Endogenous ghrelin's role in hippocampal neuroprotection after global cerebral ischemia: does endogenous ghrelin protect against global stroke?

Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone with a well-characterized role in feeding and metabolism. Recent evidence suggests that ghrelin may also be neuroprotective after injury in animal models of cerebral ischemia. Thus exogenous ghrelin treatment can improve cell survival, reduce infarct size, and rescue memory deficits in focal ischemia models, doing so by suppressing inflammation and apoptosis. Endogenous ghrelin plays a key a role in a number of physiological processes, including feeding, metabolism, stress, and anxiety. However, no study has examined whether endogenous ghrelin also contributes to neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia. Here, we aimed to determine whether endogenous ghrelin normally protects against neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments after global cerebral ischemia and whether such changes are linked with inflammation or apoptosis. We used a two-vessel occlusion (2VO) model of global cerebral ischemia in wild-type (wt) and ghrelin knockout (ghr–/–) C57/Bl6J mice. ghr–/– mice had improved cell survival in the Cornu Ammonis(CA)-2/3 region of the hippocampus—a region of significant growth hormone secretagogue receptor expression. They also displayed less cellular degeneration than wt mice after the 2VO (Fluoro-Jade) and had less cognitive impairment in the novel object-recognition test. These outcomes were despite evidence of more neuroinflammation and apoptosis in the ghr–/– and less of a postsurgery hypot...
Source: AJP: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Hormones, Reproduction and Development Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Lei Gao, Tao Wang, Tianyi Qian, Feng Xiao, Lijun Bai, Junjian Zhang, Haibo XuAbstractSevere (> 70% narrowing) asymptomatic carotid stenosis (SACS) is associated with cognitive impairment and future strokes, and connectivity basis for the remote brain consequences is poorly understood. Here we explored homotopic connectivity and parenchymal lesions measured by multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in patients with SACS. Twenty-four patients with SACS (19 males/ 5 females; 64.25 ± 7.18 years), 24 comorbidities...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Wenjun Hong, Qixiang Lin, Zaixu Cui, Feiwen Liu, Rong Xu, Chaozheng TangAbstractMotor stroke has been characterized by disruptions in multiple large-scale functional brain networks. However, it remains unclear whether stroke patients with good hand outcomes show different connectivity profiles within and between networks from those with poor hand outcomes. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 52 chronic subcortical stroke patients [illness duration (mean ± SD): 16 ± 16.2 months] and 52 healthy controls from the lo...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionAlthough BD awareness has increased, important disparities persist. Knowledge of BD’s impact on risk has increased; knowledge about masking and BD discussions with providers has not. Most women want to know their BD, would not feel anxious or confused as a result of knowing, and would feel empowered to make decisions. The federal BD notification legislation presents an opportunity to improve awareness and knowledge and encourage BD conversations with providers.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of the American College of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: International Journal of PsychophysiologyAuthor(s): Yuanxiao Ma, Na Hu, Guangzeng Liu, Xu ChenAbstractAdult attachment is particularly known for the modulating role of caregiving motivation and behavior. Although most studies consider attachment style relatively stable, it may also be affected by various situational factors, and these temporary fluctuations are related to meaningful behaviors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study aims to examine whether neural responses to infant faces are moderated by participants' state attachment. The r...
Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Nursing Research - Category: Nursing Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
Conclusions/Implications for Practice: Cognitive dysfunction is commonly seen in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Chemotherapy, age, and psychological factors increase susceptibility to cognitive dysfunction in adult patients with cancer. Oncology nurses should be aware that patients with cancer may be extremely vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction. Furthermore, age and psychological factors must be considered when developing symptom management and supportive care intervention programs to reduce the incidence of negative cognitive outcomes in this population.
Source: Journal of Nursing Research - Category: Nursing Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
Conclusions The SCNS-ST9-C is a brief, low-burden, and psychometrically valid instrument that may be applied in ethnically Chinese settings. This tool takes 1–2 minutes to complete. Further testing of the psychometrics of this instrument in different cancer populations is recommended.
Source: Journal of Nursing Research - Category: Nursing Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
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Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
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Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
Conditions:   Stroke;   Balance; Distorted Intervention:   Other: In-patient stroke rehabilitation. Sponsors:   KU Leuven;   Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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