Regional cytokine responses to pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent rats.

In this study, cytokine response to pulmonary infection to Aspergillus fumigatus in non-immunosuppressed rats is explored. Temporal display (from the start of infection up to its eradication) of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17) as well as Th2/anti-inflammatory ones (IL-4 and IL-10) was explored by measuring their presence in the environment in which elimination of infection occur (lung homogenates), by production of these mediators by lung cells (recovered by enzyme digestion or by bronchoalveolar lavage) as well as by cells of draining lymph nodes (as sites of generation of cytokine-producing cells). Reduction of infection (1×10(7)conidia) was associated with an increase of IFN-γ and IL-17 content in lung homogenates, but with unchanged IL-4 and IL-10 content. Lung cells produced proinflammatory cytokines with differential dynamics (IFN-γ earlier than IL-17). Differential pattern of Th2/anti-inflammatory cytokine production by lung cells was observed (unchanged IL-4 and increased IL-10), with the levels of the latter higher than proinflammatory cytokines. Upregulation of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10 production and gene expression, but downregulation of IL-4, by draining lymph node cells (dLN cells) accounted essentially for the observed ex vivo cytokine response in lungs. Similar pattern of cytokine production by dLN cells following restimulation with A. fumigatus conidia confirmed the specificity of cytokine response to the fungus. Drainin...
Source: Immunobiology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Moribuchi H, Sato R, Matsushima S, Tominaga M, Sasaki J, Nakamura M, Sakazaki Y, Nishiyama M, Hoshino T, Kawayama T Abstract A 56-year-old healthy man who was a current smoker died from fulminant tracheobronchial aspergillosis despite a month of treatment with a combination of intravenous anti-fungal agents that had been started immediately after the diagnosis. This case report is important for understanding and managing fulminant Aspergillus infections in healthy subjects, although the pathogenesis and underlying pathways are still unknown. PMID: 32418954 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
ron G Abstract The treatment of invasive and chronic aspergillosis involves triazole drugs. Its intensive use has resulted in the selection of resistant isolates and at present, azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is considered an emerging threat to public health worldwide.The aim of this work is to uncover the molecular mechanism implicated in the azole resistance phenotype of three Aspergillus fumigatus clinical strains isolated from an Argentinian cystic fibrosis patient under long-term triazole treatment.Strain susceptibilities were assessed and CYP51A gene sequences were analyzed. Two of the studied Asp...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Abstract Fungi are an important but frequently overlooked cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Life-threatening fungal infections mainly occur in immunocompromised patients, and are typically caused by environmental opportunists that take advantage of a weakened immune system. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important and well-documented mold pathogen of humans, causing a number of complex respiratory diseases, including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, an often fatal disease in patients with acute leukemia or in immunosuppressed bone marrow or solid organ transplant recipients. Ho...
Source: Advances in Applied Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Adv Appl Microbiol Source Type: research
Fungal pathogens are a global threat to human health. For example, fungi from the genus Aspergillus cause a spectrum of diseases collectively known as aspergillosis. Most of the>200,000 life-threatening aspergillosis infections per year worldwide are caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Recently, molecular typing techniques have revealed that aspergillosis can also be caused by organisms that are phenotypically similar to A. fumigatus but genetically distinct, such as Aspergillus lentulus and Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis. Importantly, some of these so-called cryptic species are thought to exhibit different virulence and drug...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
ConclusionTriazole resistance could not be detected amongst clinicalAspergillus isolates from the South of Pakistan. However, environmental strains remain to be tested for a holistic assessment of the situation. This study will set precedence for future periodic antifungal resistance surveillance in our region onAspergillus isolates.
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis are life-threatening complications in immunocompromised patients. A rapid diagnosis followed by early antifungal treatment is essential for patient survival. Given the limited spectrum of biomarkers for invasive mold infections, recent studies have proposed radiolabeled siderophores or antibodies as molecular probes to increase the specificity of radiological findings by nuclear imaging modalities. While holding enormous diagnostic potential, most of the currently available molecular probes are tailored to the detection of Aspergillus species and their cos...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Purpose of review Aspergillus spp. cause a clinical spectrum of disease with severity of disease dependent on degree of immune compromise, nature and intensity of inflammatory host response, and/or underlying lung disease. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis encompasses a spectrum of diseases including aspergilloma, Aspergillus nodules, chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis, and subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) paradoxically is an immune hypersensitivity manifestation in the lungs that almost always occurs in the setting of...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: PULMONOLOGY: Edited by David N. Cornfield Source Type: research
es FJ PMID: 32376275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Rev Iberoam Micol Source Type: research
Conditions:   Aspergillosis Pneumonia;   Pneumocystis Pneumonia Interventions:   Diagnostic Test: Aspergillus specific proteins in exhaled breath condensate (EBC);   Diagnostic Test: Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) Sponsors:   Inger Lise Gade;   Aarhus University Hospital Recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
In conclusion, A. niger should be considered as a minority species in the section Nigri The differences in MICs between species for different azoles underline the importance of accurate identification. Significant divergences in the determination of MIC between EUCAST and gradient concentration strips methods require further investigation. PMID: 32312779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
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