Effect of CYP Inducers/Inhibitors on Topiramate Concentration: Clinical Value of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
This study investigated the pharmacokinetic interactions between topiramate (TPM) and concomitant antiepileptic drugs and evaluated the therapeutic concentration range of TPM and the effect of the achieved plasma concentration on the retention rate of TPM therapy. Methods: A total of 1217 plasma samples obtained from 610 patients were retrospectively investigated, and the concentration-to-dose ratio (CD ratio) of TPM was compared among patients on various antiepileptic drug regimens. In addition, the therapeutic concentration of TPM was reviewed in patients on long-term therapy, and factors influencing the retention rate of TPM were analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Among patients using hepatic enzyme inducers (phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine), the CD ratio was reduced by 45.4% in adults and 33.3% in children. Patients taking phenytoin concomitantly had a significantly lower CD ratio than patients taking phenobarbital or carbamazepine. Among noninducers, concomitant use of stiripentol increased the CD ratio. In 276 patients who remained on TPM therapy for more than 2 years, the mean therapeutic concentration was 5.1 mcg/mL (15.0 μmol/L). The estimated retention day was significantly higher for patients with a TPM concentration>5 mcg/mL than that for patients with a concentration 5 mcg/mL TPM was significantly associated with continuation of therapy, and therapeutic drug monitoring can be helpful.
Authors: Masouris I, Klein M, Ködel U Abstract INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system (CNS) infections can be life-threatening and are often associated with disabling sequelae. One important factor in most CNS infections is a timely pathogen-specific treatment. The diagnostic methods available, however, do not always reach a satisfying sensitivity and specificity. In these cases, there is need for additional diagnostic biomarkers. Chemokines represent potential candidates as biomarkers, since they are an important pillar of the host immune response. The aim of this review is to discuss the diagnostic potential o...
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2020Source: Biotechnology ReportsAuthor(s): Bouchra Louasté, Noureddine Eloutassi
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2020Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): S.R. Saranya, Sudhakaran R
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2020Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Jee Yin Cheong, Mustafa Muskhazli, Abd Aziz Nor Azwady, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Azleen Ahmad Adli
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Discussion and conclusions: M. sirikitiae is a source of cytotoxic lignans and alkaloids. Among the cytotoxic compounds, magnone A and 6-methoxymarcanine A are potentially useful lead compounds for the further development of anticancer agents because of their selective inhibitory effects on cancer cell lines. PMID: 32478640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Discussion and conclusions: EXD demonstrated neuroprotective effects and improved depression-like behaviour in mice. Further research should be focussed on the mechanism of the active components in EXD. PMID: 32476554 [PubMed - in process]
This study examined the antihypoxia effects of SPM in vivo.Materials and methods: The dried and pulverised of SPM was extracted from root crude drug with 70% ethanol with ultrasound. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 10): normal group, hypoxia group (altitude of 4260 m), and hypoxia + SPM group (altitude of 4260 m, SPM of 1.0 g/kg/day). The experiment persisted for 4 weeks. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mRNA, and lung pathology were analysed using pulmonary artery pressure recorde...
Authors: Qian X, Wang Z, Ning J, Qin C, Gao L, He N, Lin D, Zhou Z, Li G Abstract Context: Persimmon tannin (extract of Diospyros kaki L.f [Ebenaceae]) and Aloe gel (extract of Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. [Asphodelaceae]) are known as anti-radiation agents. However, radiation resistance of the persimmon tannin-Aloe gel composite remains inconclusive.Objective: To investigate the capacity of the persimmon tannin-Aloe gel composite to protect against ionising radiation at the cellular level.Materials and methods: HaCaT (human epidermal keratinocytes) cells were pre-treated with PT-A-1 (the mass ratio of persimmon tannin a...
Conclusion: These results show PSD, R13, and PSA are good candidates as natural products for use in the treatment of lung cancer. Potential signalling pathways and protein targets need to be further validated. The application of the drug combination approach also provides a therapeutic strategy for cancer. PMID: 32476531 [PubMed - in process]