Fenethylline (Captagon) Abuse. Local Problems from an Old Drug become Universal

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Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Mini ‐Review Source Type: research

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This study evaluated the effects of the CYP2D6*10 and CYP2D6*5 genotypes on the steady-state plasma concentrations of VEN and ODV in Japanese patients. Methods: This study included 75 Japanese patients with depression who were treated with VEN. Steady-state plasma concentrations of VEN and ODV were measured using liquid chromatography. Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine CYP2D6 genotypes. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between independent variables (sex, age, smoking habit, and number of mutated alleles, CYP2D6*10 and CYP2D6*5), subject-dependent variabl...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The effectiveness of ketamine for treatment-resistant depression along with several other clinical advantages, such as rapid onset and reduced adverse effects associated with serotonin transporter inhibition, has garnered interest in other similar acting psychedelics as novel antidepressant drugs. The antitussive dextromethorphan exhibits glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism, sigma-1 receptor agonism, and serotonin reuptake inhibition, which has exhibited antidepressant effects in limited human studies and animal models. The present study sought to further examine dextromethorphan using a differential reinfor...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research
Depression and anxiety are common neuropsychiatric disorders that usually appear as comorbidities. The development of new drugs is crucial for safer and more effective clinical management of both disorders. Riparin A is a synthetic chemical analog of riparins that naturally occur in several medicinal plants. Marked pharmacological effects such as anxiolytic and antidepressant properties characterize this class of compounds. However, little is known about the potential anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of Riparin A. In this work, we showed that, unlike other riparins, Riparin A exerts only a very mild anxiolytic-like ef...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Background : Machine learning methods for suicidal behaviour so far have failed to be implemented as a prediction tool. In order to use the capabilities of machine learning to model complex phenomenon, we assessed the predictors of suicide risk using stat...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
Understanding and identifying the risk factors associated with suicide in youth experiencing mental health concerns is paramount to early intervention. 45% of patients are admitted annually for suicidality at BC Children's Hospital. Natural Language Proces...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
Modafinil is used for the treatment of narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and as add-on therapy for psychiatric diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, depression, cocaine addiction. The exact mechanism of action is unknown. Modafinil may be helpful for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. The addition of modafinil to antidepressant treatment may provide positive effects on sexual dysfunction. However, side effects such as hypersexuality and unwanted orgasm have been reported with modafinil treatment. In this article, a patient who had developed sp...
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
Abstract Although it has been initially synthesized for therapeutic purposes and currently FDA-approved and prescribed for obesity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy and depression, methamphetamine became a recreational drug that is nowadays massively manufactured illegally. Because it is a powerful and extremely addictive psychotropic agent, its abuse has turned out to become a major health problem worldwide. Importantly, the numerous effects triggered by this drug induce neurotoxicity in the brain ultimately leading to serious neurological impairments, tissue damage and neuropsychological dist...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research
Nearly 80 years since their first therapeutic use, stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamines remain amongst the most widely relied upon class of medications, with an estimated 90 million annual prescriptions in the USA alone (Swanson and Volkow, 2009; AMA, 1937; IMS Health, 2014). A range of new therapeutic applications for stimulants are being actively investigated although, currently, they are primarily prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and occasionally for narcolepsy and treatment-resistant depression (Adler, 2008; AAP, 2011; Alpert and Fava, 2014; Challman and Lipsky, 2000).
Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Full length article Source Type: research
Discussion Going away to college presents new and exciting opportunities for young adults. It also is an important time for transitioning many adult responsibilities to the young adult too. Keeping safe is important and safety tips for college can be reviewed here. Any medication can be abused. Prescription stimulants are no different. Normally prescription stimulants are used for treatment of attention deficit disorder, narcolepsy and treatment resistant depression. They can help increase alertness, attention, and energy, cognition, learning and memory. However for these reasons and because they are easy to obtain and r...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Abstract Fenethylline is a theophylline derivative of amphetamine having stimulant effects similar to those of other amphetamine‐type derivatives. Fenethylline was used as medicament for hyperactivity disorders in children, narcolepsy and depression, but it has also been used as a drug of abuse under the common name of ‘captagon’. Unlike other drugs of abuse, the clandestine synthesis of fenethylline is simple, using inexpensive laboratory instrumentation and raw materials legal to obtain. A review of all the existing knowledge of fenethylline is reported, concerning its chemistry, synthesis, pharmacology and...
Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: MiniReview Source Type: research
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