The challenge of targeting cancer stem cells to halt metastasis

Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017 Source:Seminars in Cancer Biology Author(s): Alice Agliano, Alfonso Calvo, Carol Box Despite a continuing debate about the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), recent discoveries have provided further support for their existence and their roles in drug resistance, cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSC characteristics, such as self-renewal and tumour initiation, and supporting cellular processes, particularly the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, are attracting a great deal of attention from cancer researchers as they offer opportunities for discovering novel therapeutic targets for future drug development. However, the identification of potential CSC targets presents clear obstacles due to a lack of truly specific CSC markers and the reality of CSC plasticity, making this task a significant challenge. Agents that target developmental signalling pathways, such as Notch, Wnt and Hedgehog, are now in clinical trials whilst alternative approaches including immune-based therapies and microRNA-mediated pathway inhibitors are producing promising pre-clinical results. Here, we discuss the contribution of CSCs to cancer metastasis and the scope of opportunities for therapeutic intervention. In particular, we consider CSC-targeting agents for which there is experimental evidence of anti-metastatic properties and which may have potential to eventually limit relapse and impede metastasis in patients.
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Michael Timaner, Kelvin Tsai, Yuval ShakedAbstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells derived from the mesoderm that give rise to several mesenchymal lineages, including osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and myocytes. Their potent ability to home to tumors coupled with their differentiation potential and immunosuppressive function positions MSCs as key regulators of tumor fate. Here we review the existing knowledge on the involvement of MSCs in multiple tumor-promoting processes, including angiogenesis, epit...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study confers a powerful signal: miR-98-HMGA-POSTN in LSCC, which is able to reverse EMT and inhibit metastasis, underlining the therapeutic potential of this signal.
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study confers a powerful signal: miR-98-HMGA-POSTN in LSCC, which is able to reverse EMT and inhibit metastasis, underlining the therapeutic potential of this signal. PMID: 31207579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
Conclusions: ZnAs@SiO2 NPs can effectively suppress tumor initiation, growth, metastasis, and inhibit stemness and EMT through regulation of SHP-1/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, ZnAs@SiO2 NPs have immense potential for HCC treatment in the future.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2019Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Volume 128, Issue 1Author(s): Mr. Jordan Bolger, Dr. Prokopios Argyris, Ms. Christine Goergen, Dr. Ali Khammanivong, Dr. Mark Herzberg, Dr. Erin Dickerson, Dr. Raj GopalakrishnanObjectiveHead and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) represents the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and is characterized by dismal prognosis and poor patient survival. More than 75% of HNSCCs arise on a precancerous lesion. CD44 is a membrane bound glycoprotein stem-cell marker strongly expressed in normal oral mucosal epithelium. Upregulated...
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Available studies demonstrate that receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase zeta (PTPRZ1) is expressed in different tumor tissues, and functions in cell proliferation, cell adhesion and migration, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cells and treatment resistance by interacting with or binding to several molecules. These included pleiotrophin (PTN), midkine, interleukin-34, β-catenin, VEGF, NF-κB, HIF-2, PSD-95, MAGI-3, contactin and ErbB4. PTPRZ1 was involved in survival signaling and could predict the prognosis of several tumors. This review discusses: the current knowledge about PTPRZ1, its ex...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in tumor development. While Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) has been shown to promote CSC self-renewal, underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we identified and characterized the requirement of twist2, the EMT transcription factor, for the regulation of self-renewal thus stemness of mouse Lewis lung CSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Further, we elucidated the role of neurl2, an asymmetric division gene for normal stem cells, in mediating the self-renewal promoting activity of twist2. Moreover, analysis of TCGA showed a positive correlation between the expression of twi...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
In conclusion, hormones may alter the gene expressions of FTECs, and these cells may provide new insights into how FTECs regenerate in response to hormones.
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
by Ai Tian, Deepesh Duwadi, Hassina Benchabane, Yashi Ahmed Signal transduction activated by Wingless/Wnt ligands directs cell proliferation and fate specification in metazoans, and its overactivation underlies the development of the vast majority of colorectal cancers. In the conventional model, the secretion and movement of Wingless to cells distant from its source of synthesis are essential for long-range signaling in tissue patterning. However, this model was upended recently by an unanticipated finding: replacement of wild-type Drosophila Wingless with a membrane-tethered form produced viable adults with largely norm...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Cancer Management and Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research
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