Applications of Electroencephalography to Characterize Brain Activity: Perspectives in Stroke

A wide array of neuroimaging technologies are now available that offer unprecedented opportunities to study the brain in health and disease. Each technology has associated strengths and weaknesses that need to be considered to maximize their utility, especially when used in combination. One imaging technology, electroencephalography (EEG), has been in use for more than 80 years, but as a result of recent technologic advancements EEG has received renewed interest as an inexpensive, noninvasive and versatile technique to evaluate neural activity in the brain. In part, this is due to new opportunities to combine EEG not only with other imaging modalities, but also with neurostimulation and robotics technologies. When used in combination, noninvasive brain stimulation and EEG can be used to study cause-and-effect relationships between interconnected brain regions providing new avenues to study brain function. Although many of these approaches are still in the developmental phase, there is substantial promise in their ability to deepen our understanding of brain function. The ability to capture the causal relationships between brain function and behavior in individuals with neurologic disorders or injury has important clinical implications for the development of novel biomarkers of recovery and response to therapeutic interventions. The goals of this paper are to provide an overview of the fundamental principles of EEG; discuss past, present, and future applications of EEG in the ...
Source: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy - Category: Physiotherapy Tags: Special Interest Articles Source Type: research

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The combined effect of task-oriented motor training and electromyography (EMG)-triggered electrical stimulation (ES) has been examined in chronic stroke, but there are no published reports in patients with early stroke. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the short-term and long-term effects of task-oriented EMG-triggered ES on upper limb motor function in acute/subacute stroke. Twenty-seven patients with stroke within the first 3 months after stroke onset were randomly allocated to an experimental group and a control group. Twenty-three patients (12 patients in the experimental group and 11 patients in t...
Source: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original articles Source Type: research
Conclusion: The SPT intervention can improve functional outcomes of upper extremity in people after stroke. However, using SMV may have superior effect on improving muscle tone after stroke.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Trial/Experimental Study Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to guide continence care of adults in the rehabilitative phase after stroke. As few trials tested the same intervention, conclusions are drawn from few, usually small, trials. CIs were wide, making it difficult to ascertain if there were clinically important differences. Only four trials had adequate allocation concealment and many were limited by poor reporting, making it impossible to judge the extent to which they were prone to bias. More appropriately powered, multicentre trials of interventions are required to provide robust evidence for interventions to improve urinary inco...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Conclusion: Data from this study support the necessity for the community sector to offer a continuing service in partnership with the health system and people with chronic health needs. It indicates the potential of clinicians to partner with people with chronic health conditions and empower them to improve participation in relevant health behaviors, like community-based exercise. PMID: 30698783 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Physical Therapy - Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Tags: Phys Ther Source Type: research
Conclusions: TheraBracelet may be a promising therapy adjuvant for upper extremity recovery after stroke. PMID: 30690609 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Physical Therapy - Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Tags: Phys Ther Source Type: research
Stroke recovery happens through neuroplasticity, which is highly influenced by environment, including neuro-rehabilitation. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance recovery by modulating neuroplasticity. With tDCS, weak direct currents are applied noninvasively to modify excitability in the cortical areas under its electrodes. Combined with functional activities, this may facilitate motor recovery in neurologic disorders such as stroke.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE:: To study the long-term effectiveness of Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) or Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) combined with Physical therapy (PT) as compared to PT alone for improving arm functions in patients with acute stroke. DESIGN:: Single blind randomized controlled trial. SETTING:: Outpatient clinics and inpatient wards at tertiary care neurology center. SUBJECTS:: Adult patients with acute middle cerebral artery territory ischemic stroke. INTERVENTIONS:: 60 patients were randomized into three groups of 20 each: TBS+PT; FES+PT; and PT alone. TBS group received int...
Source: Clinical Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Tags: Clin Rehabil Source Type: research
End-effector-based robotic systems are, in particular, suitable for extending physical therapy in stroke rehabilitation. An adequate therapy and thus the recovery of movement can only be guaranteed if the physiological muscular activation and movement performance are influenced as little as possible by the robot itself. Yet, this relation has not been investigated in the literature. Therefore, 20 healthy subjects performed free and robot-assisted exercises under different control settings supported by an end-effector-based system. The control settings differed concerning changes in the end-effector velocity and the stiffne...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusion- Utilizing Ayurvedic massage in post stroke patients with flaccidity can promote faster standing with minimal assistance and lead to less need for antispastic drugs at discharge.
Source: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionHF- and LF-rTMS can both improve motor function by modulating motor cortical activation in the early phase of stroke.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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