Innate immune defense system of the skin.

Innate immune defense system of the skin. Vet Dermatol. 2013 Feb;24(1):32-e9 Authors: Afshar M, Gallo RL Abstract Background -  Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have a pivotal role in cutaneous innate immunity. They are present in the skin of many animals, including mammals, and are both constitutively present and inducible by infection and injury. Functions -  Antimicrobial peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, with different potencies depending on their peptide structure. They also act as multifunctional effector molecules that influence diverse cellular processes, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation, cytokine production, angiogenesis and wound healing. Suppressed AMP production has been associated with increased susceptibility to microbial insults and the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This review highlights recent observations on the expression and role of AMPs, particularly the AMPs cathelicidin and β-defensin, in healthy and diseased skin. PMID: 23331677 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Veterinary Dermatology - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Vet Dermatol Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present case series documents the first known occurrence of nodular dermatitis by Straelensia spp. in red foxes. This new evidence may corroborate participation of the red fox in the life cycle of S. cynotis. PMID: 33029811 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Veterinary Dermatology - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Vet Dermatol Source Type: research
Abstract Eosinophilic dermatitis was observed in skin samples from Jersey cows, sampled in mid-October in south-west France. The inflammatory response was considered to be the result of Trombiculidae bites. Clinical signs were assumed to be due partly to self-trauma and included patchy alopecia with crusted papules; lesions were observed on the jaws, dewlap, perineum and distal limbs. Identified parasites were larvae of Leptotrombidium spp. The lesions had completely self-resolved by December. PMID: 32929760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Veterinary Dermatology - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Vet Dermatol Source Type: research
by Sajad A. Bhat, Shelley F. Walton, Tomer Ventura, Xiaosong Liu, James S. McCarthy, Stewart T. G. Burgess, Kate E. Mounsey Scabies is a neglected tropical disease of global significance. Our understanding of host-parasite interactions has been limited, particularly in crusted scabies (CS), a severe clinical manifestation involving hyper-infestation ofSarcoptes scabiei mites. Susceptibility to CS may be associated with immunosuppressive conditions but CS has also been seen in cases with no identifiable risk factor or immune deficit. Due to ethical and logistical difficulties with undertaking research on clinical patients ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Avian schistosomes, the causative agents of human cercarial dermatitis (or swimmer ’s itch), die in mammals but the mechanisms responsible for parasite elimination are unknown. Here we examined the role of reac...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Facial dermatitis in cats can be caused by a broad range of infectious, allergic, immune-mediated and neoplastic disorders with very different treatments and prognoses. Baseline dermatologic diagnostics (skin scrapings for mites, cytology for infection and to characterize inflammatory infiltrate, and dermatophyte culture) are required, as well as possible further diagnostics, including therapeutic trials for parasites and feeding a hypoallergenic diet, bacterial culture, and skin biopsies for histopathology in order to achieve a diagnosis. Clinical presentations of diseases affecting different parts of the feline face are ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that are involved in inflammation and fibrosis but also serve beneficial roles, including tissue maintenance, angiogenesis, pathogen clearance, and immunoregulation. Their multifaceted response and the ability of their mediators to target multiple organs and tissues means that mast cells play important roles in numerous conditions, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, drug sensitivities, ischemic heart disease, Alzheimer disease, arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, infections (parasites, bacteria and viruses), and cancer. As a result, mast cells have become an ...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Eosinophils are cells endowed with multiple functions and their modulation with monoclonal antibodies and nutraceuticals may be effective in the treatment of chronic disease. Other: Mostly, in asthma, eosinophils provoke airway damage via release of granule contents and IL-13 with mucus hypersecretion and differentiation of Goblet cells. Then, tissue remodeling follows with secretion of transforming growth factor-β. Eosinophils are able to kill helminth larvae acting as antigen presenting cells with involvement of T helper (h)-2 cells and subsequent antibody response. However, they also exert pro-worm acti...
Source: Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is called “the great imitator,” because it can mimic almost all types of dermatoses. This similarity may sometimes lead to misdiagnosis, resulting in inappropriate treatment and morbidities. Atypical forms occur due to the interaction between parasitic factors and the host immune response. Secondary infec tion or mistreatment of CL can also alter the natural course, resulting in bizarre and misdiagnosed cases. Atypical leishmaniasis should be considered in longstanding and painless lesions that may simulate erysipelas, dermatitis, verruca, herpes zoster, paronychia, and sporotrichosis.
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed the frequent association of depression with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, indicating the need for the early detection and treatment of such comorbid patients. In contrast, psychiatric inpatients do not appear to suffer from predominantly infectious-parasitic dermatoses. PMID: 32093459 [PubMed]
Source: Psychiatry Investigation - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatry Investig Source Type: research
Abstract Eosinophils are innate immune leukocytes and play important roles as terminal effector cells owing to their mediators, such as tissue-destructive cationic proteins, cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators. Historically, they are not only considered an important player in host defense against parasitic, viral, fungal, and bacterial infections but also implicated in the pathogenesis of eosinophil-associated diseases, such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, esophagitis, atopic dermatitis, myopathies, and hypereosinophilic syndrome. Moreover, recent studies have shown that e...
Source: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biol Pharm Bull Source Type: research
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