Cell factories for insulin production

The rapid increase in the number of diabetic patients globally and exploration of alternate insulin delivery methods such as inhalation or oral route that rely on higher doses, is bound to escalate the demand for recombinant insulin in near future. Current manufacturing technologies would be unable to meet the growing demand of affordable insulin due to limitation in production capacity and high production cost. Manufacturing of therapeutic recombinant proteins require an appropriate host organism with efficient machinery for posttranslational modifications and protein refolding. Recombinant human insulin has been produced predominantly using E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for therapeutic use in human. We would focus in this review, on various approaches that can be exploited to increase the production of a biologically active insulin and its analogues in E. coli and yeast. Transgenic plants are also very attractive expression system, which can be exploited to produce insulin in large quantities for therapeutic use in human. Plant-based expression system hold tremendous potential for high-capacity production of insulin in very cost-effective manner. Very high level of expression of biologically active proinsulin in seeds or leaves with long-term stability, offers a low-cost technology for both injectable as well as oral delivery of proinsulin.
Source: Microbial Cell Factories - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research

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Discussion Bloody stools or blood in the diaper is a relatively common complaint in general pediatrics. For most patients it is often a minor concern. Commonly it is a transient problem (e.g. rectal fissure caused by constipation or trauma) or often not blood (e.g. urate crystals in the diaper, food, menses, etc.). Real blood does occur with an identifiable cause such as long distance running or heavy exercise, or milk protein allergy/sensitivity that improves with a milk-restricted diet. Many more serious causes are associated with heavier or more recalcitrant bleeding, increased defecation, abdominal pain, poor eating an...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease closely related to a disordered gut microbiome. Diabetic patients usually suffer from various metabolic disorders, such as increased serum uric acid levels. Although serum uric acid levels depend partially on intestine excretion, the relationship between uric acid and gut microbiome in diabetic patients remains unknown. We collected a total of 126 fecal samples from diabetic patients for 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing and recorded clinical data. We analyzed the correlation between clinical indicators and gut microbiota of diabetic patients using Spearman analysis. Since ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Metformin is a biguanide molecule that is widely prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although it is known that metformin promotes the lifespan by altering intestinal microorganism metabolism, how metformin influences and alters the physiological behavior of microorganisms remains unclear. Here we studied the effect of metformin on the behavior alterations of the model organism Escherichia coli (E. coli), including changes in chemotaxis and flagellar motility that plays an important role in bacterial life. It was found that metformin was sensed as a repellent to E. coli by tsr chemoreceptors. Moreove...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Plants (Basel). 2021 Nov 29;10(12):2626. doi: 10.3390/plants10122626.ABSTRACTCeratonia siliqua (Carob) is an evergreen Mediterranean tree, and carob pods are potentially nutritive and have medicinal value. The present study was carried out to estimate the possible biological activities of phytochemical-characterized carob pod aqueous extract (CPAE). The phytochemical contents of CPAE were determined by using colorimetric methods and HPLC. In addition, the free radical scavenging properties and anti-diabetic, anti-hemolytic, and antimicrobial activities were estimated by using standardized in vitro protocols. The phytochemi...
Source: Herpes - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
This study investigated lipid nanocarriers as a strategy to improve the efficacy of levofloxacin (LV) in penetrating skin. Two surfactant types and different lipid mixtures were used in preparation of lipid nanocarriers. Mean particle size, percentage entrapment efficiency (%EE), in vitro release, and antimicrobial activity were examined. The selected formula was incorporated into a chitosan (CS) film that was subjected to physic-chemical characterization and ex vivo permeation study. The selected formula showed particle size, PDI, and ZP: 80.3 nm, -0.21, and -26 mV, respectively, synchronized with 82.12 %EE. In vitro rele...
Source: AAPS PharmSciTech - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
Brain Behav Immun. 2021 Dec 14:S0889-1591(21)00640-1. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.12.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMaternal gestational obesity is a risk factor for offspring's neurodevelopment and later neuro-cognitive disorders. Altered gut microbiota composition has been found in patients with neurocognitive disorders, and in relation to maternal metabolic health. We explored the associations between gut microbiota and cognitive development during infancy, and their link with maternal obesity. In groups of children from the Pisa birth Cohort (PISAC), we analysed faecal microbiota composition by 16S rRNA marker gene seq...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionOur study firstly identified a novel MODY2 mutation p.Ala259Thr in Chinese diabetes pedigrees. The kinetic and thermal stability analysis confirmed that this mutation caused hyperglycemia through severely damaging the enzyme activities and protein stability.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusions: There was no difference in infectious outcomes between the two different types of catheters. Type of organism in both groups was gram-negative.
Source: Indian Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: We recommend early aggressive medical treatment of EPN. Altered sensorium, renal obstruction, and deteriorating renal function may suggest the failure of medical treatment.
Source: Indian Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The study documents the frequency of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria in various infections, and their associations with aerobes in polymicrobial growth. The present study may aid us in devising better therapeutic strategies against both aerobes and anaerobes in anaerobic infections, which is often empirical. Besides, the data can update clinicians with the changing patterns of anaerobic infections, which remains a neglected concern.PMID:34861364 | DOI:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2021.102482
Source: Anaerobe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
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