Insulin-loaded liposomes functionalized with cell-penetrating peptides: influence on drug release and permeation through porcine nasal mucosa
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2021Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering AspectsAuthor(s): Eliete de Souza Von Zuben, Josimar Oliveira Eloy, Victor Hugo Sousa Araujo, Maria Palmira Daflon Gremião, Marlus Chorilli (Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects)
Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects - April 11, 2021 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Improving insulin sensitivity, liver steatosis and fibrosis in type 2 diabetes by  a food-based digital education-assisted lifestyle intervention program: a feasibility study
AbstractPurposeRecent trials demonstrated remission of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) following formula diet-induced weight loss. To improve the outreach for populations in need, many mobile health apps targeting weight loss have been developed with limited scientific evaluation of these apps. The present feasibility study investigated the effects of a novel approach incorporating  a regular ‘whole food-based’ low-calorie diet combined with app-based digital education and behavioral change program on glucose metabolism and disease management.MethodsTwenty-four individuals wit...
Source: European Journal of Nutrition - April 11, 2021 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Lentinan protects against pancreatic β-cell failure in chronic ethanol consumption-induced diabetic mice via enhancing β-cell antioxidant capacity
In this study, we evaluated the effect of Lentinan (LNT), an active ingredient purified from the bodies of Lentinus edodes, on pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction caused by ethanol and the possible mechanisms implicated. Functional studies reveal that LNT attenuates chronic ethanol consumption-induced impaired glucose metabolism in vivo. In addition, LNT ameliorates chronic ethanol consumption-induced β-cell dysfunction, which is characterized by reduced insulin synthesis, defected insulin secretion and increased cell apoptosis. Furthermore, mechanistic assays suggest that LNT enhances β-cell antioxi...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - April 10, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tijun Wu Jiahui Wang Yaru Zhang Yixue Shao Xirui Li Yuqing Guo Wenyu Dong Lin Wang Fang Chen Xiao Han Source Type: research

Characteristics of insulinopenic and non insulinopenic diabetes related to immune checkpoint inhibitors: A French pharmacovigilance study
CONCLUSIONS: ICI-DM is a rare but serious irADR triggered by all classes of immunotherapy. The observation period for ICI-DM can be shortened for patients positive for anti-GAD antibodies. Endogenous insulin deficiency did not appear to be the only mechanism involved in ICI-DM, as beta-cell function was preserved in 20% of reports. Improvements in our understanding of this complication will be required for its prevention.PMID:33836905 | DOI:10.1016/j.therap.2021.03.004 (Source: Therapie)
Source: Therapie - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Marie Bastin Marion Allouchery Marion Sassier Franck Rouby Pirayeh Eftekhari B énédicte Lebrun-Vignes Fabrizio Andreelli Kevin Bihan Source Type: research

Association of IL-16 rs11556218 T/G polymorphism with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus
ConclusionThis study is the first one in the Middle East and Africa which found a correlation between Interleukin-16 gene polymorphism rs11556218 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Egyptians with TG genotypes have a higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Source: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders - April 10, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glycemic Control and Prevention of Diabetic Complications in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Expert Opinion
ConclusionThe rate of well-controlled participants (HbA1c  
Source: Diabetes Therapy - April 10, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Role of Mitochondrial Adaptation and Metabolic Flexibility in the Pathophysiology of Obesity and Insulin Resistance: an Updated Overview
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe term “metabolic flexibility” denotes the dynamic responses of the cellular oxidative machinery in order to adapt to changes in energy substrate availability. A progressive loss of this adaptive capacity has been implicated in the development of obesity-related comorbidities. Mitochondria are dynamic intracellular organelles which play a fundamental role in energy metabolism, and the mitochondrial adaptation to environmental challenges may be viewed as the functional component of metabolic flexibility. Herein, we attempt to comprehensively review the available evidence regarding the ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 10, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Effects of sleep intervention on glucose control: A narrative review of clinical evidence
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of adults that contracted diabetes in 2014 was approximately two times that of 1980 (from 4.7% to 8.5%) [1]. Various lifestyle factors have been shown to influence an individual ’s risk of developing diabetes and disease progression. Among them, sleep deprivation is an emerging risk factor leading to insulin resistance as well as Type 2 diabetes (T2D) [2]. Several hours of sleep per night is recommended by the joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Med icine and Sleep Research Society for optimal health [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 10, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ranjit Tiwari, Dao Ngoc Hien Tam, Jaffer Shah, Michiko Moriyama, Joseph Varney, Nguyen Tien Huy Tags: Review Source Type: research

Insulin resistance and bone health in adolescents
ConclusionOur results suggest that insulin resistance may be inversely and independently associated with the bone indices in younger individuals. Whether high insulin levels have detrimental effects on growing bone is still unclear and has to be answered. (Source: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery)
Source: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery - April 10, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Unilateral adrenalectomy partially improved hyperglycemia in a patient with primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia
AbstractPrimary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) is characterized by bilateral multiple adrenal macro-nodules that often cause mild over-secretion of cortisol in the form of subclinical Cushing ’s syndrome. We herein describe a case, wherein unilateral adrenalectomy partially improved hyperglycemia in a patient with PBMAH and suggest the usefulness and limitations of this surgical strategy. A 64-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes had an incidental diagnosis of bilateral adrenal lesions. She had a family history of type 2 diabetes, and her HbA1c level was 8.9% under insulin therapy. She did not pres...
Source: Diabetology International - April 10, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Circadian rhythm and gestational diabetes: working conditions, sleeping habits and lifestyle influence insulin dependency during pregnancy
AbstractObjectiveManagement of gestational diabetes (GDM) is currently changing toward a more personalized approach. There  is a growing number of GDM patients requiring only a single dose of basal insulin at night to achieve glucose control. Well-known risk factors like obesity, parity and family history have been associated with GDM treatment requirements. Sleep quality and lifestyle factors interfering with the circ adian rhythm are known to affect glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of such lifestyle factors on insulin requirement in GDM patients, in particular on long-acting in...
Source: Acta Diabetologica - April 10, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gain ‐of‐function Lrp5 Mutation Improves Bone Mass and Strength and Delays Hyperglycemia in a Mouse Model of Insulin‐Deficient Diabetes
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research)
Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - April 9, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Giulia Leanza, Francesca Fontana, Seung ‐Yon Lee, Maria S. Remedi, Céline Schott, Mathieu Ferron, Malcolm Hamilton‐Hall, Yael Alippe, Rocky Strollo, Nicola Napoli, Roberto Civitelli Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Exercise and Urtica dioica extract ameliorate hippocampal insulin signaling, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cognitive function in STZ-induced diabetic rats
Publication date: July 2021Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 139Author(s): Masoud Rahmati, Maryam Keshvari, Rahim Mirnasouri, Farzaneh Chehelcheraghi (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - April 9, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Probiotics-rich emulsion improves insulin signalling in Palmitate/Oleate-challenged human hepatocarcinoma cells through the modulation of Fetuin-A/TLR4-JNK-NF-κB pathway
Publication date: July 2021Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 139Author(s): Malwina Mularczyk, Yasmina Bourebaba, Anna Kowalczuk, Krzyzstof Marycz, Lynda Bourebaba (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - April 9, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sexual hormones and diabetes: The impact of estradiol in pancreatic beta cell
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:81-138. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.004. Epub 2021 Mar 16.ABSTRACTDiabetes is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases and its incidence is increasing throughout the world. Data from World Health Organization (WHO) point-out that diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation and estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by it in 2016. Population studies show that the incidence of this disease increases in women after menopause, when the production of estrogen is decreasing in them. Knowing the impact that estrogenic sign...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Beatriz Merino Marta Garc ía-Arévalo Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of lipotoxicity-induced pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:357-402. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.013. Epub 2021 Mar 12.ABSTRACTType 2 diabetes (T2D), a heterogeneous disorder derived from metabolic dysfunctions, leads to a glucose overflow in the circulation due to both defective insulin secretion and peripheral insulin resistance. One of the critical risk factor for T2D is obesity, which represents a global epidemic that has nearly tripled since 1975. Obesity is characterized by chronically elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels, which cause deleterious effects on glucose homeostasis referred to as lipotoxicity. Here, we review the physiological FF...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Asier Benito-Vicente Shifa Jebari-Benslaiman Unai Galicia-Garcia Asier Larrea-Sebal Kepa B Uribe Cesar Martin Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA-regulated pathways in pancreatic β cells: Their role in diabetes
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:325-355. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.007. Epub 2021 Mar 2.ABSTRACTLong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts of more than 200 nucleotides that have not coding potential, but act as gene expression regulators through several molecular mechanisms. Several studies have identified tons of lncRNAs that are expressed in pancreatic β cells and many of them have been shown to have β cell-specific expression, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of basal β cell functions. Indeed, accumulating evidence based on numerous studies, has highlighted the implication of lncRNAs ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Itziar Gonz ález-Moro Izortze Santin Source Type: research

Physiology of pancreatic β-cells: Ion channels and molecular mechanisms implicated in stimulus-secretion coupling
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:287-323. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.006. Epub 2021 Mar 8.ABSTRACTThe human and mouse islet of Langerhans is an endocrine organ composed of five different cells types; insulin-secreting β-cells, glucagon-producing α-cells, somatostatin-producing δ-cells, pancreatic polypeptide-secreting PP cells and ɛ-cells that secretes ghrelin. The most important cells are the pancreatic β-cells that comprise around 45-50% of human islets and 75-80% in the mouse. Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin at high glucose concentration, thereby finely regulating glycaemia by the hypogl...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Minerva Gil-Rivera Regla M Medina-Gali Juan Mart ínez-Pinna Sergi Soriano Source Type: research

Role of microRNA in pancreatic beta cell function
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:257-286. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.012. Epub 2021 Mar 23.ABSTRACTMicroRNA (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA involved in gene expression regulation. Emerging evidences identify miRNAs as key regulators of beta cell physiology. Their role in fine-tuned gene expression regulation is crucial in the differentiation of insulin-producing cells and contributes to the acquisition and management of their unique phenotype. Dysregulation of miRNA expression causes beta cell dysfunction and promotes the development of different forms of diabetes mellitus.PMID:33832650 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.0...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Flora Brozzi Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of beta-cell dysfunction and death in monogenic forms of diabetes
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:139-256. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.005. Epub 2021 Mar 23.ABSTRACTMonogenetic forms of diabetes represent 1%-5% of all diabetes cases and are caused by mutations in a single gene. These mutations, that affect genes involved in pancreatic β-cell development, function and survival, or insulin regulation, may be dominant or recessive, inherited or de novo. Most patients with monogenic diabetes are very commonly misdiagnosed as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The severity of their symptoms depends on the nature of the mutation, the function of the affected gene and, in some cases, the ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Laura Sanchez Caballero Vyron Gorgogietas Maria Nicol Arroyo Mariana Igoillo-Esteve Source Type: research

Association between Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Neurological Severity in Acute Ischemic Stroke
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a higher serum IGF-1 level is associated with a lower NIHSS score at admission but not at 3 months. Further studies are required to clarify the usefulness of the serum IGF-1 level as a prognostic marker for ischemic stroke.PMID:33835740 | DOI:10.3988/jcn.2021.17.2.206 (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - April 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jeeun Lee Jeongjae Lee Minwoo Lee Jae Sung Lim Jin Hyouk Kim Kyung Ho Yu Mi Sun Oh Byung Chul Lee Source Type: research

Potential Alteration of Statin-Related Pharmacological Features in Diabetes Mellitus
CONCLUSION: Given that dyslipidemia frequently accompanies diabetes and statin therapy is common, more clinical studies are needed regarding the effects of diabetes on the effectiveness of these drugs.PMID:33834073 | PMC:PMC8018846 | DOI:10.1155/2021/6698743 (Source: Biomed Res)
Source: Biomed Res - April 9, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Habibeh Mashayekhi-Sardoo Stephen L Atkin Fabrizio Montecucco Amirhossein Sahebkar Source Type: research

A new hypothesis on vascular calcifi cation: the exhausting buff er syndrome (EBS)
Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2021 Mar;23(1):215-220.ABSTRACTHere we propose that the Western world lifestyle disrupts phosphate metabolism and homeostasis due to caloric or acidic hyperphagia. Psychic factors such as social defeat due to stressed social coexistence characterized by reduced activity and chronic hypoventilation (hypercapnia) also play a role. At least two mechanisms mediate the harmful vascular eff ects of phosphates with intracellular acidosis being a feature in both of them. First, insufficient lifestyle and adjacent diet together with the psychosomatic mechanism of social defeat (mainly through chronic hype...
Source: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica - April 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andras Sikter Christian Sonne Source Type: research

Insulin Resistance Indexes as Biomarkers of Lifetime Cardiovascular Risk among Adults from Peru
CONCLUSION: TG/HDL-C and TyG presented a significant association with lifetime CVR. However, TyG presented a stronger association than TG/HDL-C. Both TG/HDL-C and TyG are shown to be reliable markers for CVR in adults.PMID:33833874 | PMC:PMC8016568 | DOI:10.1155/2021/6633700 (Source: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism)
Source: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ricardo Rojas-Humpire Mely Olarte-Durand Sebastian Medina-Ramirez Rosmery Gutierrez-Ajalcri ña Josue F Canaza Salomon Huancahuire-Vega Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction and death in monogenic forms of diabetes
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:139-256. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.005. Epub 2021 Mar 23.ABSTRACTMonogenetic forms of diabetes represent 1%-5% of all diabetes cases and are caused by mutations in a single gene. These mutations, that affect genes involved in pancreatic β-cell development, function and survival, or insulin regulation, may be dominant or recessive, inherited or de novo. Most patients with monogenic diabetes are very commonly misdiagnosed as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The severity of their symptoms depends on the nature of the mutation, the function of the affected gene and, in some cases, the ...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - April 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Laura Sanchez Caballero Vyron Gorgogietas Maria Nicol Arroyo Mariana Igoillo-Esteve Source Type: research

Role of microRNA in pancreatic beta cell function
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:257-286. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.012. Epub 2021 Mar 23.ABSTRACTMicroRNA (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA involved in gene expression regulation. Emerging evidences identify miRNAs as key regulators of beta cell physiology. Their role in fine-tuned gene expression regulation is crucial in the differentiation of insulin-producing cells and contributes to the acquisition and management of their unique phenotype. Dysregulation of miRNA expression causes beta cell dysfunction and promotes the development of different forms of diabetes mellitus.PMID:33832650 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.0...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - April 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Flora Brozzi Source Type: research

Physiology of pancreatic β-cells: Ion channels and molecular mechanisms implicated in stimulus-secretion coupling
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:287-323. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.006. Epub 2021 Mar 8.ABSTRACTThe human and mouse islet of Langerhans is an endocrine organ composed of five different cells types; insulin-secreting β-cells, glucagon-producing α-cells, somatostatin-producing δ-cells, pancreatic polypeptide-secreting PP cells and ɛ-cells that secretes ghrelin. The most important cells are the pancreatic β-cells that comprise around 45-50% of human islets and 75-80% in the mouse. Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin at high glucose concentration, thereby finely regulating glycaemia by the hypogl...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - April 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Minerva Gil-Rivera Regla M Medina-Gali Juan Mart ínez-Pinna Sergi Soriano Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA-regulated pathways in pancreatic β cells: Their role in diabetes
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:325-355. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.007. Epub 2021 Mar 2.ABSTRACTLong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts of more than 200 nucleotides that have not coding potential, but act as gene expression regulators through several molecular mechanisms. Several studies have identified tons of lncRNAs that are expressed in pancreatic β cells and many of them have been shown to have β cell-specific expression, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of basal β cell functions. Indeed, accumulating evidence based on numerous studies, has highlighted the implication of lncRNAs ...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - April 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Itziar Gonz ález-Moro Izortze Santin Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of lipotoxicity-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:357-402. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.013. Epub 2021 Mar 12.ABSTRACTType 2 diabetes (T2D), a heterogeneous disorder derived from metabolic dysfunctions, leads to a glucose overflow in the circulation due to both defective insulin secretion and peripheral insulin resistance. One of the critical risk factor for T2D is obesity, which represents a global epidemic that has nearly tripled since 1975. Obesity is characterized by chronically elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels, which cause deleterious effects on glucose homeostasis referred to as lipotoxicity. Here, we review the physiological FF...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - April 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Asier Benito-Vicente Shifa Jebari-Benslaiman Unai Galicia-Garcia Asier Larrea-Sebal Kepa B Uribe Cesar Martin Source Type: research

Sexual hormones and diabetes: The impact of estradiol in pancreatic β cell
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:81-138. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.004. Epub 2021 Mar 16.ABSTRACTDiabetes is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases and its incidence is increasing throughout the world. Data from World Health Organization (WHO) point-out that diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation and estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by it in 2016. Population studies show that the incidence of this disease increases in women after menopause, when the production of estrogen is decreasing in them. Knowing the impact that estrogenic sign...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - April 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Beatriz Merino Marta Garc ía-Arévalo Source Type: research

The Role of Neurotrophic Factors in Pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1305:257-272. doi: 10.1007/978-981-33-6044-0_14.ABSTRACTAccording to the neurotrophic hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD), impairment in growth factor signaling might be associated with the pathology of this illness. Current evidence demonstrates that impaired neuroplasticity induced by alterations of neurotrophic growth factors and related signaling pathways may be underlying to the pathophysiology of MDD. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most studied neurotrophic factor involved in the neurobiology of MDD. Nevertheless, developing evidence has implicated other neurotrophic ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 9, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Meysam Amidfar Gislaine Zilli R éus Airam Barbosa de Moura Jo ão Quevedo Yong-Ku Kim Source Type: research

Factors associated with treatment in primary vs specialist care: A population-based study of people with type 2 and type 1 diabetes
CONCLUSIONS: Of people with type 2 diabetes, 16% were treated in specialist care. They had higher HbA1c and more vascular complications, as expected from priority guidelines. The use of a structured diabetes form and diabetes nurses seem to support type 2 diabetes follow-up in primary care.PMID:33834523 | DOI:10.1111/dme.14580 (Source: Molecular Medicine)
Source: Molecular Medicine - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Kristina B Sl åtsve Tor Claudi Knut Tore Lappeg ård Anne Karen Jenum Marthe Larsen Kjersti N økleby John G Cooper Sverre Sandberg Tore Julsrud Berg Source Type: research

Sexual hormones and diabetes: The impact of estradiol in pancreatic beta cell
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:81-138. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.004. Epub 2021 Mar 16.ABSTRACTDiabetes is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases and its incidence is increasing throughout the world. Data from World Health Organization (WHO) point-out that diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation and estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by it in 2016. Population studies show that the incidence of this disease increases in women after menopause, when the production of estrogen is decreasing in them. Knowing the impact that estrogenic sign...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Beatriz Merino Marta Garc ía-Arévalo Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of lipotoxicity-induced pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:357-402. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.013. Epub 2021 Mar 12.ABSTRACTType 2 diabetes (T2D), a heterogeneous disorder derived from metabolic dysfunctions, leads to a glucose overflow in the circulation due to both defective insulin secretion and peripheral insulin resistance. One of the critical risk factor for T2D is obesity, which represents a global epidemic that has nearly tripled since 1975. Obesity is characterized by chronically elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels, which cause deleterious effects on glucose homeostasis referred to as lipotoxicity. Here, we review the physiological FF...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Asier Benito-Vicente Shifa Jebari-Benslaiman Unai Galicia-Garcia Asier Larrea-Sebal Kepa B Uribe Cesar Martin Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA-regulated pathways in pancreatic β cells: Their role in diabetes
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:325-355. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.007. Epub 2021 Mar 2.ABSTRACTLong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts of more than 200 nucleotides that have not coding potential, but act as gene expression regulators through several molecular mechanisms. Several studies have identified tons of lncRNAs that are expressed in pancreatic β cells and many of them have been shown to have β cell-specific expression, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of basal β cell functions. Indeed, accumulating evidence based on numerous studies, has highlighted the implication of lncRNAs ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Itziar Gonz ález-Moro Izortze Santin Source Type: research

Physiology of pancreatic β-cells: Ion channels and molecular mechanisms implicated in stimulus-secretion coupling
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:287-323. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.006. Epub 2021 Mar 8.ABSTRACTThe human and mouse islet of Langerhans is an endocrine organ composed of five different cells types; insulin-secreting β-cells, glucagon-producing α-cells, somatostatin-producing δ-cells, pancreatic polypeptide-secreting PP cells and ɛ-cells that secretes ghrelin. The most important cells are the pancreatic β-cells that comprise around 45-50% of human islets and 75-80% in the mouse. Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin at high glucose concentration, thereby finely regulating glycaemia by the hypogl...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Minerva Gil-Rivera Regla M Medina-Gali Juan Mart ínez-Pinna Sergi Soriano Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of beta-cell dysfunction and death in monogenic forms of diabetes
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:139-256. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.005. Epub 2021 Mar 23.ABSTRACTMonogenetic forms of diabetes represent 1%-5% of all diabetes cases and are caused by mutations in a single gene. These mutations, that affect genes involved in pancreatic β-cell development, function and survival, or insulin regulation, may be dominant or recessive, inherited or de novo. Most patients with monogenic diabetes are very commonly misdiagnosed as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The severity of their symptoms depends on the nature of the mutation, the function of the affected gene and, in some cases, the ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Laura Sanchez Caballero Vyron Gorgogietas Maria Nicol Arroyo Mariana Igoillo-Esteve Source Type: research

Role of microRNA in pancreatic beta cell function
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2021;359:257-286. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.012. Epub 2021 Mar 23.ABSTRACTMicroRNA (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA involved in gene expression regulation. Emerging evidences identify miRNAs as key regulators of beta cell physiology. Their role in fine-tuned gene expression regulation is crucial in the differentiation of insulin-producing cells and contributes to the acquisition and management of their unique phenotype. Dysregulation of miRNA expression causes beta cell dysfunction and promotes the development of different forms of diabetes mellitus.PMID:33832650 | DOI:10.1016/bs.ircmb.2021.02.0...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - April 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Flora Brozzi Source Type: research

Cardiac remodeling in patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma — results of HIT-Endo and KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2000/2007
AbstractHypothalamic obesity caused by childhood-onset craniopharyngioma results in long-term cardiovascular morbidity. Knowledge about clinical markers and risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity is scarce. A cross-sectional study on transthoracic echocardiographic parameters was performed to determine the associations with clinical and anthropometric parameters in 36 craniopharyngioma patients. BMI correlated with the thickness of interventricular septum in diastole (IVSd) (r = 0.604,p
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - April 9, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

A review of flash glucose monitoring in type 2 diabetes
Continuous glucose monitoring systems are increasingly being adopted as an alternative to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) by persons with diabetes mellitus receiving insulin therapy. (Source: Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome)
Source: Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome - April 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marcio Krakauer, Jose Fernando Botero, Fernando J. Lavalle-Gonz ález, Adrian Proietti and Douglas Eugenio Barbieri Tags: Review Source Type: research

Protection of β-pancreatic cells from dysfunctionality of insulin using vitexin by apoptosis of INS-1 cells
. (Source: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry)
Source: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry - April 9, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Li Zhang Lianfeng Shi Juanjuan Han Zhenzuo Li Source Type: research

Short-Term Physical Inactivity Induces Endothelial Dysfunction
This study examined the effects of a short-term reduction in physical activity, and subsequent resumption, on metabolic profiles, body composition and cardiovascular (endothelial) function.DesignTwenty-eight habitually active (≥10,000 steps/day) participants (18 female, 10 male; age 32 ± 11 years; BMI 24.3 ± 2.5 kg/m2) were assessed at baseline, following 14 days of step-reduction and 14 days after resuming habitual activity.MethodsPhysical activity was monitored throughout (SenseWear Armband). Endothelial function (flow mediated dilation; FMD), cardiorespiratory fitness (V.⁢O2 peak) and body composition...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 2172: Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Opuntia Dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. Seed Oil and Its Impact on the Isolated Rat Diaphragm Glucose Absorption
This study aims to assess the safety of the Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) haw. seed oil (ODSO) and its effect on the glucose absorption activity of the isolated rat hemidiaphragm. This oil’s safety was studied by exploring its acute (doses 1, 3, 5, and 7 mL/kg) and subacute (doses 1 and 2 mL/kg) toxicities in albino mice and Wistar rats, respectively. The safety of the ODSO was also assessed by studying its effect on the HepG2 cell viability in vitro. The effect of ODSO, or combined with the insulin, on the glucose absorption activity of isolated rat hemidiaphragm was evaluated at the dose 1 g/L in vitro. The results d...
Source: Molecules - April 9, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mohamed Bouhrim Salima Boutahiri Loubna Kharchoufa Hamza Mechchate Omkulthom Mohamed Al Kamaly Ali Berraaouan Bruno Eto Abderrahim Ziyyat Hassane Mekhfi Abdelkhaleq Legssyer Mohammed Aziz Mohamed Bnouham Tags: Article Source Type: research

Diet-induced weight loss reduces postprandial dicarbonyl stress in abdominally obese men: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial
Dicarbonyl compounds contribute to the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and the development of insulin resistance and vascular complications. Dicarbonyl stress may already be detrimental in obesity. We evaluated whether diet-induced weight loss can effectively reverse dicarbonyl stress in abdominally obese men. (Source: Clinical Nutrition)
Source: Clinical Nutrition - April 9, 2021 Category: Nutrition Authors: Mathias D.G. Van den Eynde, Yvo H.A.M. Kusters, Alfons J.H.M. Houben, Jean L.J.M. Scheijen, John van Duynhoven, Parastoo Fazelzadeh, Peter J. Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P. Mensink, Nordin M.J. Hanssen, Coen D.A. Stehouwer, Casper G. Schalkwijk Tags: Randomized Control Trials Source Type: research

Novel compound heterozygous LRBA deletionsin a 6-month old with neonatal diabetes
We report a 6-month-old boy with antibody-positive insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Sequencing identified compound heterozygous deletions of exon 5 and exons 36-37 in LRBA. At three years, he has yet to exhibit any other immune symptoms. Genetic testing of LRBA is warranted in patients with neonatal diabetes, even without immune dysregulation. (Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice)
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - April 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: May Sanyoura, Erika L. Lundgrin, Hari Subramanian, Min Yu, Priscilla Sodadasi, Siri Atma W. Greeley, Sarah MacLeish, Daniela del Gaudio Source Type: research

Mining Gut Microbiota From Bariatric Surgery for MAFLD
The progression of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) leads to steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus far, there have been no FDA-approved medications for MAFLD. Bariatric surgery (BS) has been found to improve insulin resistance, steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis but is not recommended for treating MAFLD due to its invasiveness. Recent studies suggest the improved glucose metabolism after BS is a result of, at least partly, alterations to the gut microbiota and its associated metabolites, including short chain fatty acids and bile acids. It makes sense the improved st...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis
ConclusionWith a high prevalence of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment shows promise in improving both diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease phenotype. (Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Novel Roles of Follistatin/Myostatin in Transforming Growth Factor- β Signaling and Adipose Browning: Potential for Therapeutic Intervention in Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders
Obesity is a global health problem and a major risk factor for several metabolic conditions including dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity develops from chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Stimulation of cellular energy burning process has the potential to dissipate excess calories in the form of heat via the activation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in white and brown adipose tissues. Recent studies have shown that activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway significantly contributes to the development of obesity, and...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Modulatory Effect of Intermittent Fasting on Adipose Tissue Inflammation: Amelioration of Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Early Metabolic Impairment
Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is a cluster of maladaptive cardiovascular, renal, thrombotic, inflammatory, and metabolic disorders. It confers a high risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. CMS is triggered by major shifts in lifestyle and dietary habits with increased consumption of refined, calorie-dense diets. Evidence indicates that diet-induced CMS is linked to Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. This led to the proposal that adipose inflammation may be involved in metabolic derangements, such as insulin resistance and poor glycemic control, as well as the contribution to the inflammatory process predisposing p...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - April 9, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Maximal Fat Oxidation During Exercise Is Already Impaired in Pre-pubescent Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Conclusion: Metabolic and hormonal responses during sub-maximal exercise are impaired in young children with T1DM. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research