Regulation of Appetite, Satiation, and Body Weight by Enteroendocrine Cells. Part 2: Therapeutic Potential of Enteroendocrine Cells in the Treatment of Obesity

Obesity is an epidemic and medical issue. Investigating the pathways regulating appetite, food intake, and body weight is crucial to find strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity. In the context of therapeutic strategies, we focus here on the potential of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) and their secreted hormones in the regulation of body weight. We review the role of the enteroendocrine system during weight loss after lifestyle intervention or after bariatric surgery. We discuss the therapeutic potential of EECs and their hormones as targets for new treatment strategies. In fact, targeting nutrient receptors of EECs with a nutritional approach, pharmaceutical agents or prebiotics delivered to the lumen may provide a promising new approach.Horm Res Paediatr
Source: Hormone Research in Paediatrics - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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ConclusionMLL remains to be underdiagnosed. Due to the obesity epidemic, clinicians must be aware of this once rare disease. The role of concurrent bariatric surgery with surgical resection of MLL warrants further studies.
Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Purpose of review The ‘obesity epidemic’ is a growing concern globally, and obesity trends are projected to continue increasing in both prevalence and overall mean BMI. Cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities have historically been well described; however, obesity-related respiratory disease is now increasingly prevalent, in particular, sleep disordered breathing. The surge in clinically significant obstructive sleep apnoea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity, quality-of-life impairment, and a potential rise in the frequency of road traffic accidents....
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee Brown and Brian D. Kent Source Type: research
Abstract Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions in recent decades. Bariatric surgery is currently accepted as most effective in alleviating morbid obesity and related disorders. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and adjustable gastric banding (AGB) have gained popularity since the beginning of this century because of their efficacy, safety, and simplicity. SG, in particular, has emerged as the most popular bariatric procedure because of its simpler concept and shorter operative time compared with gastric bypass. Caloric restriction, however, cannot account for the sustained weight loss and improved glucose metaboli...
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
With the advent of the obesity epidemic and the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques, Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) has emerged and remained one of the most effective and common bariatric operations of the past two decades [1-4]. There was a time during the evolution of this procedure when the sheer excitement of completing such a highly complex procedure laparoscopically offered some surgeons a license to cut corners in the name of efficiency. After all, the mantra of “economy of motion” was taught to many of us by those very pioneers who advanced the technical elements of the operation.
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
GENERAL PURPOSE To provide information on obesity, bariatric surgery, and the nutrient deficiency-related dermatoses that may result from these surgeries. TARGET AUDIENCE This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, NPs, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to: 1. Examine issues related to obesity and bariatric surgery. 2. Identify the sources and role of specific nutrients. 3. Recognize the clinical signs and symptoms of nutrient deficiency f...
Source: Advances in Skin and Wound Care - Category: Dermatology Tags: FEATURES: CLINICAL MANAGEMENT EXTRA Source Type: research
Obesity is one of the most serious worldwide epidemics of the twenty-first century according to the World Health Organization. Frequently associated with a number of comorbidities, obesity threatens and compromises individual health and quality of life. Bariatric surgery (BS) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment to achieve not only sustained weight loss but also significant metabolic improvement that goes beyond mere weight loss. The beneficial effects of BS on metabolic traits are so widely recognized that some authors have proposed BS as metabolic surgery that could be prescribed even for moderate obesity. ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) prevalence is rising worldwide, as a direct consequence of the obesity epidemic. Bariatric Surgery provides proven NAFLD amelioration, although questions remain if Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) or Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) is more effective. To answer this question, we conducted a Systematic review and meta-analysis exclusively comparing RYGB against LSG for amelioration of NAFLD using four separate criteria: ALT, AST, NAFLD activity score (NAS), and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS).
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Review articles Source Type: research
Abstract Obesity is a global health epidemic with considerable economic burden. Surgical solutions have become increasingly popular following technical advances leading to sustained efficacy and reduced risk. Sleeve gastrectomy accounts for almost half of all bariatric surgeries worldwide but concerns regarding its relationship with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been a topic of debate. GERD, including erosive esophagitis, is highly prevalent in the obese population. The role of pre-operative endoscopy in bariatric surgery has been controversial. Two schools of thought exist on the matter, one that bel...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Purpose of review We aim to describe current concepts on childhood and adolescent obesity with a strong focus on its sequela. Childhood obesity is a national epidemic with increasing prevalence over the past three decades placing children at increased risk for many serious comorbidities, previously felt to be only adult-specific diseases, making this topic both timely and relevant for general pediatricians as well as for subspecialists. Recent findings Childhood obesity develops through an interplay of genetics, environment, and behavior. Treatment includes lifestyle modification, and now metabolic and bariatric surge...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Bradley Barth Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is increasing at an alarming rate and now poses a global threat to humankind. In recent years, we have seen the emergence of medical devices to combat the obesity epidemic. These therapeutic strategies are discussed in this review dividing them into gastric and duodenal therapies.Recent FindingsTraditionally, medical devices for obesity such as the intragastric balloon have focused on reducing gastric size, but more recently there has been a shift towards developing devices that modulate neural and hormonal responses to induce early satiety thus reducing oral intake.SummaryMedical devices f...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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