Tracking and Locating Itinerant Subjects With a Rechargeable Incentive Card: Results of a Randomized Trial.

This study contrasted two incentivizing methods-money orders (MOs) or rechargeable incentive cards (RICs)-with regard to rates of participants' study engagement and follow-up contact over a 6-month period. METHODS: Substance abusers (N = 303) in Los Angeles, California were recruited and randomized to either an MO (control) or RIC (experimental) condition. All participants were asked to call the researchers at the beginning of each calendar month for the ensuing 5 months to update their locator information, even if nothing had changed. Each call resulted in a $10 payment, issued immediately via the RIC system or by MO by mail. Research staff located and interviewed all participants at Month 6. Contact logs assessed level of effort required to locate participants and conduct follow-up interviews. RESULTS: Relative to controls, RIC participants, especially those with low ability to defer gratification, initiated more monthly calls. Six-month follow-up rates did not differ between RIC (75%) and controls (79%), though the RIC condition was associated with an average staff time savings of 39.8 minutes per study participant. DISCUSSION: For longitudinal public health research involving itinerant study participants, the RIC method produces a modest benefit in study engagement and reduced staff time devoted to participant tracking and payments. However, the overall cost-effectiveness of this approach will depend on the pricing model of the card-issuing vendor (which in tu...
Source: Substance Use and Misuse - Category: Addiction Tags: Subst Use Misuse Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part BAuthor(s): Ping He, Yi Zhang, Xinyi Zhao, Jie Wei, Tianhong Xu, Jiang Wu, Naichao Chen
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part BAuthor(s): Jing Li, Haotian Li, Dongdong Lin, Muyi Li, Quansheng Wang, Song Xie, Yuming Zhang, Fengsong Liu
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part BAuthor(s): Yanhua Liu, Yang Li, Shanshan Dong, Lu Han, Ruixin Guo, Yourong Fu, Shenghu Zhang, Jianqiu Chen
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part AAuthor(s): Cheng Han, Yinping Zhang, Marc Redmile-Gordon, Huan Deng, Zhenggui Gu, Qiguo Zhao, Fang Wang
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part AAuthor(s): Taesik Go, Jihwan Kim, Sang Joon Lee
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
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