Early effects of high-fat diet on neurovascular function and focal ischemic brain injury

Obesity is a risk factor for stroke, but the early effects of high-fat diet (HFD) on neurovascular function and ischemic stroke outcomes remain unclear. The goal of this study was to test the hypotheses that HFD beginning early in life 1) impairs neurovascular coupling, 2) causes cerebrovascular dysfunction, and 3) worsens short-term outcomes after cerebral ischemia. Functional hyperemia and parenchymal arteriole (PA) reactivity were measured in rats after 8 wk of HFD. The effect of HFD on basilar artery function after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and associated O-GlcNAcylation were assessed. Neuronal cell death, infarct size, hemorrhagic transformation (HT) frequency/severity, and neurological deficit were evaluated after global ischemia and transient MCAO. HFD caused a 10% increase in body weight and doubled adiposity without a change in lipid profile, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Functional hyperemia and PA relaxation were decreased with HFD. Basilar arteries from stroked HFD rats were more sensitive to contractile factors, and acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was impaired. Vascular O-GlcNAcylated protein content was increased with HFD. This group also showed greater mortality rate, infarct volume, HT occurrence rate, and HT severity and poor functional outcome compared with the control diet group. These results indicate that HFD negatively affects neurovascular coupling and cerebrovascular function even in the absence of dyslipidemia. These early cerebro...
Source: AJP: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Cardiovascular and Renal Integration Source Type: research

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This study is also a reminder that the health impact of a particular intervention (such as diet) may not be easy to predict or explain. In most cases, the risk of stroke and heart disease tend to rise or fall together, but that wasn’t the case in this research. Beware the study’s limitations This study linking a vegetarian diet with a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke has a number of important limitations that should temper the concerns of vegetarians. The study was observational. That means it simply observed what happened among different people who followed different diets over time, without being able to ac...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Healthy Eating Heart Health Hypertension and Stroke Source Type: blogs
In this study, AT1-AAs were detected in the sera of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the positive rate was 44.44% vs. 17.46% in non-PAD volunteers. In addition, analysis showed that AT1-AAs level was positively correlated with PAD. To reveal the causal relationship between AT1-AAs and vascular aging, an AT1-AAs-positive rat model was established by active immunization. The carotid pulse wave velocity was higher, and the aortic endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was attenuated significantly in the immunized rats. Morphological staining showed thickening of the aortic wall. Histological examination showe...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of post-menopausal US women, daily NO2 and NOx were associated with higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke, but ambient levels of four other air pollutants were not associated with higher risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, or ischemic stroke subtypes. PMID: 31382185 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Environment International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research
Hongfei Gu1†, Shuang Shao2†, Jie Liu3,4,5, Zhenqian Fan2, Yu Chen2, Jingxian Ni3,4,5, Conglin Wang6, Jun Tu3,4,5, Xianjia Ning3,4,5, Yongzhong Lou1*, Bin Li1* and Jinghua Wang3,4,5* 1Department of Neurology, Tianjin Haibin People's Hospital, Tianjin, China 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China 3Department of Neurology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China 4Laboratory of Epidemiology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin, China 5Key Laboratory of Post-Neuroinjury Neuro-Repair and Regeneration i...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion The impact of sepsis on the gut is manifold, e.g., sepsis mediated alteration of the gut-blood barrier and increase in the intestinal permeability, which may correlate with the phenomena of bacterial translocation and lymphatic activation (“toxic-lymph”). Systemic consequences of sepsis are widespread and concern to the coagulative system, the microbiome as well as enzymes, such as pancreatic proteases, MMPs and IAPs. Nevertheless, the therapeutic approaches for modulating the mucosal immune system are still rarely effective in daily routine. Recent published studies showing that treatment with FMT,...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion The high prevalence of comorbidities in patients with stroke indicates the need for therapies in preclinical studies that take into account these comorbidities in order to avoid failures in translation to the patient. Preclinical studies are beginning to evaluate the efficacy of MSC treatment in stroke associated with comorbidities, especially hypertension, for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Regarding aging and diabetes, only ischemic stroke studies have been performed. For the moment, few studies have been performed and contradictory results are being reported. These contradictory results may be due to the u...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Psychostimulant use is associated with increased stroke risk. To determine the proportion of psychostimulant users among fatal strokes in young adults (15-44 years), all cases were retrieved from the National Coronial Information System (1/1/2009-31/12/2016). A total of 279 cases were identified: hemorrhagic (259), ischemic (8), thrombotic (8), and mycotic (4). Fifty (17.9%) were identified as psychostimulant users. Psychostimulants in blood were detected in 37/45 where toxicology was available, predominantly methamphetamine (32/45). Hemorrhagic strokes in the psychostimulant group were more likely t...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research
This study aimed to determine the body mass index (BMI) of fatal stroke cases amongst young adults, their clinical characteristics and the association with BMI with risk factors. All cases aged 15-44 years where death was attributed to stroke for whom BMI was available were retrieved from the National Coronial Information System (1/1/2009-31/12/2016). 179 cases were identified: haemorrhagic (165), ischaemic (5), thrombotic (6), mycotic (3), embolic (0). Proportions in each BMI category were: underweight (5.6%), normal weight (37.4%), overweight (27.4%), obese (29.6%). There was a significant linear trend in the proportion ...
Source: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine - Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusions: People with RVO are at a significantly greater risk of developing stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. However, RVO does not significantly increase the risk of all-cause mortality. PMID: 30271630 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
Awareness of obesity as a risk factor for cardiovascular events has increased in recent years. Many medications have been developed to suppress appetite to achieve weight loss. Phentermine is one of many medications that often used for weight loss. However, the sympathomimetic effect of phentermine can result in palpitations, hypertension, and tachycardia [1]. Neurological complications include irritability, ischemic stroke, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and hemorrhagic stroke [2 –6].
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
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