72-week single-center experience
AbstractEdaravone is a free radical scavenger that has been recently approved for treatment of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to delay  functional decline. We aim to evaluate edaravone efficacy and safety in ALS patients in the main neurology tertiary center in Kuwait over 72-week period. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in the main tertiary hospital over 72-week period from July 2018 until January 2020. Patie nts were assessed at baseline, 24, 48 and 72 weeks of therapy using ALSFRS-R score, MRC sum score, FVC value, among other parameters. Seventeen consecutive patients were evaluated....
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predictors of respiratory decline in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1): a longitudinal cohort study
AbstractWe studied 33 patients affected by juvenile and adult myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). The aim of the study was to assess clinical and laboratory parameters that could predict the requirement of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in DM1. Secondary outcome was to assess the interplay between genetic profile, muscle impairment severity and presence of cardiac comorbidities.Patients with genetic diagnosis of DM1 were recruited. An abnormal trinucleotide repeat (CTG) expansion of dystrophy protein kinase gene (DMPK) on chromosome 19q13.3 was the prerequisite for inclusion. The number of triplet repeats was measured in genom...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging for the follow-up of intracranial arterial dissections
This study aimed to assess the changes in the key features of ICADs on HRMRI over time. We screened patients who had undergone HRMRI within 7  days of symptom onset for the evaluation of characteristics associated with intracranial steno-occlusive lesions. Among them, patients who (1) were diagnosed with ICAD based on HRMRI findings and (2) underwent follow-up HRMRI 3–12 months after the initial HRMRI were included in the final study. Baseline HRMRI revealed an intramural hematoma, a flap, and a double lumen in 17 (100%), 15 (88%), and 10 (59%) individuals, respectively. At the 3-months follow-up, an intram...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of a shift in treatment funding on a multidisciplinary sleep clinic: a cohort study
AbstractMultidisciplinary Sleep Clinics for sleep apnea have long existed, bringing together neurologists, sleep specialists, dentists, orthodontists and surgeons. In Belgium, a shift in funding for obstructive sleep apnea treatment was implemented from January 1st, 2017. Funding was allowed for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and the rules shifted for treatments delivery and monitoring by authorised medical opinion. We aimed to assess whether a shift in treatment funding was associated with a change in the multidisciplinary sleep practice. Sample consisted of all patients discussed in the sleep multidisciplinar...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The use of WhatsApp Messenger: an important tool in modern neurological examination
AbstractWhatsApp Messenger is one of the most popular and still growing mobile applications worldwide in telemedicine. WhatsApp Messenger can be used as a communication tool and an adjunctive tool within telemedicine, but it is the ability or inability to use WhatsApp Messenger correctly that provides a powerful clinical neurological function tool. The easy use and the application ’s popularity make it extremely useful in obtaining clues in patients’ neurological history. Dystextia or dystypia, the inability to send correct text messages, can be used as an indicator of neurological deficits, and is an upcoming ...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bilateral foot drop in a young woman
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Phrenic nerve palsy in Japanese encephalitis: a rare association
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Spinal hemangioblastoma: surgical procedures, outcomes and review of the literature
Conclusions: our results indicated that a complete microscopic resection was effective in elim inating symptoms in these spinal hemangioblastoma patients, who showed a good prognosis after surgery. These improvements in clinical symptoms may be associated with the blood flow changes, but not with reductions and/or eliminations of syrinx after surgery. (Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predictive value of monocyte to HDL cholesterol ratio for stroke-associated pneumonia in patients with acute ischemic stroke
AbstractPrior studies had reported monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) as a new inflammation marker and stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is common after stroke. We investigated the predictive value of MHR for SAP in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A total of 803 AIS patients within 72  h after stroke were enrolled from April 2012 to January 2016 in Zhangjiagang TCM Hospital affiliated to the Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. MHR measurement within 24 h of hospital admission was divided into quartiles: Q1 (
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acute stroke care during the COVID-19 pandemic: difficult, but not impossible!
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) due to acute hypertension in children: 12  years single-center experience
In this study, the etiology, the presence of status epilepticus, PICU history, atypical MRI lesions and increased inflammato ry markers were found to be important for the prognosis in PRES. (Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Wearable seizure detection devices in refractory epilepsy
This article provides an up-to-date overview and compa rison between wearable seizure detection devices (WSDDs), taking into account the newly proposed standards for testing and clinical validation of devices. 16 devices were included in our comparison. The F1-score, combining the device’s accurate recall and precision, was calculated for each of the se devices and used to evaluate their performance. The devices were separated by development phase and ranked by F1-score from highest to lowest. We describe 16 WSDDs: 6 of which were accelerometry (ACM)-based, 3 surface electromyography-based, 1 was a wearable appl...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum (MVNT) with glioma-like appearance
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Oral appliances in the treatment of oromandibular dystonia: a systematic review
AbstractOromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous form of focal dystonia with variable social and functional implications. The results of pharmacological treatment and botulinum toxin infiltrations are often unsatisfactory. We performed a systematic review on the effects of oral and dental appliances in patients with OMD. Most of the reports in the literature are single subject descriptions or small case series with a considerable variability in the type of dystonia, the type of evaluated appliances and in the outcome measures. Only one report included a large group of unselected patients...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - June 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Spinal cord infarction due to fibrocartilaginous embolism
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The impact of social media use on depression in multiple sclerosis patients
AbstractSocial media is a powerful tool in providing information and support for minority groups such as patients with chronic diseases. We aimed to assess the link between using online social media and depression in a sample population of Iranian Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. In this cross-sectional study, a number of MS patients between 18 –55 years were recruited. The Persian-language version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II-Persian) was used to screen MS patients for depression. We selected a cut-off point of 16 to identify depressed MS patients, who answered the self-administered questionnair...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - June 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Validity and reliability of the Body Awareness Questionnaire in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain
This study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the Body Awareness Questionnaire (BAQ) in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. A total of 180 participants (96 women, 84 men), aged 21 –64 years, with non-specific chronic low back pain were enrolled from June to December 2019. Sociodemographic features were collected. The pain intensity using the Visual Analog Scale, the disability status due to low back pain with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the body awareness level us ing the BAQ, and self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were assessed. Test–ret...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - June 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurological manifestations of COVID-19, SARS and MERS
AbstractSince December 2019, the world is affected by an outbreak of a new disease named COVID-19, which is an acronym of ‘coronavirus disease 2019’. Coronaviruses (CoV) were assumed to be associated with mild upper respiratory tract infections, such as common cold. This perception changed in time due to occurrence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV in 2002 and the Middle East Respir atory Syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV in 2012, both inducing an epidemic severe viral pneumonia with potentially respiratory failure and numerous extra-pulmonary manifestations. The novel coronavi...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - June 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

PIGA -related epileptic encephalopathy demonstrating intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - June 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Inflammatory oedema of nerve trunks may be pathogenic in very early Guillain –Barré syndrome
AbstractThe aim of this paper is to analyse the pathological background of very early Guillain-Barr é (VEGBS) (≤ 4 days after onset) comparing it with initial stages of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). The pathological hallmark of VEGBS is inflammatory oedema predominating in proximal nerve trunks. In EAN inflammatory oedema precedes the development of demyelination or axonal degenera tion; such oedema may increase endoneurial fluid pressure (EFP) stretching the perineurium and constricting the transperineurial microcirculation. Centrofascicular or wedge-shaped areas of nerve ischemia have been...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A rare case of Opsoclonus-Myoclonus associated with SCLC
(Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica)
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research