The impact of nicotine lozenges and stimulus expectancies on cigarette craving

This study examined the impact of nicotine pharmacology and non-pharmacological components of an acute nicotine lozenge (4 mg) on cigarette craving, mood and heart rate in 70 daily smokers (36 male). Smoking-related stimuli were used to assess cue-induced craving. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a balanced placebo design where half the participants were provided deceptive information regarding the nicotine content of a lozenge. Subjective ratings of craving and mood were collected and heart rate was assessed before and after neutral and smoking cues. Nicotine expectancy reduced withdrawal-related craving (p=0.006) regardless of actual nicotine administration while combined nicotine expectancy and administration reduced intentions to smoke (p=0.046) relative to each of the other conditions. Exposure to smoking-related stimuli increased cigarette craving (p≤0.001) and negative affect (p≤0.001) regardless of expectancy or pharmacology. Following the smoking cue, women reported a greater increase in withdrawal-related craving than men (p=0.027). Findings suggest that both pharmacological and non-pharmacological components of nicotine lozenge administration contribute to its acute effects on craving, yet neither appears effective in preventing craving triggered by exposure to environmental smoking stimuli.
Source: Journal of Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research

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This study found a cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use and riskier lipoprotein (cholesterol) profiles. Based on that cross-sectional correlation, the investigators conclude that e-cigarette use leads to higher " bad " cholesterol levels and therefore, switching from smoking to vaping does not improve cardiovascular health.But let's examine this more closely.In a cross-sectional study, you have to be very careful in extrapolating from correlation to causation because this type of study design is very susceptible to confounding -- that is, a third variable that is associated with both smoking/vaping...
Source: The Rest of the Story: Tobacco News Analysis and Commentary - Category: Addiction Source Type: blogs
Abstract In this work, loading of nicotine onto mesoporous silicate materials and its release into a phosphate buffer solution at 37°C were investigated. The mesoporous silicate materials designated as MCM-41 were prepared with different pore sizes via using alkyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths of carbon atoms 12, 14, and 16. The mesoporous silicate systems were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2-adsorption-desorption isotherms and FT-IR spectroscopy. Loading of nicotine was confirmed by FTIR and thermal gravimetric analysis...
Source: Current Drug Delivery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Deliv Source Type: research
Cochrane podcasts deliver the latest Cochrane evidence in an easy to access audio format, allowing you to stay up to date on newly published reviews wherever you are. Each Cochrane podcast offers a short summary of a recent Cochrane review from the authors themselves. They are brief, allowing everyone from healthcare professionals to patients and families to hear the latest Cochrane evidence in under five minutes. Here we have curated three recent Cochrane podcasts on the subject of quitting smoking.Podcast: What is the best way to use nicotine replacement therapy to quit smoking?Nicotine replacement therapy has been used ...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: news
E-cigarettes burst onto the scene in the 2010s and were quickly embraced by the public as a solution to the problem of smoking, even heralded by former Surgeon General Richard Carmona as having “very meaningful harm reduction potential” for adult smokers. Astonishingly, e-cigarette manufacturers were never required to demonstrate that their devices were safe, or even safer than combustible cigarettes — the idea that a product could be more health-harming than tobacco seemed so unfathomable as to be not worthy of serious consideration. Fast forward a decade and a lot has happened The e-cigarette industry c...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Addiction Lung disease Smoking cessation Source Type: blogs
Nicotine replacement therapy has been used to help people stop smoking for more than 20 years, and a large and growing body of research has tested it. To help cope with this, some of the related Cochrane Reviews have been divided up and in April 2019 the evidence on different doses, durations and modes of delivery was updated into a new review. Here ’s one of the authors, Samantha Chepkin from Cochrane UK to tell us what they found.
Source: Podcasts from The Cochrane Library - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: podcasts
Condition:   Nicotine Addiction Interventions:   Drug: Cytisine;   Drug: Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) Sponsors:   Loma Linda University;   Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences;   Pfizer Not yet recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Several medications are proven to help people stop smoking, but few patients with tobacco use disorder are being offered them, according to addiction experts at APA ’s IPS: The Mental Health Services Conference in New York.Despite the higher rates of smoking by people with mental illness compared with those without mental illness, only a quarter of facilities that treat patients with substance use disorders in the United States offer nicotine replacement therapy or medication treatment, and two-thirds allow tobacco use on their grounds, explained session chair Michael Brus, M.D., a clinical instructor of psychiatry a...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: abstinence addiction behavioral counseling bupropion EAGLES IPS Jill Williams Michael Brus nicotine replacement therapy smoking tobacco use disorder varenicline Source Type: research
Abstract Enzymes of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP 450) which belong to the family of oxidase enzymes, are present in cells of all organisms and play a major role in the first phase of xenobiotic metabolism. There are several isoenzymes of CYP 450 that show differences in the speed of metabolism: poor-, extensive- and ultra-rapid. Nicotine undergoes biotransformation in the liver mainly by the CYP2A6 isoform of CYP 450. There are many polymorphic isoforms of CYP2A6 affecting the metabolism of nicotine. There are also several CYP2A6 activity inhibitors and inducers among commonly used drugs. The ability of CYP2A6 isozym...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Recent ex-smokers who used e-cigarettes to help them quit consumed around two more units of alcohol each week than those who quit unaided, but their alcohol consumption was similar to those who quit with NRT. Data on differences in high-risk drinking and attempts to cut down alcohol consumption among high-risk drinkers were inconclusive. PMID: 31645002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addict Behav Source Type: research
began in 2012 as an event   to encouraging people to quit smoking for good. Since then it has become an annual 28-day mass quitting attempt, offering resources and support for anyone trying to become smoke-free. It's an excellent to put the spotlight on the latest Cochrane evidence on quitting smoking.In May 2019, the Cochrane Library released aSpecial Collection which highlights a selection of new or recently updated clinically relevant Cochrane Reviews that address tobacco addiction in the general population. The Cochrane Reviews in this collection are maintained by theCochrane Tobacco Addiction Group who work to e...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: news
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