The impact of nicotine lozenges and stimulus expectancies on cigarette craving

This study examined the impact of nicotine pharmacology and non-pharmacological components of an acute nicotine lozenge (4 mg) on cigarette craving, mood and heart rate in 70 daily smokers (36 male). Smoking-related stimuli were used to assess cue-induced craving. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a balanced placebo design where half the participants were provided deceptive information regarding the nicotine content of a lozenge. Subjective ratings of craving and mood were collected and heart rate was assessed before and after neutral and smoking cues. Nicotine expectancy reduced withdrawal-related craving (p=0.006) regardless of actual nicotine administration while combined nicotine expectancy and administration reduced intentions to smoke (p=0.046) relative to each of the other conditions. Exposure to smoking-related stimuli increased cigarette craving (p≤0.001) and negative affect (p≤0.001) regardless of expectancy or pharmacology. Following the smoking cue, women reported a greater increase in withdrawal-related craving than men (p=0.027). Findings suggest that both pharmacological and non-pharmacological components of nicotine lozenge administration contribute to its acute effects on craving, yet neither appears effective in preventing craving triggered by exposure to environmental smoking stimuli.
Source: Journal of Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research

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Conclusions: A correlative relationship has been observed between the use of NRT products and patients' reported oral symptoms. This study showed a statistically significantly higher incidence of oral symptoms in current and former NRT users. The reported oral side effects and compounding risk profiles show an imperative need for further research into nicotine replacement therapy products' impact on oral health status and treatment outcomes in dental patients using NRT.
Source: Oral health and Preventive dentistry - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Pregnant women have multiple necessity beliefs and concerns that influence their use of NRT. Targeting these, alongside increasing and maintaining motivation to quit smoking, will likely help optimize NRT use in pregnancy and improve quit rates. PMID: 32860647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: British Journal of Health Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Br J Health Psychol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2020Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global HealthAuthor(s): Hoineiting Rebecca Haokip, Dr Rajesh Kumar, Dr Vikram Singh Rawat, Dr Suresh Kumar Sharma
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Varenicline did not yield higher smoking abstinence rates or reduce alcohol use among binge drinkers. Varenicline did reduce alcohol-related cigarette craving but this did not translate to meaningful differences in smoking abstinence. Varenicline's effects on smoking abstinence do not appear to vary significantly as a function of drinking status. PMID: 32800078 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs - Category: Addiction Tags: J Stud Alcohol Drugs Source Type: research
Governments could help prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by reducing smoking rates; for example, through tobacco sale restriction, increasing tobacco prices, reducing nicotine content, and banning smoking in public areas and workplaces. Smoking cessation in general, and in particular among patients with COPD, could be achieved through specific programs, including behavior modification and the use of nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline. Prevention and/or slowed COPD progression could be achieved by occupational exposure prevention; improved indoor/outdoor air quality; reduced cooking a...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: While significant overlap exists among centers regarding treatments used for smoking cessation with left ventricular assist device patients, the most common treatments are not thought to be effective. While the current recommendations require tobacco smoking cessation in only bridge-to-transplant patients and not destination therapy patients, a number of centers disagree with the national guidelines and believe smoking should be prohibited in both populations. PMID: 32779494 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The International Journal of Artificial Organs - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Int J Artif Organs Source Type: research
Source: Health Communication - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract The landscape of worldwide tobacco use is changing, with a decrease in traditional smoking and an exponential rise in electronic cigarette use. No new nicotine cessation pharmacotherapies have come to market in the last 10 years. The current therapies that have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nicotine cessation include nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, and the atypical antidepressant bupropion. Nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline both act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Bupropion inhibits the do...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
This study examines tobacco cessation treatment-seeking behaviors associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition tobacco use disorder (TUD) across the three major sexual orientation dimensions (identity, attraction, behavior) in U.S. adults. Prevalence estimates reflect data collected from a 2012-2013 national sample of adults 18 years and older. More than three-fourths of U.S. adults with TUD had never engaged in tobacco cessation treatment-seeking behaviors, regardless of sexual orientation. Despite having the highest rates of TUD, bisexual men and women had some of the lowest r...
Source: Behavioral Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Behav Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to our understanding in a number of ways: The available evidence is consistent with a range of psychological interventions being independently effective in reducing smoking by people with mental health problems; however, too few well-designed studies have been conducted for us to be confident about, for example, which interventions work best for whom, and how they should be implemented. Evidence is clearer for a range of psychological interventions - including CBT, MI, and behavioural or supportive counselling - being effective when used with NRT or pharmacotherapy. Telephone-based and r...
Source: British Journal of Health Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Br J Health Psychol Source Type: research
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