Mechanisms of autoimmune liver disease.

Mechanisms of autoimmune liver disease. Discov Med. 2014 Nov;18(100):255-63 Authors: Baier JL, Mattner J Abstract The immune system of the liver is characterized by a predominant innate component. Several innate immune cell populations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated hepatic diseases, which are frequently associated with systemic symptoms or with co-morbidities affecting other organ systems. Thus, next to tissue-specific factors, general tolerance mechanisms are affected in devastating hepatic disorders like primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), or primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The innate immune cell populations abundantly detected within the liver and endowed with potent immunomodulatory capacities include innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and natural killer T (NKT) cells. While both ILCs and NKT cells can be activated by different cytokines and/or chemokines, NKT cells also respond to (glyco-) lipid antigens engaging their canonical, semi-invariant TCR. Once activated, ILCs and NKT cells release copious amounts of Th1, Th2, and/or Th17 cytokines that shape subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. Those immunomodulatory features as well as the recently described antigen-presenting capacity of ILCs and/or the bi-directional functional role of NKT cells might not only underlie the pathogenic mechanisms in the respective disorders, but also provide promising targets for clinical intervention. We ...
Source: Discovery Medicine - Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Multiple risk factors for rALDs were identified, such as colectomy before LT, cholangiocacinoma, multiple episodes of acute cellular rejection, model for end-stage liver disease score, and especially the use of mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Source Type: research
ConclusionsThere are differences in ANA positivity among patients with SARD and various liver diseases. Some mixed patterns may provide important evidence for the diagnosis of PBC. Clinicians should pay attention to ANA patterns and titer during the interpretation of this test.Key Points• Defining the clinical relevance of antinuclear antibody (ANA) using indirect immunofluorescence assay in the context of diseases can be an important tool for the clinician in the diagnostic work-up of patients with liver diseases.• The mixed pattern of ANA is majorly found in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). ANA patterns includi...
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
Abstract The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) - CD4 immunologic synapse is classically described between the T cell receptor of CD4 positive lymphocytes and MHC II on antigen presenting cells. This interaction and others between surrounding costimulatory and checkpoint molecules promotes differentiation of naïve CD4 T lymphocytes into helper T cells subtypes including Th1, Th2, and Th17 that have more tailored immunologic responses. Although MHC II is mainly produced by professional antigen presenting cells, it can be aberrantly produced by other cell types, including hepatocytes in various ...
Source: Am J Pathol - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research
Joanna Mikulak1,2, Elena Bruni1,2, Ferdinando Oriolo1,2, Clara Di Vito1 and Domenico Mavilio1,2* 1Unit of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy 2Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy The liver is considered a preferential tissue for NK cells residency. In humans, almost 50% of all intrahepatic lymphocytes are NK cells that are strongly imprinted in a liver-specific manner and show a broad spectrum of cellular heterogeneity. Hepatic NK (he-NK) cells play key roles in tuning liver immune response in b...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Xiaoli Fan1†, Dandan Yin2†, Ruoting Men1, Heng Xu2* and Li Yang1* 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy and Precision Medicine Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of NUDT15 R139C and thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) on azathioprine (AZA) induced leukopenia in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) a...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
The purpose of this study was to investigate the findings of diffuse periportal enhancement in the liver on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance images by comparing with the finding of periportal hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and to reveal their clinical significance. Nineteen consecutive patients with diffuse periportal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase images constituted the study population. The intrahepatic diffuse periportal enhancement finding was assessed on whether it corresponded to periportal hyperintense patterns on T2-weighted images or not in the location, and the cases ...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
ConclusionThe prevalence of CD in cryptogenic cirrhosis was 13.1%. Screening for CD is recommended for cryptogenic cirrhosis. Hepatic functions improve with a GFD in CD patients with cirrhosis.
Source: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
ConclusionWL and LT for HCV without HCC decreased, whereas LT for HCV and HCC increased; this may be related to selective antiviral treatment access for patients with advanced fibrosis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Clinical Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Conclusion Liver transplantation is an effective and safe treatment for end-stage ALD.
Source: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
ConclusionsPrior history of splenectomy in portopulmonary hypertension was 6% in this cohort. The combination of autoimmune liver disease and splenectomy in portopulmonary hypertension was not uncommon. History of splenectomy in patients with portal hypertension and/or autoimmune liver disease may have clinical implications.
Source: Hepatology Research - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
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