Ovarian Cancer and Drug Resistance

Abstract Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most difficult cancer to cure in gynecological malignancy. Over 70 % of patients respond to chemotherapy initially, but the majority will relapse. Despite the emergence of a variety of cytotoxic anti-cancer agents and targeted therapy such as bevacizumab, control over the progression of EOC remains inadequate. Chemoresistance limits the survival of advanced cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Many drugs have been developed so far; however, the improvement in the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients is insufficient. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic change of DNA and multiple cellular pathways contribute to acquired drug resistance to chemotherapy. Identification of the molecular mechanisms associated with chemoresistance is a crucial step toward improving patient survival. A new treatment paradigm for overcoming the resistance of ovarian carcinoma is urgently needed. This review describes the recent advances in the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in EOC and strategies for overcoming them.
Source: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Although CD146 immunoreactivity in tumor cells did not correlate with the routinely used clinico-pathological parameters, expression of CD146 in tumor cells was an independent pronostic factor for survival in serous ovarian carcinomas. Moreover, CD146 might be regarded as a novel biomarker of tumor neovasculature. PMID: 31424655 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of B.U.ON. - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J BUON Source Type: research
ConclusionInitial tumor load has not been found associated with PFS after complete surgery. Adipocytes-enriched areas and right mesocolic areas involvement were associated with poor prognosis in patients receiving primary debulking surgery. Larger-scale studies are needed to assess whether initial tumor load has a prognostic impact even after complete cytoreductive surgery is achieved.
Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our analysis showed no differences in miR29b and 199a expression, and differences in baseline CTCs in women with newly diagnosed ovarian tumors were not statistically significant. PMID: 31346130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our early experience demonstrates the safety and feasibility of IFRT as an effective salvage therapy and enables a "chemotherapy holiday" in selected recurrent EOC settings. The CA-125 value before IFRT (within normal range) and/or platinum sensitivity could be used as selection criteria for IFRT. PMID: 31328453 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Gynecol Oncol Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
We present the case of a patient diagnosed with compartment syndrome of the hand after laparoscopic surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer. The patient is a 42-year-old woman with incidental finding of high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma after an emergency surgery. On imaging evaluation, the patient was found to have evidence of residual retroperitoneal adenopathy and was taken to the operating room for a staging procedure by laparoscopy. In the immediate postoperative period, she developed compartment syndrome of the right hand that required multiple fasciotomies and multidisciplinary management by plastic surgery, orthope...
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Conclusions: We found a highly reliable FI network, which revealed LIFR, PIK3R1, and MMP12 as novel prognostic biomarker candidates for GBC. These findings could accelerate biomarker discovery and therapeutic development in this cancer. Introduction Gallbladder cancer (GBC), the sixth most common gastrointestinal cancer, is an uncommon but challenging disease. Its incidence has recently increased highly worldwide (1). The risk factors for GBC include sex, aging, obesity, chronic cholecystitis, and cholelithiasis (2, 3). Because of the lack of an effective early diagnostic method, the disease often is not diagnosed ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions: In OSCC, very low preoperative NLR values have a negative prognostic impact on survival and recurrence, similarly to high ratios. ENE and perineural spread are the most important clinical-pathologic prognosticators. Introduction Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for more than 95% of oral tumors and is the eighth most frequent cancer worldwide, with an estimated incidence of 640,000 new cases per year (1). Survival of OSCC has slightly improved over the last 30 years, probably as a consequence of multimodal treatment spreading. However, intensified therapeutic regimens can result in signific...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic benefit of combining the TAB004 antibody with Liposomal-MSA-IL-2 in immune competent and human MUC1 transgenic (MUC1.Tg) mouse models of PDA and investigated the associated immune responses. Treatment with TAB004 + Lip-MSA-IL-2 resulted in significantly improved survival and slower tumor growth compared to controls in MUC1.Tg mice bearing an orthotopic PDA.MUC1 tumor. Similarly, in the spontaneous model of PDA that expresses human MUC1, the combination treatment stalled the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial pre-neoplastic (PanIN) lesion to adenocarcinoma. Treatment with t...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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