Driver mutations of cancer epigenomes.

Driver mutations of cancer epigenomes. Protein Cell. 2014 Apr;5(4):265-96 Authors: Roy DM, Walsh LA, Chan TA Abstract Epigenetic alterations are associated with all aspects of cancer, from tumor initiation to cancer progression and metastasis. It is now well understood that both losses and gains of DNA methylation as well as altered chromatin organization contribute significantly to cancer-associated phenotypes. More recently, new sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of driver mutations in epigenetic regulators, providing a mechanistic link between the cancer epigenome and genetic alterations. Oncogenic activating mutations are now known to occur in a number of epigenetic modifiers (i.e. IDH1/2, EZH2, DNMT3A), pinpointing epigenetic pathways that are involved in tumorigenesis. Similarly, investigations into the role of inactivating mutations in chromatin modifiers (i.e. KDM6A, CREBBP/EP300, SMARCB1) implicate many of these genes as tumor suppressors. Intriguingly, a number of neoplasms are defined by a plethora of mutations in epigenetic regulators, including renal, bladder, and adenoid cystic carcinomas. Particularly striking is the discovery of frequent histone H3.3 mutations in pediatric glioma, a particularly aggressive neoplasm that has long remained poorly understood. Cancer epigenetics is a relatively new, promising frontier with much potential for improving cancer outcomes. Already, therapies such as 5-azacytidine and decitabine...
Source: Protein and Cell - Category: Cytology Tags: Protein Cell Source Type: research

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Yong Zhao1, Peijuan Liu1, Zhiqian Xin1, Changhong Shi1, Yinlan Bai2, Xiuxuan Sun3, Ya Zhao1, Xiaoya Wang1,4, Li Liu1,5, Xuan Zhao1,4, Zhinan Chen3* and Hai Zhang1,6* 1Laboratory Animal Center, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 2Department of Microbiology, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 3Department of Cell Biology, National Translational Science Center for Molecular Medicine, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China 5Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nor...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions Several model systems are now available to characterize the MSC-tumour interplay in the TME. These offer early promise in establishing robust preclinical platforms for the identification of crucial molecular pathways and for the assessment of clinical efficacy of novel drugs to inhibit cancer development and progression. However, selection of the right model for a given study should be shaped on the purpose, and should also consider fixed biological, biochemical, and biophysical parameters according to the specific tumour type. Finally, in order to get reliable and useful results to be translated to the clinic...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Chiu-Min Lin1†, Ching-Fang Yu2,3†, Hsueh-Ya Huang1,4, Fang-Hsin Chen2,3,5, Ji-Hong Hong2,3,5 and Chi-Shiun Chiang1,6,7* 1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Branch, Taoyuan, Taiwan 3Radiation Biology Research Center, Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 4Education &Medical Research National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsinchu, Taiwan 5Department of Medical Imaging an...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion The elucidation of the function of circRNAs is an emerging field of science with a tremendous potential after previously being dismissed as RNA artifacts. They are ubiquitously expressed and thousands of members have already been identified. This fact only expands their potential to possibly enhance our knowledge to understand the difference between health and disease. Owing to their structure stability and their presence in exosomes circRNAs may also exert their function in an autocrine, paracrine and possible endocrine fashion. In addition, the fact that circRNAs are widely distributed in the cellular compart...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Xiaohui Xu, Congmin Ma, Zhihui Duan, Yanjiao Du and Chao Liu* Department of Neurology, Luoyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Luoyang, China Oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can induce injury of endothelial cells, causing atherosclerosis, which is an important initial event in several cardiovascular diseases. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as regulators of diverse biological processes, but their specific biological functions and biochemical mechanisms in ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell injury have not been well investigated. Here, we describe the initial functional an...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, the immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that DEPDC1 was high-expressed in breast cancer tissues compared with the paired adjacent normal breast tissues, and its tendency at protein level was consistent with mRNA level from TCGA data. Moreover, DEPDC1 mRNA level revealed the strongest association with poor prognosis and development in breast cancer. In vitro assays showed that DEPDC1 overexpression resulted in significant promotion of proliferation by regulating cell cycle in MCF-7 cells, whilst an opposite effect was found in the MDA-MB-231 cells with DEPDC1 deletion. Notably, further investigation ind...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study was supported by the Shanghai Sailing Program [grant number 17YF1425200, 2017]; Chinese National Natural Science Funding [grant number 81702249, 2017]; Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality [grant number 17511103403, 2017]; The funder has no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the ex...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, osmotic burst of inflated complement-damaged cells may occur, but these bursts are most likely a consequence of metabolic collapse of the cell rather than the cause of cell death. The Complement Cell Death Mediator: A Concerted Action of Toxic Moieties Membrane pores caused by complement were first visualized by electron microscopy on red blood cell membranes as large ring structures (22). Similar lesions were viewed on E. coli cell walls (23). Over the years, ample information on the fine ultrastructure of the MAC that can activate cell death has been gathered (24) and has been recently further examined (...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
MAPK4 is an atypical MAPK. Currently, little is known about its physiological function and involvement in diseases, including cancer. A comprehensive analysis of 8887 gene expression profiles in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that MAPK4 overexpression correlates with decreased overall survival, with particularly marked survival effects in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, bladder cancer, low-grade glioma, and thyroid carcinoma. Interestingly, human tumor MAPK4 overexpression also correlated with phosphorylation of AKT, 4E-BP1, and p70S6K, independent of the loss of PTEN or mutation of PIK3CA. This led us to exami...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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