Mechanisms of Pediatric Cerebral Arteriopathy: An Inflammatory Debate

Abstract: Arteriopathy is the leading cause of childhood arterial ischemic stroke, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. This review explores the possible role of inflammatory mechanisms and evidence for inflammatory pathophysiology in specific pediatric cerebral arteriopathies. Pathologically proven small-vessel central nervous system vasculitis provides a definitive inflammatory model where available treatments are likely improving outcomes. In contrast, a common large-vessel arteriopathy presents many features suggestive of inflammation, but definitive proof remains elusive. Recent advances and future research directions, including biomarker, neuroimaging, and pathologic approaches and how they might address these important clinical questions, are discussed.
Source: Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

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In conclusion, our study revealed the characteristics of autoimmune disease-related stroke. For patients with multiple acute cerebral infarcts within non-single arterial territories, autoimmune disease is an important etiology not to be neglected. Multiple stroke mechanisms were involved in these cases. PMID: 31062611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cell Transplantation - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research
Conclusion: Intracranial artery calcification is common in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and the intracranial carotid artery is most frequently affected. Intracranial arterial calcifications might be associated with imaging markers of SVD and are highly correlated with WMHs, lacunes, and CMBs. Quantification of calcification on CT provides additional information on the pathophysiology of SVD. Intracranial arterial calcification could act as a potential marker of SVD. Introduction Atherosclerosis is a systemic vascular process that is considered a major cause of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular di...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Shanshan Zhang1, Dongli Yuan2 and Ge Tan1* 1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China 2The Institute of Medical Information, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Primary systemic vasculitis can affect every structure in both the central and peripheral nervous system, causing varied neurological manifestations of neurological dysfunction. Early recognition of the underlying causes of the neurological symptoms can facilitate timely treatment and improve the prognosis. This review highlights the clinical manifestations of primary systemic vasc...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The present study suggests that lesion patterns observed from DWI of patients with PFO and SIAD might provide clues to the etiology of infarcts. Single lesions (cortical or subcortical) might be a typical feature of PFO associated strokes, while multiple lesions in one vascular territory might be a specific feature of SIAD associated strokes. Introduction Both patent foramen ovale (PFO) and spontaneous intracranial artery dissection (SIAD) are important stroke risk factors, especially in young and middle-aged adults (1–3). About 25% of patients with ischemic stroke are cryptogenic (4), and PFO is pr...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis, a vasculitis affecting small and medium sized vessels usually affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, the kidneys, and the eyes. Neurologic manifestation in central nervous system (CNS) is less frequent than the peripheral and usually is in form of stroke. Few cases of lateral medullary ischemic stroke (Wallenberg syndrome) due to GPA have been reported. A 41 year-old female, presented with acute vertigo, nausea/vomiting, hiccups, dysphagia.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis, a vasculitis affecting small and medium sized vessels usually affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, the kidneys, and the eyes. Neurologic manifestation in central nervous system (CNS) is less frequent than the peripheral and usually is in form of stroke. Few cases of lateral medullary ischemic stroke (Wallenberg syndrome) due to GPA have been reported. A 41 year-old female, presented with acute vertigo, nausea/vomiting, hiccups, dysphagia.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Giuseppe Ristagno1*, Francesca Fumagalli1, Barbara Bottazzi2, Alberto Mantovani2,3,4, Davide Olivari1, Deborah Novelli1 and Roberto Latini1 1Department of Cardiovascular Research, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research IRCCS, Milan, Italy 2Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Milan, Italy 3Humanitas University, Milan, Italy 4The William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom The long pentraxin PTX3 is a member of the pentraxin family produced locally by stromal and myeloid cells in response to proinflammatory signals and microbial moieties. The p...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The vasculitides are diseases characterized by inflammation of blood vessels and inflammatory leukocytes in vessel walls. There is an increased propensity for ischemic stroke, resulting from compromise of vessel lumina with distal tissue ischemia; and hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic stroke, and aneurysmal formation and bleeding, due to loss of vessel integrity.
Source: Neurologic Clinics - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Psychostimulant use is associated with increased stroke risk. To determine the proportion of psychostimulant users among fatal strokes in young adults (15-44 years), all cases were retrieved from the National Coronial Information System (1/1/2009-31/12/2016). A total of 279 cases were identified: hemorrhagic (259), ischemic (8), thrombotic (8), and mycotic (4). Fifty (17.9%) were identified as psychostimulant users. Psychostimulants in blood were detected in 37/45 where toxicology was available, predominantly methamphetamine (32/45). Hemorrhagic strokes in the psychostimulant group were more likely t...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe proposed the embolism or hemodynamic changes of the border zone arterioles as a unifying pathogenetic hypothesis of coexisting c-SAH and AIS.
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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