Autoimmune and autoinflammatory mechanisms in uveitis

Abstract The eye, as currently viewed, is neither immunologically ignorant nor sequestered from the systemic environment. The eye utilises distinct immunoregulatory mechanisms to preserve tissue and cellular function in the face of immune-mediated insult; clinically, inflammation following such an insult is termed uveitis. The intra-ocular inflammation in uveitis may be clinically obvious as a result of infection (e.g. toxoplasma, herpes), but in the main infection, if any, remains covert. We now recognise that healthy tissues including the retina have regulatory mechanisms imparted by control of myeloid cells through receptors (e.g. CD200R) and soluble inhibitory factors (e.g. alpha-MSH), regulation of the blood retinal barrier, and active immune surveillance. Once homoeostasis has been disrupted and inflammation ensues, the mechanisms to regulate inflammation, including T cell apoptosis, generation of Treg cells, and myeloid cell suppression in situ, are less successful. Why inflammation becomes persistent remains unknown, but extrapolating from animal models, possibilities include differential trafficking of T cells from the retina, residency of CD8+ T cells, and alterations of myeloid cell phenotype and function. Translating lessons learned from animal models to humans has been helped by system biology approaches and informatics, which suggest that diseased animals and people share similar changes in T cell phenotypes and monocyte function to date. Together the d...
Source: Springer Seminars in Immunopathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research

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The CDC recommends that adults aged at least 50 years receive two doses of Shingrix to help prevent reoccurrence of herpes zoster.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Internal Medicine Headlines - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Rheumatology News Source Type: news
An association between herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis and NDMA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been well described. Here, we report a rare case of HSV encephalitis occurring alongside autoimmune encephalitis with leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI-1) and NMDAR antibodies.
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Encephalitis, Viral infections Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research
Discussion Oral ulcers are common problems seen by dentists but pediatricians also see them. Usually families have are concerned because they are painful and acute. Ulcers are sometime noticed by the physician and not the family as in the case of herpangina or hand-foot and mouth disease. Chronic or recurrent ulcerations present less commonly and therefore it may be more difficult to determine their etiology. Many of the systemic disease causes of oral ulcers are overall infrequent and/or not common in the pediatric age range. Ulcers can be classified in several ways but acute ulcers are usually painful and last less tha...
Source: - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
nhold D Abstract Changes in levels of cytokines or soluble receptors in biological fluids may provide information on immunological pathomechanisms underlying the respective diseases. Here, we studied cytokine patterns of patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) before and after immunosuppressive treatment in order to identify possible biomarker candidates and to look for putatively involved pathomechanisms. We performed measurements in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of 7 patients suffering from AE with antibodies (ab) against Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated-protein 1 (LGI1) and 9 AE patients with Contactin-...
Source: Cytokine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research
Past and Present Behçet's Disease Animal Models. Curr Drug Targets. 2020 Jul 18;: Authors: Charles J, Castellino FJ, Ploplis VA Abstract Behçet's disease (BD) is presumably an autoinflammatory disease of unknown etiology for which several animal models have been described over the years. Agents and methods used for the development of these models have ranged from the use of transgenic mice, exploring a possible genetic component, to the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) pathogen, examining a pathogenic component. Other models have also been used to investigate a possible autoimmune com...
Source: Current Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research
We report here on a 31 years old female patient suffering from severe mucosal aphthous mucositis and ulcers and recurrent herpes simplex for decades. We found a previously unknown heterozygous sequence variant in STAT1 (c.1219C>G; L407V) affecting the DNA-binding domain of the protein in the patient and her 4 years old daughter. We found this mutation gain-of-function (GOF) by using immunoblot and luciferase assays. We detected low proportion of IL-17A-producing CD4+ T cell lymphocytes by using intracellular staining and flow cytometry. Candida-induced secretion of IL-17A and IL-22 by mononuclear cells from the patient ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion : This study clarified that the past history of otitis media is associated with the low level of ACPA in RA. J. Med. Invest. 67 : 182-188, February, 2020. PMID: 32378604 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Medical Investigation - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Med Invest Source Type: research
IFN-γ and TNF-α Gene Polymorphisms in Multiple Sclerosis Patients in Northwest Iran. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2020 May 05;: Authors: Asgharzadeh M, Najafi-Ghalehlou N, Poor BM, Asgharzadeh V, Pourostadi M, Vegari A, Kafil HS, Fadaee M, Farhoudi M, Rashedi J Abstract BACKGROUND: Cytokines are polypeptides that play critical roles in immune responses. Gene polymorphisms occurring in the inflammatory cytokines are taking role in autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), which may induce inappropriate immune responses. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to in...
Source: Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Authors: Tanaka Y, Izutsu H Abstract Introduction: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic, systemic, autoimmune disease, has been greatly advanced by the introduction of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs); however, many patients still fail to achieve disease remission. Peficitinib, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of the Janus kinase (JAK) receptor family, was approved in Japan in 2019 and Korea in 2020 for the treatment of RA.Areas covered: This review provides an overview of JAK inhibitors currently marketed or in development; the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of pefici...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn appropriately selected patients, FDG-PET scans while in burst suppression may help dissect the underlying pathophysiologic cause of IIC findings observed on EEG and guide tailored therapy.
Source: Neurocritical Care - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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