Cytokines and HCV-related autoimmune disorders

Abstract Cytokines are intercellular mediators involved in viral control and liver damage being induced by infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The complex cytokine network operating during initial infection allows a coordinated, effective development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, HCV interferes with cytokines at various levels and escapes immune response by inducing a T-helper (Th)2/T cytotoxic 2 cytokine profile. Inability to control infection leads to the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates into the liver parenchyma by interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)9, -10, and -11 chemokines, which results in sustained liver damage and eventually in liver cirrhosis. The most important systemic HCV-related extrahepatic diseases—mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid autoimmune disorders, and type 2 diabetes—are associated with a complex dysregulation of the cytokine/chemokine network, involving proinflammatory and Th1 chemokines. The therapeutical administration of cytokines such as IFN-α may result in viral clearance during persistent infection and revert this process. Theoretically agents that selectively neutralize CXCL10 could increase patient responsiveness to traditional IFN-based HCV therapy. Several studies have reported IL-28B polymorphisms and circulating CXCL10 may be a prognostic markers for HCV treatment efficacy in HCV genotype 1 infection.
Source: Immunologic Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Siamashvili M, Davis S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bromocriptine mesylate quick release (QR) is a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and is the only oral, primarily centrally acting drug that can be used for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes. AREAS COVERED: The authors describe current recommendations on the use of bromocriptine mesylate QR. Major efficacy and safety parameters of the late phase trials, including The Cycloset Safety Trial, have been identified and presented. EXPERT OPINION: Efficacy of bromocriptine mesylate QR monotherapy appears to be low but is compensated by favorable safety pr...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
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Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental HepatologyAuthor(s): Pramod Kumar, Anand Kulkarni, Mithun Sharma, Padaki Nagaraja Rao
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Authors: Tamai H, Shingaki N, Ida Y, Shimizu R, Maeshima S, Okamura J, Kawashima A, Nakao T, Hara T, Matsutani H, Nishikawa I, Higashi K Abstract BACKGROUND: Although clinical use of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin has been approved for patients infected with genotype 2 hepatitis C virus, patients ≥ 75-years-old have not been included in previous clinical trials. AIM: To evaluate the real-world safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for elderly patients (≥ 75-years-old) compared to nonelderly patients, we conducted a post-marketing prospective cohort study. METHODS: We treated 265 patients with ge...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research
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Source: World Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research
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Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
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Source: Gastroenterology Research and Practice - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Gastroenterol Res Pract Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Abstract More than 180 millions of subjects in the world are infected by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and about 20% of them with HCV chronic infection progress to cirrhosis. Furthermore, numerous HCV extrahepatic manifestations have been reported in up to 74% of patients, as mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphomas, rheumatic disorders, autoimmune thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, papillary thyroid cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Advances in understanding the HCV life cycle, and the inflammatory processes (involving a complex network of cytokines and chemokines) associated with HCV chronic infection, have led to substantial advancem...
Source: Current Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research
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