Africa: TB Drug Resistance Signifies Failure

[IRIN]London -Tuberculosis control programmes are among the oldest public health campaigns (dating back 125 years) but are not nearly as successful as they should be. Despite effective drugs having been available for over 50 years, TB still kills a million people a year, making it the world's single deadliest infectious disease after AIDS.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news

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We describe demographic, socioeconomic and clinical characteristics of patients randomized to the same-day initiation arm for both studies. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 240 and 296 participants were enrolled in Kenya and South Africa. The majority were female (59% and 64% respectively), with a median age of 35 years. In both countries, most subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV on the day of enrolment (62%, 55%), believed they already had adequate knowledge to begin ART (78%, 68%), and preferred to start ART immediately (same-day) (98% in both countries). About 40% of all patients had at least one symptom r...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of EPTB and PTB at ART programmes in LMIC was mainly based on clinical criteria. Greater availability and usage of TB diagnostic tests would improve the diagnosis and clinical outcomes of both EPTB and PTB. PMID: 31507083 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
Tuberculosis (TB), which is estimated to be the deadliest infectious disease worldwide with ~1.6 million deaths yearly [1], is a clinical issue due to the "ancient" diagnostics and drugs currently available. If compared with the management of other highly prevalent infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C virus infection, it is clear that the clinical approach for TB disease requires innovation, being still based on means with limited efficacy (e.g. treatment of multidrug-resistant TB; MDR-TB), and characterised by the denominator "long duration": conventional bacteriological diagnosis, the...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Editorials Source Type: research
Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, with disseminated histoplasmosis (HD) being one of its clinical forms. As a consequence of the HIV-AIDS pandemic, HD has become prevalent not only in regions that are recognized as endemic but also in areas not considered endemic, such as Europe and Asia. Its clinical manifestations are varied and mimic several infectious diseases, mainly tuberculosis. In endemic areas, it is the first manifestation of AIDS in 50 to 70% of patients. The diagnosis of histoplasmosis is difficult and HD can lead to death if not diagnosed early and if p...
Source: Dermatology Online Journal - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Abstract Many deadly infections are produced by microorganisms capable of sustained survival in macrophages. This reduces exposure to chemotherapy, prevents immune detection, and is akin to criminals hiding in police stations. Therefore, the use of glyco-nanoparticles (GNPs) as carriers of therapeutic agents is a burgeoning field. Such an approach can enhance the penetration of drugs into macrophages with specific carbohydrate targeting molecules on the nanocarrier to interact with macrophage lectins. Carbohydrates are natural biological molecules and the key constituents in a large variety of biological events su...
Source: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Drug Deliv Rev Source Type: research
Credit: WHO/2017By Ryan Forrest, Sara Rose TaylorOTTAWA, Sep 2 2019 (IPS) Trends in global consumption of cigarettes haven’t improved since the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) came into force, according to a study published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) earlier this summer. Perhaps this is because the FCTC on its own is not a magic bullet. Governments have paid the issue of tobacco-use a lot of lip service but they have invested very little to match the global burden of the epidemic. Simply agreeing on what needs to be done (i.e. negotiating and ratifying...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Aid Development & Aid Environment Featured Global Headlines Health TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Mário Maciel de Lima Junior, Gabbrielle Almeida Rodrigues, Maysa Ruiz de LimaAbstractBackgroundFollowing socio-economic turmoil in Venezuela, millions of the Venezuelan people are migrating to the neighboring Latin American countries including Brazil. Besides the social and economic burden of these migrants, Brazil must manage the health-related issues arising as consequence of these Venezuelan migrants.Poor health services in Venezuela along with unhygienic travelling conditions, lack of food (malnutritio...
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We found that healthcare workers and clients overwhelmingly perceive CARGs as beneficial. This evaluation demonstrates that the CARG model can be successfully implemented on a national scale. These early results suggest that CARGs may be able to simultaneously improve clinical outcomes and reduce the workload of healthcare workers distributing ART. PMID: 31454178 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported adherence appeared to be low and the use of first-line therapy is not being prescribed homogeneously. Factors associated with nonadherence are both medical and behavioral, such as having tuberculosis, pausing ART, or experiencing discomfort with ART. The Peruvian government needs to update national technical standards, monitor medication availability, and provide education to health care professionals in alignment with evidence-based guidelines and international recommendations. Instruments to measure adherence need to be developed and evaluated for use in Latin America. PMID: 31462291 ...
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: AIDS Res Ther Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Following socio-economic turmoil in Venezuela, millions of the Venezuelan people are migrating to the neighboring Latin American countries including Brazil. Besides the social and economic burden of these migrants, Brazil must manage the health-related issues arising as consequence of these Venezuelan migrants. Poor health services in Venezuela along with unhygienic travelling conditions, lack of food (malnutrition) and potable water, unhealthy and overcrowded refugee camps or shelters, poor availability of medical services have made the migrant Venezuelan population susceptible to various dis...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research
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