Certain secondary antiepileptic drugs can rescue hippocampal injury following a critical growth period despite poor anticonvulsant activity and cognitive deficits.

Certain secondary antiepileptic drugs can rescue hippocampal injury following a critical growth period despite poor anticonvulsant activity and cognitive deficits. Epilepsy Behav. 2013 Oct 5; Authors: Halbsgut LR, Fahim E, Kapoor K, Hong H, Friedman LK Abstract Clinical and experimental studies have shown that many common secondary antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are ineffective at blocking seizures in adulthood; however, some afford neuroprotection. In early development, certain AEDs cause apoptosis; however, it is unknown whether these drugs are neurotoxic to the juvenile brain following a developmentally regulated proapoptotic period and whether they alter the seizure threshold, seizure-induced neuronal vulnerability, and/or cognitive function. Lamotrigine (LTG), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), valproate (VPA), and topiramate (TPM) were systemically administered to rat pups for 7days beginning on postnatal (P) day 14 (P14), then half the animals were injected with kainate (KA) to trigger seizures, an age when the CA1 subregion becomes preferentially sensitive to status epilepticus. Histological outcome, seizure severity, and learning and memory were determined with an electroencephalograph (EEG), silver impregnation, and a water-maze swim task. None of the AEDs tested significantly attenuated behavioral or electrographic seizures. Phenytoin increased mortality, identifying a detrimental side effect of this drug. The other drugs (LTG, VPA, TPM, and CBZ) af...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research

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ConclusionsThe findings of this study demonstrate that the proposed prediction strategy is suitable for the prediction of seizure onset.
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Methods - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Scheffer IE, Liao J Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31601119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy Currents - Category: Neurology Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research
Publication date: December 2019Source: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports, Volume 21Author(s): Remi Stevelink, Faith Pangilinan, Floor E. Jansen, Kees P.J. Braun, International League Against Epilepsy Consortium on Complex Epilepsies, Anne M. Molloy, Lawrence C. Brody, Bobby P.C. KoelemanAbstractAltered vitamin B6 metabolism due to pathogenic variants in the gene PNPO causes early onset epileptic encephalopathy, which can be treated with high doses of vitamin B6. We recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence PNPO expression in the brain are associated with genetic generalized epilep...
Source: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this report, we present a case of UFS, not due to HFS, highlighting clinical red flags for an alternative diagnosis.
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is commonly defined as “sudden, unexpected, witnessed or unwitnessed, nontraumatic and nondrowning death in patients with epilepsy, with or without evidence for a seizure and excluding documented status epilepticus, in which post-mortem examination does not reveal a toxicologic or anatomic cause for death” [1]. Due to difficulties with definitive diagnosis it is increasingly classified as definite, probable or possible [1]. Epilepsy is a common neurological disease in children, and whilst SUDEP is considered a relatively rare event, it has a devastating effect on fam...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose of review Although ketogenic diet therapies (KDTs) were first developed as a treatment for patients with epilepsy, their potential efficacy for a broader number of neurologic and nonneurologic disorders and conditions has been explored over the last 10–20 years. The most recent clinical trials of KDTs in adults have highlighted common methodological aspects that can either facilitate or thwart appropriate risk/benefit analyses, comparisons across studies, and reproducibility of findings in future studies. Recent findings Recent evidence suggests that KDTs not only improve seizure control, but also improv...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - Category: Nutrition Tags: NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION: Edited by Labros S. Sidossis and Annemie M.W. Schols Source Type: research
Decreased in BEN was associated with the intrinsic alertness RT and phasic alertness in patients with rTLE. The abnormal FC in brain regions with altered entropy suggests reconstruction of brain functional connectivity. AbstractBackgroundTo date, no functional MRI (fMRI) studies have focused on brain entropy in right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) patients. Here, we characterized brain entropy (BEN) alterations in patients with rTLE using resting ‐state functional MRI(rs‐fMRI) and explored the relationship between BEN and alertness.MethodThirty ‐one rTLE patients and 33 controls underwent MRI scanning to investigate d...
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Howlett Cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a) is an important CB1 cannabinoid receptor-associated protein, first identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen to modulate CB1-mediated N-type Ca2+ currents. In this paper we review studies of CRIP1a function and structure based upon in vitro experiments and computational chemistry, which elucidate the specific mechanisms for the interaction of CRIP1a with CB1 receptors. N18TG2 neuronal cells overexpressing or silencing CRIP1a highlighted the ability of CRIP1 to regulate cyclic adenosine 3′,5′monophosphate (cAMP) production and extracellular...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Authors: Velez-Ruiz N Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31597457 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy Currents - Category: Neurology Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research
CONCLUSION Our results suggest that ghrelin acts as an anticonvulsant, obestatin acts as a proconvulsant, and VIP has dual action on epilepsy. Receptors of those neuropeptides may be promising targets for epilepsy treatment.RESUMO OBJETIVO Nosso objetivo foi explorar os efeitos dos neuropept ídeos grelina, obestatina e peptídeo intestinal vasoativo (VIP) nas convulsões e concentrações plasmáticas de biomarcadores neuroinflamatórios, incluindo peptídeo relacionado ao gene da calcitonina (CGRP), substância-P (SP) e interleucina-1 beta (IL-1 β ) em convuls &ot...
Source: Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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