Development of a high-resolution fat and CSF-suppressed optic nerve DTI protocol at 3T: application in multiple sclerosis.

Development of a high-resolution fat and CSF-suppressed optic nerve DTI protocol at 3T: application in multiple sclerosis. Funct Neurol. 2013 Apr-May;28(2):93-100 Authors: Samson RS, Kolappan M, Thomas DL, Symms MR, Connick P, Miller DH, Wheeler-Kingshott CA Abstract Clinical trials of neuroprotective interventions in multiple sclerosis require outcome measures that reflect the disease pathology. Measures of neuroaxonal integrity in the anterior visual pathways are of particular interest in this context, however imaging of the optic nerve is technically challenging. We therefore developed a 3T optic nerve diffusion tensor imaging protocol incorporating fat and cerebrospinal fluid suppression and without parallel imaging. The sequence used a scheme with six diffusion-weighted directions, b = 600 smm(-2) plus one b ≈ 0 (b(0)) and 40 repetitions, averaged offline, giving an overall scan time of 30 minutes. A coronal oblique orientation was used with voxel size 1.17 mm x 1.17 mm x 4 mm, We validated the sequence in 10 MS patients with a history of optic neuritis and 11 healthy controls: mean fractional anisotropy was reduced in the patients: 0.346(±0.159) versus 0.528(±0.123), p
Source: Functional Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

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ConclusionThe AR can be visualised in clinical 1.5  T and 3 T DTI scans using single-fibre probabilistic analysis via DP, hence, the potential for DP to visualise the AR in medical and pre-surgical applications in pathologies such as vestibular schwannoma, multiple sclerosis, thalamic tumours and stroke as well as hearing loss.
Source: Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Condition:   Multiple Sclerosis Interventions:   Diagnostic Test: Entire-body PET-CT scans;   Drug: Amyvid radiopharmaceutical Sponsor:   Brain Health Alliance Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
ConclusionsReactivation of pre-existing lesions is limited to a tiny fraction of MRI studies. Gd  + T1-weighted images could be omitted, in patients treated with DMT for at least 6 months, without relevant loss of information.
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeThe γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and essential for normal brain function. The GABAergic system has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects and respond adaptively to excitatory toxicity. The association of the GABAergic system and inflammation in patients with m ultiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. In this pilot study, thein vivo relationship between GABAA binding and the innate immune response is explored using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C] flumazenil (FMZ) and [11C]-PK11195 PET (PK-PET), a measure of activated microglia/macrophages.Procedure...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur investigation shows that gadolinium enhancement is strongly associated with age. Since gadolinium enhancement is a marker of inflammatory disease activity, our findings suggest that inflammatory disease activity declines with age, and that IMD treatment may be more beneficial in younger and less useful in older people with MS.
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Complications involving the central nervous system (CNS) occur in 9–14% of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), including stroke-like episodes, demyelination, encephalitis, and nonspecific neurological symptoms. Here we report a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) like relapsing remitting encephalomyelitis following allogeneic HSCT, which did not respond to disease modifying therapies (DMTs) and “domino” autologous HSCT. A 53-year-old male was treated with allogeneic HSCT for lymphoid blast transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia. Ten months later he presented with ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: 18F-FAC PET can visualize brain-infiltrating leukocytes in a mouse MS model and can monitor the response of these cells to an immunomodulatory drug. Translating this strategy into humans will require exploring additional radiotracers.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Basic Source Type: research
ConclusionsAt very early clinical stages, mGCIPL thickness values were reduced without a concomitant peripapillary RNFL thinning. The longitudinal assessment demonstrated a RNFL loss in patients compared to HC, together with a plateau of mGCIPL thinning. A βlow subgroup of patients showed a reduction of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness.
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion In conclusion, BAL and CYC but EXE in particular, but not PNF, can improve clinical and motor symptoms and QoL in PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score 5 to 6), expanding the evidence-based exercise options to reduce mobility limitations in PwMS.
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research
We examined the oligodendrocyte‐mediated demyelination and axonal injury. To address this issue, we established a new scanning electron microscopy analysis to observe ultrastructural myelin morphology. In addition, we focused on kallik rein 6, a serine protease, secreted by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and proposed a new molecular mechanism of kallikrein 6‐mediated demyelination. In this article, we discuss the pathological roles of oligodendrocytes in mouse models of EAE. We also highlight recent findings of abnormal myelin formation and axonal injury in EAE.
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
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